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BANCO NACIONAL ULTRAMARINO 

(NATIONAL OVERSEAS BANK). 



Head Office - LISBON 

CAPITAL (Paid-up) 
Esc. 24,000,000 




Established 1864. 

RESERVE FUNDS 
Esc. 24,900,000 



State Bank of the Portuguese Colonies 



"BRANCHES AS UNDER:— 
PORTUGAL. 

LISBON. 



Aveir > 
Beja 
Braga 
Bragauga 
Castello Br 
Chav s 
Ccimbra 
Covilha 



Evora 

Estremoz 

Faro 

Figueira Da Foz 

Guarda 

Guimaraes 

Lame^o 

Leina 



Olhao 

Oporto 

Ovar 

Penafiel 

Portalegre 

Portimao 

Kegoa 

Santarem 



Setubal 
Silves 

Torres Vedraa 
Vianna do Castello 
Villa Real 
Villa Real de St. 
Antonio 
Vizeu 



AZORES. 

Angra <fo Heroismo 
Ponta Delgada 

MADEIRA. 

Funchal 
EAST AFRICA. 

Beira (Banco da Beira) Lourenco Marque 

Ibo Inhambane Mocambique 

Chinde Quelimane Tt te 

INDIA. 

Mormufao and Novo Goa 

INDIA. 



WEST AFRICA. 

S. Thiago Principe Bol 

S. Vincente Bissau S. ' 



PROVINCE OF ANGOLA 

Benguela 

Bihe 

Cabinda 



(Britisb Empire) 
Bombay 



Lo^nda 
Lob i to 
Lubango 

TIMOR. 

Dili 
CHINA. 

Macau 

CHINA. 

(British Empire) 
Hongkong 



Malange 
Mossainedes 
Novo Redondo 



BELGIAN CONGO. 



Bahia 

Campos 

Manos 



BRAZIL. 

Pari 

Parahyba 

1'ernambuco 



It io'de Janeiro 

Santos 

S. Paulo 



FRANCE: 

Rue du Helder, IXe. 
PARIS. 



UNITED STATES: 

NEW YORK AGENCY, 

91/93, Liberty Stieet. 



London Office : 

27" THROGMORTON STREET, E.C.2. 

Telegraphic Address : Ultranacio, Stock, London. Telephone No. : LONDON Wall 395. 

The Bank places at the disposal of its Customers a complete Interna- 
tional Banking Service, at all its branches. Correspondence is invited. 

[»] 



Advertisement*. 



The Bank of Taiwan Ltd 



REGISTERED IN JAPAN, 1899) 



Head Office: TAIPEH. TAIWAN (FORMOSA) 



CAPITAL SUBSCRIBED 
CAPITAL PAID IT - 
RESERVE FINDS - 



Yen 60,000,000,oo 

.. 45,000,000,00 

9,680,000,oo 




The Bank is incorporated by 
special charier of the Imperial 
Japanese Government, and is 
authorised to issue its own 
notes in Formosa, being under 
the special supervisiim <>f the 
Government. The Bank tran- 
sacts General Banking and 
Foreign Exchange Business, 
undertakes Trust Business, 
and acts as Business Agents 
for other Banks. Special 
facilities are available for Ex- 
change Business on Japan. 
Formosa, China, the Straits 
Settlements, Java, and France, 
where the Bank has special 
working arrangement with 
Cox and Co. (France) Ltd. 



London Bankers : 
Barclays Bank, Limned 
Lloyds Bank, Limited 
London County Westminster 

and Parrs Bank, Limited 



Correspondents in even- principal town in the World 
London Branch : 

58, OLD BROAD STREET, EC 2 



[c] 



A dvertieement*. 



THE 



TD. 



ANGLO-SOUTH AMERICAN BANK, L 

Capital and Reserves exceed £13,000,000 

Head Office : 

62 Old Broad Street, London, E.C.2, 



« SAN FRANCISCO > 

A M I I.I) STATES 




r 



ew york GREAT BRII '^S/; we "' 

• +LONOO 



•GuatemaUV-^TJ^'TRAL 

M ERICA 



is Map indicates the 
nts ill Europe and on 
i American Continent 
»hich the Anglo-South 
lerican Bank and it* 
^filiated institutions are 
established. 



in 



• sonsonate 
•Salvador 

• Managua 

• Santa Marta 

• Barranquilla 

• Puerto Cabello-;.: 

• Caracas 

• Meoellin 

• Bogota 

• Manta 

•GuAYAOUIL 
•lOUITOS 





ANTOFAGASTA 



COQUIMBO 

VALPARAISO 

SANTIAGO 

CHILLAN 

.TALCAHUANO 

tONCEPCION 



w* 




OSARIO 



-t Pernambuco 
+ Bahia 

+ Rio oe Janeiro 

♦ Sao Paulo 
+ Santos (tSST.) 
+ Porto Alegre 
+ Pelotas <™jz?.i 

,♦ Rio Grande do Sul, 

* Mercedes 

+ ROSARIO 



MONTEVIDEO + Monte Video 

BUENOS AIRES » Buenos Aires 

MENDOZA "" +PERGAMINO 

SAN RAFAEL 

BAHIA BLANCA 

TRELEW 

COMODORO RIVADAVIA 

PUERTO DESEADO 

SAN JULIAN 

SANTA CRUZ 

RIO GALLEGOS 

PUNTA ARENAS 



• 8a»nchu o» THE ANCLOSOuTH AMERICAN BANK, LIMITED 

4 Branches or THE BRITISH BANK OF SOUTH AMERICA.LIMITED 

• BKANCHCSOr THE COMMERCIAL BANK OF SPANISH AMERICA.LIMITED. 



Bradford Office : 69 Market Street. 

Affiliations ; 

THE BRITISH BANK OF SOUTH AMERICA, LTD. 
THE COMMERCIAL BANK OF SPANISH AMERICA, LTD. 

[Dl 



THE 

STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK 
192 1 

FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL PUBLICATION 



MACM1LLAN AND CO., Limited 

LONDON . BOMBAY . CALCUTTA . MADRAS 
MELBOURNE 

THE M ACM ILL AN COMPANY 

NEW YORK . BOSTON . CHICAGO 
DALLAS . SAN FRANCISCO 

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd 

TORONTO 



m 






y 

THE 

STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK 

STATISTICAL AND HISTORICAL, ANNUAL OF 

THE STATES OF THE WORLD 

FOR THE YEAR 



1921 



Dim r.v 
Sir JOHN SOOn KKLTIK, LLD. 

FORMERLY SECRETARY TO THK ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 

HONORARY CORRESPONDING MEMBER Or THK GEOGRAPHICAL ->• 1ET1KS or SCOTLAND, f'ARl , 

MASEEH I.K-. PETROGRAD, ROME, LISKON, AMSTERDAM, IBOM HATKL, 

PHILAIiF.I IHIA, AND Or THE COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY or PARIS 

AND 

M. EPSTEIN, M.A., Pii.D. 

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL GEOGK ATHICAL, OF THE HOTAL STATISTIC \L IND Or I HE HOTAL 
ECONOMIC SOCIETIES 



FIFTY EIGHTH ANNUAL PUBLICATION. REVISED AFTER 
OFFICIAL RETURNS. ^ f) Q 



^l, 



L 



f] 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED, 

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON. 

1921 



S3 



Man sagt oft : Zahlen regieren die Welt. 
Das aber ist gewiss, Zahlen zeigen wic sie regiert wird. 

Goethe. 



co l' y nia ii t 



PEEFACE 

Recent census returns for the United States, Austria, Brazil, 
Colombia, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Panama, and Switzerland are 
included in this, the fifty-eighth, issue of the Year Book. All the 
sections have received the usual revision ; the information respecting 
Russia has been furnished from official Soviet sources. Since las: 
Montenegro has disappeared as an independent entity, while, on the 
other hand, Fiume is now one of the States of the world. Of these there 
are at present 64, counting the British Empire as one. Since the last 
edition of the Year Book was published, Esthonia, Georgia and Latvia 
have received complete recognition, and have therefore been phv: 
their proper alphabetical order in the Year Book. Other States without 
tie jure recognition (e.g. Lithuania), or where Treaty arrangements have 
not yet been completed (e.g. Mesopotamia and Palestine), it has l>een 
thought best to retain for the present under the countries of which 
were formerly part. 

The "Additions and Corrections" contain information which became 
available too late for inclusion in the text. The Introductory Tables 
give the usual general surveys, a complete list of the Treaties of Peace» 
and data concerning the League of Nations, The maps show the New 
Baltic States and the Slesvig addition to Denmark. 

Once more we have to express our thanks to Mr. A. D. Webb for his 
revision of the sections of the British Empire, to General Sir Frederick 
Maurice for his revision of the Army sections, to Mr. John Leyland for 
his revision of the Navy sections, and to numerous friends all over the 
world for valuable co-operation greatly appreciated. 

J. S. K. 
M. E. 

Statesman's Year-Book Office, 
Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 
St. Martin's Street, 
London, W.C.2. 

^5, 1981. 



METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Metric measures most commonly found in statistical returns with 
equivalents : — 



Length. 



Centimetre 
Metre . . . 
Kilometre 



039 inch 

39-37 inches 

0621 mile 



Liquid Measure. 



Litre ... 

Hectolitre 



1 "76 pints 

22 gallons 



Weight— Avoiuuurois. 

Gramme 15'42 grains 

Kilogramme 2205 pounds 

Quintal ... 220-46 pounds 

Ton 2204-6 pounds 



Surface Measi'kk. 



Square metre 

Hectare 

Square kilometre 



10-26 sq. feet 
2 47 acres 
386 sq. mik 



Dry Measure, 



Litre 
Hectolitre 



0-91 quart 
2 - 75 bushels 



Weight— Tkoy. 

Gramme ... ... 15 "42 grains 

Kilogramme ... 3215 ounces 

Kilogramme ... 2"68 pounds 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTORY TAB If SB 

I.-THE BRITISH EMPIRK, 1919-1920. 
II.— WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD. 
Ill— WORLDS PRODUCTION OF SILVER. 
IV.— WORLDS SUPPLY OF RAW SILK. 

V.— WORLD'S SUGAR STATISTICS. 
VI.-BRITISH GRANTS FOR WORLD RELIEF. 
VII.— COMPARATIVE TAXATION PER HEAD OF POPULATION. 
VIII.-WORLD'S COTTON SPINDLES. 

IX.-FINANCE AND COMMERCE OF VARIOUS COUNTEi 

X.— WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING. 

XL— PRINCIPAL NAVIES OF THE WORLD: COMPARATIVE 
STRENGTHS. 

XII.— THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

(1) The Covenant. 

(2) Members of the League. 

(3) Budgets of the League. 

(4) Books of Reference on the League of Nations. 

(5) Books of Reference on Results of the War. 
XIII.-TREATIES. 

I. — List of Treaties ok Peace, 1919 and 1920. 
II. — Protection of Minorities. 



Vlll 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



United Kingdom — Mileage of Prin- 
cipal Railway Lines. 

India — Presidents of Legislatures; 
Provincial Governments ; Popu- 
lation ; Finance, 1921-22 ; Crop 
Estimates, 1920-21 ; Foreign 
Trade, 1920 ; Legislature for 
Burma. 

Straits Settlements — Popula- 
tion, 1920; Finance, 1920. 

Federated Malay States — Trade, 
1920. 

Southern Rhodesia — Mineral Pro- 
duction, 1920 ; Trade, 1920. 

Northern Rhodesia — Trade, 1920. 

Union of South Africa— Mineral 
Production, 1920 ; Trade, 1920; 
Shipping, 1920. 

South-West Africa — Report of 
Mandate Commission. 

Nigeria — New Lieut. -Governor. 

Gold Coast — Mineral Production, 
1919. 

Egypt— Finance, 1921-22 ; Ship- 
ping, 1920. 



Canada — Immigration, 1920 ; Mi- 
neral Production, 1920 ; Trade, 
1920. 

British Columbia — New President 
of Council ; Forest Products. 

Ontario— Expenditure, 1920. 
Quebec — Dairy Products, 1920. 
Bahamas— Trade, 1920. 

Australia — Mineral Production 
and Exports, 1920. 

Victoria— Trade, 1920. 

Austria — New Ministers ; Trade, 
1919-20. 

Finland — New British Minister. 

France — Debt on March 1, 1921. 

Georgia — Soviet Rule. 

Germany — New Cabinet : Foreign 
Trade, 1920. 

Portugal — New Ministry. 

Federation of Central America 
— Ratification of Treaty. 

Errata. 



MAPS. 

1. Baltic and Ad.iack.nt Sim 

2. Slesvig Boundary Aiuuxtmi \t. 



CONTENTS 



IX 



Part the FrRST. 
THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

Reigning King and Emperor 

I. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Iceland . 
II. India, the Dominions, Colonies, Protectorates, and 



Dependencies 



PAGE 



n 



Europe — 
Isle of Man ... 84 
Channel Islands . . 85 
Gibraltar . . . .92 
Malta .... 93 

A 81 a — 
Aden, Perim, Sokotra, 

&c 95 

Bahrein Islands . . 96 
Borneo (British) . 98 

British North Borneo 98 
Brunei 99 

Sarawak ... 99 

Ceylon . . . .101 
Maldive Islands . 106 

Cyprus . . . .107 
Hong Kong . . .110 
India and Dependencies . 115 
Baluchistan . . .158 
Sikkim . . . .162 
Andaman Islands . .163 
Nicobar Islands . .168 
Laccadive Islands . 164 

Keeling Islands . .164 
Kuria Muria Islands . 164 
The Straits Settlements . 164 
Cocos or Keeling Islands 169 
Christmas Island . . 170 
Labuan .... 170 
Federated Malay States 170 
The Malay States not 
included in the Fede- 
ration . . . .174 
Weihaiwei . . . 177 

Africa — 
Ascension Island . . 178 
British East Africa 179 

Kenya Colony and Pro- 
tectorate . . . 179 
Tanganyika Territory 182 
Uganda Protectorate . 184 
Zanzibar .186 

Mauritius . . .192 



/ 



Africa — 

Nyasaland Protectorate 
St. Helena 
tri6tan da cunha . 
Seychelles 

somaliland protectorate 
South Africa — 
Basutoland . 
Bechuanaland Protec- 
torate 
Rhodesia 
Swaziland 

Union of South Africa . 
ape of Good Hope 
atal .... 
— ,e Transvaal 
• ^^ange Free State 
I IHtth-West Africa 

VWfl^^FRICA- 

Golj^oabt 
Ashanti 
Northern Tfrritories 
Sierra Leone. 
The Protectorate 
Togo .... 
Camkroun 
Egypt .... 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 

America — 
Bermudas .... 
Canada .... 

Canadian Provinces — 
Alberta .... 
British Columbia 
Manitoba .... 
New Brunswick 
Nova Scotia 

Ontario .... 
Prince Edward Island . 
Quebec .... 
Saskatchewan . 



195 
197 
1M 
1M 

200 

201 

202 
204 
204 
210 
225 
230 
232 
236 
239 

242 
247 
248 
249 
250 
250 
252 
253 
255 
256 
273 

280 
282 

305 
308 
312 
313 
315 
319 
321 
323 
325 



THE STATESMAN S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



PAQK 

Canadian Provinces — 
Yukon . . . .327 
North-West Territories 328 
Falkland Islands . . 328 
Guiana, British . . 330 
Honduras, British . . 332 
Newfoundland and Lab- 
rador .... 334 
West Indies . . . 338 
Bahamas . . . 338 
Barbados . . . 339 
Jamaica .... 341 
Cayman Islands . . 342 
Turks & Caicos Islands 343 
Lrkward Islands . . 343 
Trinidad . . .346 
Windward Islands . 347 



[JSTRALASIA AND OCEANIA— ►*•« 


Commonwealth of 


Aus- 


TRALIA 


. 350 


New South Wales 


. 366 


Victoria . 


. 379 


Queensland 


. 388 


South Australia 


. 395 


Western Australia 


. 401 


Tasmania . 


. 409 


Northern Territory 


. 414 


Papua 


. 417 


New Guinea 


. 419 


New Zealand . 


. 423 


Western Samoa 


. 438 


Nauru . 


. 43P 


Fiji . 


. . 440 


Pacific Islands — 




Tonga 


. 443 


Other Islands 


. 444 



Part the Second. 
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



UNITED STATES. 



449 



STATES AND TERRITORIES— 



Alabama . 


503 


Arizona 


505 


Arkansas . 


508 


California 


510 


Colorado . 


514 


Connecticut 


516 


Delaware . 


519 


District of Columbia 


521 


Florida 


523 


Reorgia 


526 


Idaho 


529 


Illinois 


531 


Indiana ... 


534 


Iowa .... 


537 


Kansas 


539 


Kentucky . 


541 


Louisiana . 


544 


Maine 


547 


Maryland . 


549 


Massachusetts . 


552 


Michigan . 


558 


Minn MOTA . 


561 


Mississippi . 


563 


Missouri 


565 


Montana 


568 


Nebraska . 


570 


Nevada 


673 


New Hampshirk 


575 



STATES AND TERRITORIES— 


New Jersey 


578 


New Mexico 


580 


New York State 


583 


North Carolina 


588 


North Dakota . 


591 


Ohio .... 


593 


Oklahoma . 


596 


Oregon 


598 


Pennsylvania . 


601 


Rhode Island . 


605 


South Carolina 


60S 


South Dakota . 


610 


Tennessee . 


613 


Texas 


615 


Utah .... 


618 


Vkrmont . 


621 


Virginia . 


628 


Washington 


626 


West Virginia . 


629 


Wisconsin 


63-J 


Wyoming . 


686 


OUTLYING TERRITORIES 




Alaska TERRITORY . 


637 


Hawaii 


640 


l'oni'u Rico 


642 


American Virgin Isi and 


. 645 


l'lui.ii'i'iNE Islands . 


646 


Cham . 


661 


Samoan Islands 


6 5 -J 



OONTFA'TS 



XI 



Part the Third. 
OTHER COUNTRIES. 





PAOB 1 






PAOE 


ABYSSINIA . 


657 ! 


FRANCE— Africa— 






AFGHANISTAN . 


662 ; 


Matottb and the Comoro 




ALBANIA . 


666 


I8LAND8 




892 


Arabia . 


1347 


Reunion 




894 


ARGENTINE REPUBLIC . 


668 ! 


Somali Coast 




894 


Armenia . 


12-14 


West Africa ani 


THE Sa- 




AUSTRIA . 


681 


hara 




895 


AZERBAIJAN . 


1246 


Senegal . 




897 


BELGIUM . 


688 


Guinea . 




898 


Belgian' Congo 


699 


Ivory Coast . 




898 


BHUTAN . 


705 


Dahomey 




899 


BOLIVIA 


706 


French Si- i.an- 




900 


BRAZIL. 


713 


Upper Volt a . 




901 


BULGARIA . 


726 


Mauritania 




901 


CHILE 


734 


ToGOLAND 




901 


CHINA .... 


744 


TUNIS . 




903 


Manchuria 


761 


America — 






Tibet 


762 


Guadeloupe and 


Depenh- 




Sin-Kianq . 


764 


encies 




908 


Mongolia . 
COLOMBIA . 
COSTA RICA 
CUBA .... 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA . 


770 

77- 

789 


Guiana .... 

Martinique 

St. Pierre and Miquel-'S 


90S 
909 
909 


Australasia and Oceania — 




DANZIG 


W 


New Caledonia 


AND 1JE- 




DENMARK . 


800 


PENDENCIES 




910 


ICELAND . 


8 1? 


New Hebrides . 




912 


ECUADOR . 


820 


French Establishments in 




ESTHONIA . 


826 


Oceania 




912 


FINLAND . 


830 


GEORGIA . 




914 


FIUME .... 


S36 








FRANCE 


837 


GERMANY . 




917 


Andorra . 


. 870 


vies of Germany — 




Colonies ano Dependence* 


£ 871 


An HALT . 




939 


Asia — 




Ba:>kn 




939 


French India . 


873 


Bavaria . 




941 


French Indo-China . 


. 874 


Bremen . 




945 


Cochin-China 


. 875 


Brunswick 




946 


Assam . 


. 876 


Hamburg. 


; . 


946 


Cambodia 


. 877 






947 


Tonkino . 


. 878 


Lippr 


. . 


949 


Laos 


. 878 


Ll'BKCK . 


, , 


949 


Kwang Chau Was 


. 878 


Mkcklknbit.g-Schwkrin 


950 


Ayrica — 




Mecklf.nbukg-Strklitz . 


951 


Algeria 


. 880 


Oldenburg 




951 


French Congo . 


. 886 


Prussia . 


, 


952 


Cameroon- 


. 838 


Saxony . 


. 


958 


Mad ag ascak 


. 888 


S. UAL'MBURG-Ll 


PPE . 


961 



Xll 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



GERMANY— States of Ger- 


PAGS 


NETHERLANDS (THE) 


PAOE 

1094 


many — 




Colonies 




1112 


Thuringia 


961 


Dutch East Indies . 


1112 


Waldeck . 


962 


Dutch West Indies — 
Surinam or Dutch 




WURTTEMBEIIG . 


962 


Guiana 




1119 


GREECE . 


965 


Curacao . 




1121 


GUATEMALA 


979- 


NICARAGUA 




1125 


HAITI .... 


984 


NORWAY . 




1130 


HONDURAS . 


988 


Spitsbergen 




1144 


HUNGARY . 


993 


OMAN . 




1147 


ITALY 


1001 


Palestine 




1352 


San Marino . 


1027 


PANAMA 




1149 


Foreign Dependencies — 




PARAGUAY . 




1157 


Eritrea . 


1027 


PERSIA 




1163 


SOMALILAND . 


1029 


PERU . 




1174 


Tripoli and Cyrenatca 


1030 


POLAND 




1184 


Tientsin (Concession of 


) 1032 


PORTUGAL . 




1194 


JAPAN 


1036 . 


Dependencies . 


. 


1201 


Korea . . . . 


1054 


ROME, SEE AND 


CHURCH 




Formosa (Taiwan) . 


1056 


OF . . . 
RUMANIA . 




1208 
1213 


Pescadores 


1058 


RUSSIA 




1223 


Sakhalin 


1058 


, Dependencies in 


Asia— 




KwANTUNG 


1058 


Bokhara 




1242 


KlAU-CHAU . . 


1058 


Khiva 




1243 


Pacific Islands 


1059 


SALVADOR . 




1254 


LATVIA . . . . 


1063 


SANTO DOMINGO 




1258 


LIBERIA . . . . 


1056 


SERB, CROAT and S 1,0 V EN K 
STATE 


1264 


LIECHTENSTEIN 


1070 


SIAM . 




1B72 


Lithuania . 


1246 


SPAIN . 




1280 


LUXEMBURG 


1071 


SWEDEN 




1299- 


Mesopotamia 


1350 


SWITZERLAND . 




1317- 


MEXICO . 


1074 


Syiua 
TURKEY 




1358 
1331 


MONACO . 


1082 


URUGUAY . 




1361 


MOROCCO . 


1083 


Ukraine 




1252 


NEPAL ... 


1092 


VENEZUELA 




1368 


INDEX 








1377 



INDEX TO INTRODUCTION 



im 



INDEX TO INTRODUCTORY TABLES AND 
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIO 



ALBERTA, Immigration (1M0), xli 
Allied and Associate*.! re- 
conventions between, xi 
Australia, Mineral Production and Exports 
(1920), xlii 

rs of Justice and Defence, xliii 
Tra«k', foreign (lyly-2"), xliii 
Treaty with, xxxviii 

BAHAMAS, Trade (1920), xlii 
Belgium, Agreement with U.K., xxxvii 
British Columbia 

Forest Products (1920), xlii 

Immigration (1920), xli 

Woman President of the Council, xlii 
British Empire (ut alio U.K.) (IS 

Area and population, xvi, xviii 
.merce, xvii, xix 

Debt, xri, xviii 

Finance, xvi, xviii 

Gold Production, xx 

Mandatory Territories, \'. 

Railways, xvii, xix 

.tiding, xxv, xxvi 
British Grants for World Relief, xxiii 
Bulgaria, Treaty with, xxxvii 
:. Legislature, xl 

\DA 
Immigration (1930), xli 
Mineral Production (1920), xli 
Le Summary 0020), -xlii 
Central America, Federation of 
Treaty ratification, xliv 
.L-rCe 
ria (1019-20), xxiv, xlii 
Bahamas (1920), xlii 
British Empire (1919-20), xvii, xix 
i. xlii 
• rated Malay States (192" > 
. , xliv 
India (1'.'20), xl 

■era Rhodesia (1920), xl 
era Rhodesia (1920), xl 
Union of South Africa (1920), xl 
United Kingdom, xvi, xxv 

is countries, xxiv 
Victoria (1920), xlii 
Comparative Taxation (1913-20), xxiii 
Cotton Spindles, the World's, xxiv 
Czechoslovakia, Treaty with, xxxvii 

DEBT, National 
British Empire (1919-20), xviii 
France (1919-20, 1921). xxv, xliv 
United Kingdom (1919-20), xvi, xviii, xxv 

EGYPT 

Finance (1921-22), xli 
Shipping (1920), xli 



KF. 1 >E RATE D Malay States, Trade (1920), xl 
Finance 

Brtiih Empire (1919-20), xvi, xviii 

«gypt (1921-52), xli 

India (1921-22), xxxix 

League of Nations (1919-21). xxxiii 

Straits Settlements (1920), xl 
la countries, xxiv 
Finland, British Minister, xliv 
France 

Debt, xliv 

Navy, xxvii 

Taxation per head, xxiii 

GK.ORG I A, Soviet rale in, xliv 
Germany 

Cabinet, xliv 

Taxation per head. 

Trade, foreign (19*>X xliv 

Treatv with, xxxvi 

oast, Min tai Production (1919), xli 

xlii 
British Bern >, xx 

Gnassl (1990). xli 

Gold Coast (191'.'), xli 

:hem Rhodesia (1920), x 
Transvaal (1913-20), xx 
Union of South Africa (1920), 
Western Australia (1920), xlii 
World (1919-90) i, xx 
Greece, Treaty with, xxxvii 

HUNGARY, Treaty with, xxxvii 

INDIA 

Crop Estimates (1920-21) xxxix 

Finance (1921-22), xxxix 

Population (1921), xxxix 

Presidents of Legislatures, xxxix 

Provincial Government, xxxi 
xxii, xxxix 

Trade, foreign (1920), xi 
Italy 

Navy, xxvii 

Taxation per head, xxiii 

Treaty with, xxxviii 

JAPAN, Navy, xxvii 

LEAGUE OF NATIONS, the 
Books of Reference, xxxiv 
Budgets, xxxiii 
Covenant, xxviii — xxxii 
Mandates, xviii n. 2. xxxviii 
Original members, xxxiii 

MANDATES, xxxviii 

Mandatory Territories, British Empire, 

xviii n. J 
Manitoba, Immijrration (1920), xli 
Metric Weiehts and Measures, vi 
Minorities, Protection of, xxxviii 



XIV 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



NAVIES of the World, the Principal (1921), 

xxvi, xxvii 
Neuilly, Treaty of, xxxvii 
Nigeria, Lieut.-Governor of Northern 

Provinces, xl 
Northern Rhodesia, Trade (1920), xl 

ONTARIO 

Estimated Expenditure (1919-20), xlii 
Immigration (1920), xli 

PARIS, Treaty of, xxxvii 
Peace, Treaties of 

Austria, xxxvii 

Bulgaria, xxxvii 

Germany, xxxvi 

Hungary, xxxvii 

Turkey, xxxvii 
Poland " 

Treaty with, xxxvii 
Portugal 

Agreement with U.K., xxxviii 

Ministry rc-igns, xliv 
Protection of Minorities, xxxviii 

QUEBEC 
Diiry Products (1920), xlii 
Immigration (1920), xli 

RAPALLO, Treaty of, xxxviii 

Relief and Reconstruction, British Grants 

for, xxiii 
Rumania, Treaty with, xxxvii 

ST. GERMAIN, Treaty of, xxxvii, xxxviii 
Saskatchewan, Immigration (1920), xli 
Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Treaties with, 

xxxvii, xxxviii 
Sevres, Treaty of, xxxvii 
Shipbuilding 

British Empire (1914, 1920), xxv, xxvi 

World (1914, 1920), xxv, xxvi 
Shipping 

Egypt (1920), xli 

Union of South Africa (1920), xl 

World's Merchant Tonnage (1914, 1920), 
xxv xxvi 
Silk, Raw, World's Supply (1917-19), xxi 
Silver, World's Production (1915-18), xx 
Southern Rhodesia 

Mineral Production (1920), xl 

Trade (1920), xl 



South-West Africa, Future Gorernment of, 

xl 
Straits Settlements 

Finance (1920), xl 

Population (1920), xl 
Sugar Statistics of the World (1V18 21), 
xxi, xxii 

Beet Sugar, xxii 

Cane Sugar, xxi, xxii 

India, xxii, xxxix 

TAXATION, Comparative, xxiii 
Treaties and Agreements : 

Allied and Associated Powers, xxxviii 

Belgium and U.K., xxxvii 

Czecho-Slovakia, xxxvii 

Poland, xxxvii 

Portugal and U.K., xxxviii 

Rumania, xxxvii 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State, xxxvii, xxxvii. 
Treaties of Peace 

Austria, xxxvii 

Bulgaria, xxxvii 

Germany, xxxvi 

Hungary, xxxvii 

Turkey, xxxvii 
Trianon, Treaty of, xxxvii 
Turkey, Treaty with, xxxvii 

UNION of South Africa 

Mineral Production (1920), xl 

Shipping (1920), xl 

Trade (1920), xl 
United Kingdom 

Debt (1919-20), xvi, xviii, xxv 

Railways, Principal, xxxix 

Shipping, xxv, xxvi 

Taxation per head, xxiii 
United States of America 

Navy, xxvii 

Silver production (1915-18), xx 

Sugar Statistics (1918-20), xxi, xxii 

Taxation per head, xxiii 

VERSAILLES, Treaty of, xxxvi, xxxvii 
Victoria, Trade (1920), xlii 

WAR, Results of 

Books of Reference on, xxxv 
Western Australia, Gold Production (1920), 

xlii 
World Relief and Recont>truction, xxiii 



INTRODUCTORY TABLI-> 



XVI 



INTRODUCTORY 
I.-THE BRITISH 





Area. 
Sq. miles. 


Population 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Debt 








£ 


£ 


£ 


United Kingdom 


121,633 


47,000,000 


1,339,571,000 


1,665,773,000 


7,736,000,000 


Europe : 












Gibraltar 


2 


17,000 


239,000 


136,000 


— 


Malta .... 


118 


225,000 


650,000 


632,000 


79,000 


Total Europe 


120 


242,000 


889,000 


768,000 


79,000 


India 


1,802,6291 


315,156,0002 


135,570,000 


127,073,000 


464,877,000 


Alia (except India) : 












Cyprus .... 


3,584 


315,000 


603,000 


485,000 


22S,0O0 


Aden, Perim, Socotra . 


io,38-;» 


58,000 


1,694,000 


— 


— 


Ceylon .... 


25.4S1 


4TT5S,000 


4,671,000 


4,722,000 


5,006,000 


Straits Settlements 


1,600 


846,000 


3,979,000 


4,072,000 


14,535,000 


Fed. Malay States 


27,506 


1,280,000 


8,416,000 


8,246,000 


1,750,000 


Other Malay States 


23,486 


955,000 


2,339,000 


1,707,000 


373,000 


Borneo, Brunei, and 












Sarawak 


77,106 


1,000,000 


552,000 


400,000 


54,000 


Hong Kong and Ter. 


391 


598,000 


3,081,000 


3,341,000 


1,485,000 


Wei-hai-wei . 


285 


150,000 


40,000 


48,000 


23,431,000 


Total Asia (except India) 


169,826 


9,860,000 


25,375,000 


23,027,000 


Auttralatia : 












Australian Common- 












wealth 


2,974,581 


5,247,000 


52,783,000 


97,188,000 


881,416,000 


Papua .... 


90,540 


250,000 


86,000 


118,000 


— 


New Zealand . 


104,751 


1,241,000 


25,744,000 


23,782,imXi 


201,171,000 


Fiji .... 


7,083 


164,000 


415,000 


442,000 


4,000 


Tonga, Solomon, and 












Gilbert Is. . 


11,450 
8,188,406 


270,000 


136,000 


124,006 


'.'0,000 


Total Australasia . 


7,172,000 


79,164,000 


121,749,000 


Africa : 












Ascension 


34 


250 


— 


— 


— 


St. Helena . 


47 


3,500 


12,000 


11,000 


— 


W. Africa: 












Nigeria . . 


332,000 


17,500,000 


4,959,000 


4,529,000 


11,997,000 


Gold Coast and Prot. 


80,000 


1,500,000 


2,601,000 


1,781,000 


3,364,000 


Sierra Leone A Prot. . 


31,000 


1,404,000 


749,000 


740,000 


1,730,000 


Gambia and Prot. 


4,500 


248,000 


181,000 


143,000 


— 


Total W. Africa 


447,500 


20,652,000 


8,490,000 


7,198,000 


17,091, 00C 


(continued on following pp.) 












i Including Feudatory SI 


ates, 709,555 sq. miles. 








2 Including Feudatory 81 


ates, population 70,889 


,000. » Inc 


luding ari-.i of 


Protectorat 


N. li. — Conversions into t 


terllng liav 


e been mnd< 


i at the par of 


exchange. 





TABLES 
EMPIRE, 1919-1920. 



XTll 



Total 
\ Import** 


Total 
Exports* 


Import* 
from U.K. 


Exports 
to I 


Tonnage 

entered and 

cleared 


Rail- 
waTi 

Open 


£ 
43,000 


£ 
1,662,033,000 


£ 


£ 
- 


T->n.« 
73,106,000 


Miles 
13,709 


4,262,000 


919,000 


2,293,000 ' 


1 


*,000 
3,574,000 


8 


4,262.000 


1*19,000 


1,103,000 


— 


33,342,000 


8 


199,961,000 


231,015,000 


69,988,000 


61,939,000 


13.000,000 


36,736 


" s 000 
1,000 
".000 
•>,000 
13,866,000 
4,609,000 


1.372,000 
.000 
31,918,000 
9l'.S21,000 
32,566,000 
10,213,000 


533,000 

2,947,000 
6,386,000 

♦ .000 


318,000 

13,477,000 
15,846,000 
5,240,000 


319,000 

2.773.000 

18,8S»,000 

1,188,000 

78,000 


76 

m 

J 1,001 


2,151,000 

90,652,000 

1,075,000 


.000 

103,943,000 

0+7,000 


_ 

5,180,000 


2,699,000 


963,000 

21,073,000 
975,000 


117 


238,778,000 


289, Si!', 000 


16,389,000 


17,575,000 


64,971,000 


1,931 


97,457,000 

423,000 

"1,000 

1,042,000 


148,565,000 

000 

63,970,000 

1,871,000 


37,971,000» 

11,839,000 
152,000 


61,604,000» 

44,312,000 
76,000 


6,180,000* 

2,986,000 
571,000 


15,657 

3,134 


393,000 


501,000 


- 


- 


25,000 


- 


129,986,000 


205,177,000 


49,962,000 


105,992,000 


9,821,000 


18,791 


44,000 


31,000 


- 


- 


179,000 


- 


12,015,000 
7,947,000 
2,123,000 
1,250,000 


14,726,000 

10,814,000 

2,102,000 

1,554,000 


10,401,000 


_ 


1,071,000 

1,405,000 

1,017,000 

442,000 


1,116 


6,066,000 

1,373,000 

725,000 


4,951,000 
1,375,000 
1,125,000 


157 
331 


23,3::. 


29,1'J6,000 


18,555,000 


7,451,000 


4,936,000 


..,.. 



4 The import* include bullion and specie, and the exports, bullion and specie snd 
reexports. 

5 Tear 1918-10. 



XV111 



I.— THE BRITISH 







A-ea. 
Sq. wiles 


Population 


Revenue 


F.xpenditure 


IV l.t 








41 


£ 


t 


Mauritius and Dep. 


809 


365,000 


921,000 


981,000 


1,250,000 


Seychelles 


166 


25,000 


88,000 


12,000 


9,000 


Somaliland 


68,000 


300,000 


82,000 


328,000 


— 


Kenya Colony and Prot. . 


246*22 


2,807,000 


3,192,000 


3,192,000 


553.00" 


Uganda Trot. . 


109,1151 


3,318,000 


496,000 


465,000 


283,0*00 


Zanzibar and Pemba 


1,020 


200,000 


408,000 


323,000 


li 0.000 


Nyasaland 


39,573 


1,203,000 


186,000 


218,000 


— 


Union of S. Africa . 


473,100 


7,305.000 


27,428,000 


20,990,000 


173,905,000 


Rhodesia .... 


440,000 


1,739,000 


1,200,000 


1,520,000 


— 


Swaziland 


6,678 


100,000 


. 92,000 


87,000 




Basutoland 


11,716 


406,000 


200,000 


202,000 


— 


Bechuanaland . 


275.000 


125,000 


82,000 


92,000 


— 


Egypt .... 


300,000 


12,^78,000 


31,612,000 


29,797,000 


93,19S,000 


Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 


1,014,000 


3,400,000 


3,068,000 


2,71-9,000 


— 


Total Africa 


3, 493,574 


54,627,000 


80,507,000 


68,225,000 


236,482,000 


America : 












Canada .... 


3,729,605 


9,030,000 


80,403,000 


71,726,000 


459,313,000 


Newfoundland and 












Labrador 


162,734 


265,000 


1,900,000 


1,391,000 


8,640,000 


British Honduras . 


8,592 


44,000 


219,000 


202,000 


180,000 


British Guiana 


89,480 


306,000 


882,000 


887,000 


1,1611.001' 


lie rmt id a 


19 


22,000 


119,000 


107,000 


40,000 


W. Indies : 












Bahamas . 


4,404 


00,000 


204,000 


109,000 


66,000 


Turks and Caicos Is. 


224 


5,600 


11,000 


9,000 


— 


Jamaica 


4,207 


894,000 


1,803,000 


1.444,000 


8,918,000 


Cayman Is. 


89 


5,400 


4,000 


5,000 


— 


Barbados . 


166 


200,000 


420,000 


85?,n00 


580,000 


Windward Islands 


516 


1 S3, 000 


194,000 


200,000 


wr2,ooo 


Locward Islands 


715 


128,000 


240,000 


221.000 


251 ,000 


Trinidad and Tobago . 


1,974 


387,000 


1,343,000 


1,309,000 


2,209,000 


Total W. Indies 


12,295 


1,863,000 


4,219,000 


8,655,000 


7.341.00C 


Falkland Islands 


7,5001 


3,250' 


46,000 


26,000 


B88,00( 


Total America 


4,010,28;') 


11,533,000 


87,828,oni) 


77,994,000 


Summary. 2 












United Kingdom 


m,«*a 


47,000,000 


1,339,571,000 


1,665,773,000 


7,730,000,001 


Burope 




120 


' 242,000 


889,000 


768,000 




India 




1,802,629 


315,156,000 


135.570,000 


127,073,000 


464,877,001 


'except India) 




109,826 


9,800,000 


25.:: 


23,027,000 


23,431,001 


Australasia 




3,188,405 


7,172,000 


79,164,001 


121,749,000 


682,590,001 


Africa 






54,027,1111(1 


80,507, 00< 


68,225.000 


,482,001 


America .... 


1,010,28.-) 


11,533,000 


87,828,000 


77,994,000 
2,084,609,000 


476,688,001 
9, 570, 142,00 


Total -. 




12,780,472 


445,590,000 


1,748,904.000 



1 including South > |0 square miles, and population 1,00". 

mandatory territories assigned to the British Empire, namely: in 
i Territory (ai q. miles, population 

Africa , Togo (area, 12 500 sq. miles, popula- 

>.ooi) >-q. miles, population, 400,000) ; in the Pacific, 
New • ro.OOO *q. miiei pelago (area, miles, 

i BamOA (an mill s, population, 

41,000). For particulars of these territories, «« the sections of the Vkak-Book htlow. 



EMPIRE 1919-1920.— <•<?-./> nn#i. 



Total 
Imports 3 



Total 
Ex*H>rts : 



lot port* 
from U.K. 



to O.K.. 



Xl< 



Tonnage 

i and 
c\rt 



FUllwaji 
Open 



i 

3.136.0™ 

75,000 

:.f,3,frf)n 

MM.MQI 

1,934,000 
570,000 



M.OW.OOO' 






231 
2,49V, 

429 



000 

000 
,ii00* 
,00O 
,000 
,000 



62,099,000" 



£ 
17,000 



493,000 
371,000 



23,815,00. 



700.000 



£ 



1,620,000* ! l,3S6,0CO» 



»l,#0f 



■ 

821,000 



Torn 

584,000 

7,233,000 
2.".,104,0OT 



192,871,000 



'.'04,44;.,000 



85,175,000 



Bt,8W,«M 



.■:•.-. <.>.. 



Ml!'* 
120 



«18 

174 
3.468 



l :• 



3,«5l 
1,500 



:.',■(■> 



J l*-.Sl 7,(k"><j 
8 332. 0O0 

MM* 

3,591,000 



539,000 

mum 



...v../.: 

-i,217,O0O 



17,625.000 



940,0005 
251,037,000 



1, '.'97,343,000 

4,862,000 

199,961,000 

12MM.OO0 

^51,037,000 



•'.,000 

tmfita 

4,241,000 

mijm 



182,000 

M.OOO 

t^n.oot 

5,000 

8,305,000 

1,223,000 

913,0005 



•18,000* 



18,746,000 



2,054,0C«y' 
297,781,000 



1.— %OW,000 
BW.OOOi 

•231.0*5,000 
289,329,000 

"7,000 
204,445,000 

-1,000 



2,h90,709,000 



953,000 

134,00" 

1,013,0 <' 

MfQM 



uja ■ 

2,000 
1,013,000 

740,000 
20S,000 






■ 

85,17»,0iX 
S1,546,U0< 



1,318,000 

81,000 

1,334,000 



63,000 

3,567,000 

340,000 
577,000 



hMtfiK 



9M,000* 



31,546,000 1 13,bO4,0O0 



5MM,000 



25,261,000 

1,712,000 
305,000 
712,000 

l,2.-»6,000 



15»00» 
178,600 

2,086,000 

3,648,000 
2.271,000 
2,135,000 
S.SMJD0Q 



12,932,000 



170,000» 



42,3V! .100 



73,10«,00« 

33,342,000 

l\0nn,<4)U 

m.;'7l,00C 

9^21,000 

42,350,000 



mjm 

951 

97 



197 
H 



349 



40,318 



8 

J36.735 

1,931 

28,791 

19.280 

40,318 



255,353,000 403,179,000 



276,428,000 j 150,774 



• The imports include bullion and specie ; and the exports, bullion and specie and re-exporti. 
ems marked * exclude bullion and specie. 

* Including exports from S. Georgia. * Year 1918-19. 

y.B. — Conversions into sterling have been made at the par of exchar 



b 2 



XX 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



II.-WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD. 

(In millions of pounds). 







The 








! The 










Trans- 
vaal 


rest of 


Total 


Foreign 




Trans- restof 


Total 


Foreign 




Year 


the 


British 


Coun- 


World 


British 


Coun- 


World 




Em- 


Empire 


tries 




Empire 


tries 








pire 








1917 ! 3S-3 


pire 








1913 


37 4 


19-6 


57-0 


37-7 


94-7 


17-8 


56-1 


30-9 


87 


1014 


35-6 


19-6 


53-2 


37-4 


92-6 


1918 | 35-8 


16-5 


523 


26-7 


79 


1915 


38 6 


201 


58-7 


38-1 


96-8 


1919 i 35-5 


14 6 


50-1 


25o 


75-6 


1916 


39-5 


20.1 


59-6 


33-9 


935 


li»20 34-5 13-5 


480 


220 


700 



III.-WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF SILVER 




Country 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


North America — 


ozs. 


ozs. 


ozs. 


ozs. 


United States . 


74,961,075 


74,414,800 


71,740,400 


67,810,100 


Canada .... 


26,625,960 


25,459,700 


22,221,300 


21,284,600 


Mexico .... 


39,570,161 


22,838,400 


35,000,000 


62,517,000 


Central America . 


2,920,490 


2,602,500 


2,169,500 


2,900,000 


South America — 










Bolivia and Chile . 


3,870 065 


4,402,100 


4,151,600 


4,335,000 


Argentina 


— 


21,300 


29,000 


25,000 


Brazil .... 


21,528 


22,000 


25^000 


55,000 


Colombia .... 


351,271 


309,400 


325,000 


325,000 


Ecuador .... 


24,655 


30,000 


45,000 


40,000 


Peru 


9,419,950 


10,787,000 


10,864,400 


10,800,000 


Guiana and Uruguay 


— 


8,500 


8,000 


8,000 


Venezuela .... 


— 





3,300 


3,000 


Europe — 










Austria-Hungary 


1,772,699 


1,500,000 


1,500,000 


1,750,000 


Great Britain . 


96,450 


86,500 


75,000 


50,000 


Greece .... 


591,464 


350,000 


350,000 


860,000 


Italy 


493,856 


486,500 


486,500 


500,000 


Norway .... 


413,867 


439,100 


294,900 


270,200 


Spain and Portugal . 


4,507,454 


4,517,800 


2,860,000 


3,100,000 


Russia .... 


038,403 


560,000 


500,000 


400,000 


Serbia .... 


— 


10,000 


20,000 


20,000 


Sweden .... 


24,230 


37.900 


35,000 


31,500 


Turkey .... 


1,509,133 


500,000 


400,000 


400,000 


Australasia .... 


9,250,000 


10,700,000 


10,000,000 


10,000,000 


Asia — 










British India . 


2S4.875 


280,000 


275,000 


270,000 


China .... 


18,230 


30,000 


63,900 


70,(100 


Chosen (Korea) 


21,897 


25,000 


26,500 


26,000 


Dutch East Indies . 


400,000 


400,000 


400,000 


400,000 


Indo-Cliina 


1,056 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


Formosa .... 


47,653 


47,700 


39,600 


26,900 


Japan .... 


5,120,298 


5,806,700 


7,111,700 


6,600,400 


Burma .... 


— 


'.•77,100 


1,793,700 


1,OT0,6M 


Africa 










Belgian Congo . 


4,770 


11,000 


10,300 


10,500 


Egypt 


1,657 


1,200 


900 


800 


b East Africii . 
Madagascar 


} - 


20,000 


20,000 


20,000 


Kliudcsia .... 


185,233 


200,700 


212,000 


175,700 


Transvaal, Cape Colony, 










Natal .... 


996,379 


968,900 


988,100 


877,600 


Portuguese East Africa . 


— 


1,200 


1,200 


1,200 


Total 


184,204,745 


168,843,000 


174,187,800 


197,394,900 



iyTRODUCTORT TABLES 



xxi 



IV.-WORLD'S SUPPLY OF RAW SILK. 

The appended table of statistics, which hare been published by the Lyoas Silk 
Merchant*' Union, ihow the estimated world's supply of raw silk in 1917, 1918, and 1919 :— 



Countries 



Western Europe: 
France 
Italy 

. 
Austria . 
Hungary 



Total 

Levant and Central Asia 

Far East : 

China (Shanghai) 

China (Canton) 

Japan 

India 

Indo-China 



Total . 
Grand total 



1917 



Pounds 

187,400 
143.300 



191S 



Ponnda 
529,100 

165,400 



154 900 
166,390 



143,300 ' 110,200 



7,154,000 6,1*66,700 i,'.'16,3O0 
■i.70O 



10,097,200 

6,1G9,$00 

31.0-0,400 

231,500 

11,000 ; 


11,000 


5,070.000 
Sx,lS7 

11.000 


49,559,900 1 


46.?3S,600 ' 


46,087,600 



59,006,700 56,198,100 6. 



V.— WORLD'S SUGAR STATISTICS. 

THREE YEARS' COMPARATIVE P10CRES. 

Preliminary figures (in long tons) for the 1920-21 crop in the various rogar-prodi:cir>g 
countries of the world and final estimates for the two preceding campaigns appear below : 



1018-19 



United States:— 

Louisiana 

1'orto Rico 

Hawaiian Islands 

West Indies— Virgin Islands 
Cuba .... 

British West Indies: 
Trinidad 
Barba.ii is 
Jamaica 
Antigua 
Kitts 
Other British West Indies 

French West Indies : — 

Martinique 

Guadeloupe 
Santo Domingo 
Haiti 
Mexico 

Central America: — 
Guatemala 
Other Central America 



1*19 -20 



Tons 

n «■ i 

MM I 

53*.913 
9,000 

- 

47.S50 

43,000 
12.S41 
10,901 
7,580 

10.027 
26,604 | 
15J.309 
3,300 
70,000 

13,441 
14,240 



Tons 
108,035 

C3t.ni 

ioi.iou 
12,400 

z. ::■;■ :: 

58,416 , 
50,000 
46,875 
15,540 
10,036 
5,651 ; 

2?,000 ' 

njm 

5,000 

15,000 
20,000 



1920-21 



Tons 
175.000 
435.000 
525.000 
5,000 
4,000,000 

60,000 
50,000 
45,000 
13,500 
8,000 
10,000 

20,000 
15,000 

189,000 
5,000 

100,000 

15,000 
20,000 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK , 1921 



Countries 


1918-19 


1919-20 


1920-21 




Tons 








Tons 


Tons 


South America:— 








Demerara ...... 


100.S60 


96,000 


100,000 


Surinam ...... 


8,000 


12,000 


12.000 


Venezuela (exports) ..... 


16,970 


18,000 


20,000 


Ecuador ...... 


7,000 


7,000 


8,000 


Peru ....... 


300,000 


350,000 


350,000 


Argentine ...... 


130,266 


292,110 


225,000 


Brazil ....... 


182,079 


177,155 


300,000 


Total in America .... 


6,379,348 


6,289,356 


6,715,500 


British India (consumed locally) 


2,37C,000 


3,049,157 


3,000,000 


Java ....... 


1,749, 40S 


1.335,763 


1,515,000 


Formosa and Japan ..... 


415,678 


283,482 


350,000 


Philippine Islands (exports) .... 


195,289 


203,000 


200,000 


Total in Asia . 


4,730,375 


4,871,402 


5,065,000 


Australia . . . . . . . 


209,853 


175,000 


175,000 


Fiji Islands ...... 


80,000 


60,000 


60,000 


Total in Australia and Polynesia 


289,853 


235,000 


235,000 


Egypt (consumed locally) .... 


75,899 


90,000 


80,000 


Mauritius ....... 


252,770 


235.490 


240,000 


Reunion ....... 


50,000 


40X00 


40,000 


Natal 


185,000 


150,000 


160,000 


Mozambique ...... 


20,015 


35,000 


40,000 


Total in Africa ..... 


584, 2S4 


550,490 


560,000 


Europe : Spain ...... 


6,618 


6,04$ 


5,000 


Total cane-sugar crops .... 


11,9!0,478 


11,'.' ■ 


12,580,500 


Germany ....... 


1,324,579 


750,000 


1,150,000 


Czecho-SlovaKia ...... 


} 700,000 


j 585,000 
| 50,000 


650,000 


Hungary and Austria ..... 




France ••..... 


110,000 


154,444 




Belgium ....... 


74,183 


146,918 


■I'.' 


Netherlands ...... 


178,48(1 




300,000 


Russia (Ukraine, Poland, &e.) 


836,616 




175,000 


Mweilen ....... 


1 27^4*9 


145,0110 


175,000 


Denmark ....... 


144,600 


1 60.0(A) 


105,000 


Itak 


106,682 


182,843 


175,000 


Spain . . . ... 


189,400 


81,650 


175,000 


Switzerland ...... 


10,800 


8,550 


10,0(10 


Bulgaria ....... 


2,441 


10, '.'74 


10,000 


Rumania ....... 


— 


— 


10,000 


Total in Europe ..... 


3,250,809 




3,520,000 


United St Res 


674.S92 






Canada ....... 


22,300 


16.600 


35,000 


Total beet -sugar crops .... 


8,917,501 


3,358,528 


4,505,000 


Grand total, caur Hnd beet sugar 


15,937,979 


15,31" 


17,085,500 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES 



xxn; 



VI.-BRITISH GRANTS FOR WORLD RELIEF. 

The following table gives an official 

• :re on r©const> action and relief in all parts of ' late of ti e 

rnistice to the end of September, 1 • 



1 Grants and loans to Belgium for relief and reconstrncri^-. . '.-2S3.000 

2. First relier credit 

id relief credit 

4. Repatriation of Czecho-Slovak troops from Siberia ;.-:■•."<.■ 

j Maintenance of Russian refugees 

6. Supply of foodstuffs for North Russia 5,1.- 

7. Exjort credit* 2,000.000 

••r of Assyriau and Armenian refugees in Mesopotamia 3,940,000 

ief of refugees and destitute persons in Syria and Palestine 
10. Grant to I/eague of Nations for rel.ef of typhus in Poland 

Total 48.338,000 



VII.-COMPARATIVE TAXATION PER HEAD OF POPULATION. 

The following table shows the amount of taxation per head par annum in the I 
Kingdom, the tinted State*, France, Italy, and Germany, tor the financial years 1913-14. 
1919-20, and Iy2i>-21 :— 



Y.ar 
ending 



Taxation 
; er htad 






United Kingdom 






Kraree 

Italy . 

Germany 



Sl.S 1.-14 












S].3.1S»i» \ 












31.3.1 


Dollars 


— 




— 




30.6 ' 




1 S 








"In 


37 03 








. 


SO. 6.1 


Francs 






12 7 


u 


31.121913 













31 12.1 


209-6 


8 6 




4 9 




S1.12.19S0 J 


450-0* 


IT 16 




y 11 




30.6 1914 


33 9 


1 6 


4 


10 


4 


30.6.1919 


134-3 

Marks 


5 6 


6 







31.3.1914 


31-3 


1 10 


8 


4 


4 


31.3.19211 




21 lj 


8 


3 1 






1 Estimated. 

:':ovLsional Ognn. 
' Includes 37-50 marks. Win)- the equivalent of the annual savin, 
due to the capital levy. 



XXIV 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



VIII.— WORLD'S COTTON SPINDLES. 

The following table, compiled by the International Federation of Master Cotton 
Spinners' and Manufacturers' Associations, shows an estimate of the total spindles in the 
world on January 31, 1921 : — 




a 1,375,000 spindles destroyed during the war. 

6 According to the returns, 5,555,979 spindles are active. 

e According to the returns, 0,391,643 spindles are active. 

d 750,000 spindles working. 

e No returns received. 



IX.— FINANCE AND COMMERCE OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES. 

The following statistics relating to the financial and commercial condition of various 
countries have been put together for convenience of reference, not for the purpose of com- 
parison. Revenue and expenditure, which in some States are raised and expended hy 
local authorities, are in others included in the national accounts. Debt In some countries 
is incurred for the sake of profitable investment, while in others it is unproductive and 
burdensome. With respect to trade, the figures in general show the special imports (or 
those for home consumption) and the special exports (or those of home produce and 
manufacture). Specie and bullion are generally excluded. 

The statistics are for the most part for the calendar year 1920, or the financial year 
1920-21. 



Countries 


Area in 
Rq. miles 


Population 


Keventie 

1.000 £ 
41,779 
19,302 
1 '.'4,709 
68,780 

104, Ml 
61,802 


Bxpen- 

diture 


Debt 


Imports 

1,000 £ 

170,820 

92,017 

38,557 
204,882 


Exports 


Aiventina 
Austria . . 
Hulguiin . . 
Brazil . 
Bulgaria . . 
China . . . 


1,153,119 
30,710 
11,878 

8,876,610 


8,533,332 
0,138,197 
7,577,027 
80,646,296 
5,517,700 
320,050,000 


1,000 £ 
41,742 
47,755 
161,886 

50,056 
15S.1S7 
61,970 


1,000 £ 

89,808 

770,82* 

876,378 

81,811 

235,330 


1,000 £ 
201,860 

348,323 
107,514 

199,750 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES 



XXT 



Countries. 



Czecho- 
slovakia 
Denmark . 
France 
Germany 
Greece . . 
Hungary 
Italy . . 
Japan . . 
Netherlands 
Norway . 
Poland 
Portugal . 
Rumania . 
Serbia (Vugo 

Slavia) . 
Spain . . 
Sweden 
*witxerland 
Turkey 
U. Kingdom 
United States 



Area in 
sq. miles 



54,438 

16,566 

212.659 

1S3.SS1 

41,933 

35,164 

117.9-2 

260.73S 

12,582 

125,001 

MtJKI 

35.490 

in,m 

95,628 

194,783 
173,035 
15.976 
174,900 
121,633 



Population Revenue 



Erpen- 
ditnre 



Imports 



! 1,000 £ 

- 

l'.'T 4, 

51,950 

— 



493,960 

40,012 

1.122 
26,913 

.44.«.' 

49,925 
70,595 

14.333 
30,924 
996 1.339,571 
108 4,596,782 



H<' 
231 
855 
349 

149 

686 
344 

037 
506 
,000 



1,000 £ 

13,681 

18.633 

I MMM 

I 51,950 I 

i 13,150 ! 

999,551 ! 

42,938 I 
6,329 
JS.803 

! 265,000' 

.; ■. m 

91,099! 

H\flM 

B>,9«7 

; .•*•■;--■: 
4.719,382 



1,000*1 

9S,00« 

51,458 

11,433,320 

15,14" i.i *»J 

141.720 
279,356 
214,603 

19.133 ; 

36,287 

55,743 

423,339 
4,S59,5b3 



i,0M £ 
51,851 
MM* 

1,416,196 

64,332 

634,485 
233,617 

143,355 

58,110 

143,317 



43,375 
187.415 

S7.CW8 



Export* 



: ■ " £ 

17.745 
87,500 

mjm 

■:.'.-,: 

312,151 

194,838 
145.709 
41,072 

4.115 



52.4 43 

127.421 

I M4 



X. -WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING. 

According to Lloyd's Register the total merchant steam tonnage of the world in June. 
1920, was 53,905,000 gross tons, as compared with 45,404,000 gross tons in June, 1914. 
The following table shows details : — 









Increase (+) 


Countries 


June, 1914 


June, 1920 


or 








decrease ( — ) 




Ones tarn 


Gross tons 


Grose tons 


United Kingdom 


18,892.000 


18,111,000 


— 7! 


British Dominions 


1,632,000 


2,000 


+ 400,000 


United States : 








Seagoing 


.-.ore 


12.406,000 


+ 10,879,000 


Great Lakes 


•1,000 


2,119,000 


— 141,000 


Austria-Hungary 


.',000 


Nil 





Denmark 


770,000 


719,000 


— 51,000 


France 




1,922 


2,963,000 


- 1,041,000 


Germany 




5,135,000 


U9.0M 


-4,716,000 


Greece 






4. '7. OB 


— 324.000 


Holland 




1.4 72,000 


1.773,000 


+ 301,000 


Italy 




1.430,000 


2.118,1)00 


+ 688,000 


Japan 






8,996.000 


+ 1,88* 000 


Norway 




l.y ".7,000 


1,980,000 


+ 23,000 


Spain 




»»4 ... 


937,000 


+ 53,000 


Sweden 


I.'.' - . " 


Ptpttt 1 


— 19,000 


Total abroj-i 


26,512,000 


35,794,000 


+9,232,000 


World's 


total 


45,404,000 


53,905,000 


+8,501,000 



XXVI 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-HOOK, 1921 



The returns of Lloyd's Register for June 30, 1920, which cover vessels of 100 gross tons 
or over, show tliat on that date tlie world's merchant shipping comprised 81,596 ships of 
57,814,065 gross tons, compared with 20,255 ships of 50,919,273 gross tons on June 80, 1919, 
ami 30,830 ships of 49,089,552 gross tons on June 30, 1914. The details according to Hag 
are as follows, the last item " Flag not recorded " including mainly certain former German 
ships the distribution of which among the victorious nations has not yet been finally 
determined. 



Flag. 


Steamers and 
motor vessels 


Sailing vessels 


Total 


No. 


Gross 


No. 


Gross 


No. 


Gross 




tonnage 


tonnage 


tonnage 


British : 














United Kingdom 


8,113 


IS, 110,653 


448 


219,771 


8,561 


18,330,421 


Australia & New Zealand 


579 


027,961 


49 


21,279 


028 


049,240 


Canada : 














Coast .... 


500 


683,100 


312 


122,673 


818 


896, 


Lakes .... 


70 


170,500 


— 


— 




110,600 


India and Ceylon 


127 


174,508 


42 


11,815 


109 


180,828 


Other Dominions 


378 


376,098 


201 


04,234 


579 


440,332 


. Total . . . 


9,779 


20,142,880 


1,052 


439,772 


10,831 


20,582,652 


United States : 














Sea 


3,573 


12,406,123 


1,316 


1,383,751 




13.78. 


Northern Lakes 


400 


2,118.568 


26 


88,801 


492 


■7,429 


Philippine Islands . 


71 


49,084 


5 


2,302 


70 


51,986 


Total . . 


4,110 


14,574,375 


1,347 


1,474,914 


5,457 


16,01. , 


Argentine .... 


150 


130,11S 


48 


19,905 


198 


150,023 


Belgian 






208 


410,423 


5 


4.0S9 


218 


415,112 


Brazilian . 






348 


475,224 


52 


22,636 


400 


497 8< 


Chilean 






90 


8S,012 


22 


15,170 


112 


103,788 


Chinese 






102 


142,834 


— 


— 


102 


142 


Cuban 






40 


46,324 


13 


8,115 


53 




Danish 






528 


719,444 


223 


88,067 

20.004 


746 


808,41 1 

1,793,390 


Dutch 






922 


1,778,802 


65 


9s7 


Finnish 






121 


82, 295 


191 




812 


166,689 


French 






1,400 


2,903,229 


S68 


2Sl,90f, 


1,758 


3,245,194 


German 






901 


419,438 


•237 


253,233 


1,188 


672,671 


Greek 






'294 


496,996 


111 








Italian 






789 


2,118,429 


326 




1,115 


2.2 1 


Japanese . 






1,940 


2.995,878 


— 


— 


1,940 




.Norwegian 






1,696 


L979.660 


181 




1,777 


2.21 


Peruvian . 






27 


00,138 


42 


22,824 




Portuguese 






143 


235,098 


106 


89,967 






Rumanian 






38 


74,117 


1 


481 


89 




Russian . 






5 24 


509,504 


£9 








Spanish 






601 


987,280 


MS 




749 




Swedish 






1,072 


996,428 


226 








Uruguayan 






84 


51,487 


13 




17 




Other countries 




265 


200.344 


138 




108 




Flag not recorded 




497 


V-'75,210 


89 


30,611 


550 




Ti 


lal 




20,613 


58,904,688 


5,082 


3,409,877 


31,595 


57,31 



XI— PRINCIPAL NAVIES OF THE WORLD. 

COMPARATIVE STRENGTHS. 

In the following tabic "A " denotes exist iiiL; ships which arr considered 
to embody lessona of Hi i war ; " H " indicates sliijp.s built or designed I 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES 



XXVI! 



tins period, dirideu, in the ca«e of capital ships, into B 1 — Dreadnoughts, 
and B 2 -pie-Dreadnoughts. The figures, which applj to 1921, are official. 




Battleship* HI 

Total . 

I A 
Battle Cruise. Rl 

Ibj 

Total . 

Aireraft Car- (A. 

riers (speci- 

allydeaisned 

as such) IB 

Total . 

Cruisers 

Total 

Light Cruisers! y 

Total . 
Flotilla 
Leader* 
Total . 

Destroyer* 

Total . 
Submarines 

Total . 



U 


8 


lb 


43- 




10 


IB 


I * 


f* 


123 *• 


[a 


6i« 


fS 


«-.i 


Si' 



i Includes the Commonwealth ship Australia. 

* Includes Furious. Artju/,w\ EajU. not actually designed as aiicraft carriers, hut 
very extensively altered for that purpose. 

> Includes "3 Commonwealth rets*!*, B-Ubttnt, SyJnry, Mtlbowrnt, 1 Dominion 
(Canada) vessel Aurora, 1 Dominion (New Zealand) vessel Chatham. 

■» Includes 1 Commonwealth ship Anzac. 

5 Includes "> Commonwealth vessels. 

8 Includes Commonwealth vessels and 1 Dominion (Canada) vessels. 

' Includes o Commonwealth Tease's mid 2 Dominion (Canada) \ i - 

8 Five of these battleships have their main turrets rem. 

» Two of these cruisers have part of armament removed. 
i« .Minister of Marine ha* power to tell tl.est. 
U Ministvr of Marine has power to sell six of tlv 
U Minister of Murine has power to sell 14 of these 

Personnel : The following figures show the number of officers and men 
voted for the Roval Nmty, the United States Navv, and the Imperial 
Japanese Navy for 1921-22, the numbers for 1914-15 being given for purposes 
of comparison — Great Britain, number voted 123, 7o0. This was a maximum, 
to be reduced to 121,700 as soon as practicable, which latter figure includes 
3,250 Coastguard, 5,100 boys, and 834 cadets, none of them available 
for manning. United States, the number to be voted had not yet been 
finally approved, but would probably be the same as last year — namely, 
150,800, made up of 120,000 enlisted men, 9,800 officers, "l, COO Marine 
officers, and 20,000 Marines (rank and file)— all available for manning. 
Japan, the number borne on Januaiy 19, 1921, was 76.600, made up of 
approximately 7,000 officers and 69,600 men, all available for manning. 
The figures for 1914-15 were :— Great Britain, 151,000; United States. 
67,644 ; and Japan (number borne at end of 1914), 55,712. 



xxviil THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 

XII. -THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

(1) THE COVENANT. 

In order to promote international co-operation and to achieve international peace and 
security by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war, by the prescription of open, 
just and honourable relations between nations, by the firm establishment of the under- 
standings of international law as the actual rule of conduct among governments, and by 
the maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect for all treaty obligations in the deal- 
ings of organized peoples with one another, the High Contracting Parties agree to this 
Covenant of the League of Nations. 

Article I.— The original members of the League of Nations shall be those of the 
Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and also such of those other 
States named in the Annex as shall accede without reservation to this Covenant. Such 
accession shall be effected by a Declaration deposited with the Secretariat within two 
months of the coming into force of the Covenant. Notice thereof shall be sent to all other 
Members of the League. 

Any fully self-governing State, Dominion or Colony not named in the Annex, may become 
a Member of the League if its admission is agreed to by two-thirds of the Assembly, 
provided that it shall give effective guarantees of its sincere intention to observe its inter- 
national obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed by the League 
in regard to its military and naval forces and armaments. 

Any Member of the League may, after two years' notice of its intention so to do, with- 
draw from the League, provided that all its international obligations and all its obligations 
under this Covenant shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal. 

Article II. — The action of the League under this Covenant shall be effected through 
the instrumentality of an Assembly and of a Council, with a permanent Secretariat. 

Article III.— The Assembly shall consist of Representatives of the Members of the 
League. 

The Assembly shall meet at stated intervals and from time to time as occasion may 
require at the Seat of the League or at such other place as may be decided upon. 

The Assembly may deal at its meetings with any matter within the sphere of action of 
the League or affecting the peace of the world. 

At meetings of the Assembly each Member of the League shall have one vote, and may 
not have more than three Representatives. 

Article IV. — The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal Allied 
and Associated Powers, together with Representatives of four other Members of the Lfpagne. 
These four Members of the League shall be selected by the Assembly from time to time in 
its discretion. Until the appointment of the Representatives of the four Members of 
the League first selected by the Assembly, Representatives of Belgium, Brazil, Spain, 
and Greece shall be members of the Council. 

With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the Council may name additional 
Members of the League whose Representatives shall always be members of the Council; 
the Council with like approval may increase the number of M umbers of the League to be 
selected by the Assembly for representation on the Council. 

The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion may require, and at least once a 
year, at the Seat of the League, or at such other place as may be decided upon. 

The Council may deal at its meetings with any matter within the sphere of action of the 
League or affecting the peace of the world. 

Any Member of the League not represented on the Council shall be invited to send a 
Representative to sit as a member at any meeting of the Council during the considera- 
tion of matters specially affecting the interests of that Member of the League 

At meeting* of the Council each Member of the League represented on the Council 
shall have one vote, and may not have more than one Representative, 

Article V.- Kxce.pt where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant, decisions at 
any meeting of the Assembly or of the Council shall require the agreement of all the Mem- 
bers of the League represented at the meeting. 

All matters of procedure at meetings of the Assembly or of the Council, including the 
appointment Of Committees to investigate particular matters, shall be regulated by the 
Assembly or by the Council and may be decided by a majority of the Members of the 
League repre i nted at the meetj ii 

The first meeting of the Assembly and the first meeting of the Council shall be sum- 
moned by the I 'resident of the United States of America. 

Article VI.— The permanent Secretarial shall be established atthi League 

The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary Cuneral and such secretaries and staff us may 
be required. 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES XXIX 

The first Secretary General shall be the person named in the Annex ; thereafter the 
Secretary General shall be appointed by the Council with the approval of the majority of 
the Assembly. 

The secretaries and staff of the Secretariat shall be appointed by the Secretary General 
with the approval of the Council. 

The Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all meetings of the Assembly and of 
the Council. 

The expenses of the Secretariat 'shall be borne by the Members of the League in 
accordance with the apportionment of the expenses of the International Bureau of the 
Universal Postal Union. 

Article VII.— The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. 

The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of the League shall be established 
elsewhere. 

All positions under or in connexion with the League, including the Secretariat, shall be 
open equally to men and women. 

Representatives of the Members nf the League and officials of the League when engaged 
on the business of the League shall enjoy diplomatic t rivileges and immunities. 

Thf buildings and other property occupied by the League or its officials or by Repre- 
sentatives attendioe its meetings shall be inviolable. 

Article VIII.— The Meint>ers of the League recognize that the maintenance of peaee 
requires the reduction of national armaments to the lowest point consistent with national 
safity and the enforcement by common action of international obligations. 

The Council, taking account of the geographical situation and circumstances of each 
Member of the Lea. uulata plans for such reduction for the consideration and 

action of the several Governments 

Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and revision at least every ten years. 

After these plans shall have been adopted bv the several Governments, the limits of 
armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded without the concurrence of the Council. 

The Member* of the League agree that the manufacture by private enter] I 
munitions and implements of war is open to grave objections. The Council shall advise 
how the evil effects attendant upon such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being 
had to the necessities of those Members of the League which are not able to manufacture the 
munitions and implements of war necessary for their safety. 

The Members of the League undertake to interchange full and frank information as to 
the scale of their armaments, their military and naval programmes, and the condition of 
such of their industries as are adaptable to warlike purposes. 

Article IX.— A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the Council on 
the execution of the provisions "f Articles I. and VIII. and on military and naval questions 
generally. 

Article X.— The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against 
external agression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of ail 
Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case oi any threat or danger 
of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall 
be fulfilled. 

Article XI. — Any war or threat of war. whether immediately anecting any of the 
Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of concern to the whole league, 
and the League shall take any action that may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard 
the peace of nations, in case any such emergency should arise the Secretary General shall 
on the request of anv Member of the League forthwith summon a meeting of the Council. 

It is alaO declared to be the friendly right of each Member of the League to bring to 
the attention of the Assembly or of the Council any circumstance whatever affecting 
international relations which threaten to disturb international peace or the good under- 
standing between nations upon which peace depends. 

Article XII.— The Members of the League agree that if there should arise between 
them any dispute iike'.y to lead to rupture, they will submit the matter either to arbitration 
or to inquiry by the Council, and they agree in no ca>e to resort to war until three months 
after the award by the arbitrators or the report by the Council. 

In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall be made within a reason- 
able time, and the report of the Council shall he made within six months after the submis- 
sion of the dispute. 

Article XIII.— The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall arise 
between them which they recognize to be suitable for submission to arbitration and which 
cannot be satisfactorily settled by diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject matter 
to arbitration. 



XXX THE STATESMAN S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 

Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any question of international law, as 
to the existence of anv fact, which if established would constitute a breach of any inter- 
national obligation, or as to the extent and nature of the reparation to be made for any 
such bieach, are declared to be among those which are generally suitable for submission 
to arbitration. 

For the consideration of any such dispute the court of arbitration to which the case is 
referred shall be the court agreed on by tho parties to the dispute or stipulated in any 
convention existing between them. 

The Members of the League ajiiee that they will carry out in full good faith any award 
that may be rendered and that they will not resort to war against a Member of the League 
which complies therewith. In the event of any failure to carry out such an award, the 
Council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect thereto. 

Article XIV.— The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the 
League for adoption plans for the establishment of a Permanent Court of International 
Justice. The Court shall be competent to hear and determine any dispute of an inter- 
national character which the parties thereto submit to it. The Court may also give an 
advisory opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the Council or by the 
Assembly. 

Article XV. —If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute likely 
to lend to a rupture, which is not submitted to arbitration as above, the Members of the 
League agree that they will submit the matter to the Council. Any party to the dispute 
may effect such submission by giving notice of the existence of the dispute to the Secretary 
General, who will make all necessary arrangements for a full investigation and considera- 
tion thereof. 

For this purpose the parties to the dispute will communicate to the Secretary General, 
as promptly as possible, statements of their case with all tho relevant facts and papers, 
and the Council may forthwith direct the publication thereof. 

The Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, and if such efforts 
are successful, a statement shall be made public giving such facts and explanations 
regarding the dispute and the terms of settlement thereof as the Council may deem 
appropriate. 

If the dispute is not thus settled, the Council either unanimously or by a majority vote 
shall make and publish a report containing a statement of the facts of the dispute and the 
recommendations which are deemed .just and proper in regard thereto. 

Any Member of tho League represented on the Council may make public a statement 
of the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions regarding the same. 

If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to by the members thereof other than 
the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the 
League agree that they will not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies 
with the recommendations of the report. 

If the Council fails to reach a report which is unanimously agreed to by the members 
thereof, other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute, the 
Members of the League reserve to themselves the right to take such action as they shall 
consider necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. 

If the dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, and is found by the 
Council, to arise out of a matter which by international law is solely wiihin the domestic 
jurisdiction of that party, the Council shall so report, and shall make no recommendation 
as to its settlement. 

The Council may in any case under this Article refer the dispute to the Assembly. 
The dispute shall be so referred at the request of either party to the dispute, provided 
that such a request be made within fourteen days after the submission of the dispute to 
the Council. 

In any case referred to the Assembly all the provisions of this Article and of Article 
XI I. relating to the action and powers of the Council shall apply to the action and powers 
of tho Assembly, provided that a report made by the Assembly if concurred in by the 
Representative* of those Members of the League represented on the Council and of a 
majority of the other Members of the League, exclusive in each case of the Representatives 
of the parties to the dispute, shall have the same force as a report by the Council concurred 
m by all the members thereof other than tiie Representatives' of one or more of the parties 
to the dispute. 

Article XVI.— Should any Member of tho League resort to war in disregard of its 
covenants under Articles XII., XIII., or XV.. it shall feao facto be deemed to have com- 
mitted an uct of war anainst all other Members of the League, which hereby undertake 
immediately to subject it to the severance of all trade or tinancial relations, the pro- 
hibition of all intercourse between their nationals and the nationals of the covenant - 
mber of the League, and the prevention of all financial, commercial, or 
I Intercourse between the nationals of the covenant breaking Member of the 
nid the nationals of any other State, whether a Member of the League or not. 



I VI OKI TABI XXXI 

all be the duv of the Council i ■• recommefl overn- 

ments< nilitarv or nival force the M» league shall 

to be used to protect the cover -ague. 

the Leagu- agi "hat they will in nt >ri other 

in the 'h are taken mid. - in order to 

minimize the I ,ve measures, and tliat they will 

•v special measure? simed at one of their 
League, and that they will take the 
.'heir territory t.> the force* • f any of the 
roteet the covenants of the League. 
is violated ai of the League may be de- 

clared to l>e no lone ■'■ the League by a vote of the Conncil concurred in by the 

I ■■ t.ieagne represented thereon. 

Article XVH.—In the event of a dispute between any Member of the League and a 
_-ue. or between States not Members of 
.eague shall be invited to accept the o 
members ' ie purposes of such dispute, upon such eon ■! 

I may deem jusl ■<■'■ is accepted, the provisions of Article- 

• e shall be applied with such modifications as may be deemed necessa^r by the 
Council. 

»n the Conncil shall immediately institute an inquiry into 
:•» and recommend such action as may seem best and most 

If a - . ted shall refuse to accept the obligations of membership in the League 

for the purposes of - and shall resort to war against a Member of the League, 

the pre .ible aa against the state taking such ac" ion. 

If both ps.' vrhensoinv.- accept the obligations of mem- 

bership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, the Councl roar take such mea- 
sures and niA'^e jncb. recommendations a* will prevent hostilities and will result In the 
settlement of the dispute. 

Article XVIII. —Every treaty of international engagement entered into hereafter by 
ai.y Member of the League shall be forthwith registered with the Secretariat and shall as 
soon as possible be published by it. Xo such treaty or international engagement shall be 

binding until so registered. 

Article XIX.— The A- to time advise the reconsideration by 

h have become inapplicable and the consideration 
s whose continuance might endanger the peace of the world. 

Article XX.— T - of the League severally a;rec that this Covenant is 

!er> bindings inUr *e which are inconsistent 
i :e that they will not hereafter enter into any 
engaj 

In case any Member of the League shall, before becoming a Member of the League, 
have undertaken any obli ' with the terms of this Covenant, it shall be 

the duty of such Member to take immediate steps to procure its release from such 
obligations. 

Article XXI. — Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of 
internal .ties of arbitration or regional understandings like 

the Monroe Doctrine for securing the maintenance of peace. 

Article XXII. — To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late 
war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them 
and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the 
strenv. :,s of the modern world, there should be applied the principle that 

the well ievelopment of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilization and 

that, at rformance of this trust should be embodied in this Covenant. 

The best luetuod of giving practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of 
such ;■■. : be entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, 

their experience or their geographical position, can best undertake this responsibility, 
;md who are willing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as 
Mandatories on behalf 1 1 the League. 

The character of the mandate liiust differ according to the stage of the development 
of the people, the geographical situation of the territory, its economic conditions, and 
other similar cucamstani 

Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have readied a stage of 
development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recog- 
nized subjeet to the reudei ing of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory 



XXxil THE STATESMAN S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 

until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be 
a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory. 

Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a stage that the Manda- 
tory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which 
will guarantee freedom of conscience or religion, subject only to the maintenance of 
public order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms 
traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or 
military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than police 
purposes and for the defence of the territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for 
the trade and commerce of other Members of the League. 

There are territories, such as South-West Africa and certain of the South PaciBc 
Islands, which, owing to the sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their 
remoteness from the centres of civilization, or their geographical contiguity to ths 
territory of the Mandatory, and o»her circumstances, can be best administered under 
the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards 
above mentioned in the interests of tiie indigenous population. 

In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render'to the Council an annual report 
in reference to the territory committed to its charge. 

The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised by the Mandatory 
shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Members of the League, be explicitly defined 
in each case by the Council. 

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and examine the annual 
reports of the Mandatories and to advise the Council on all matters relating to the observ- 
ance of the mandates. 

Article XXIII. — Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international 
conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of the League 

(a) will endeavour to secure arid maintain fair and humane conditions of labour for 
men, women, and children both in their own countries and in all countries to which 
their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will establish 
and maintain the necessary international organizations ; 

(b) undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under 
their control ; 

(c)will entrust the League with the general supervision over the execution of agree- 
ments with regard to the traffic in women and children, and traffic in opium and 
other dangerous drugs ; 

(d) will entrust the League with the general supervision of the trade in arms and 
ammunition with the countries in which the control of this traffic is necessary in 
the common interest ; 

(e) will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of communications and of 
transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of all Members of the League. 
In this connexion, the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war 
of 1914-1918 shall be borne in mind ; 

(f) will endeavour to take steps in matters of international concern for the prevention 
and control of disease. 

Article XXIV.— There shall be placed under the direction of the League all inter- 
national bureaux already established by general treaties if the parties to such treaties consent. 
All such international bureaux and all commissions for the regulation of matters of 
international interest hereafter constituted shall be placed under the direction of the 
League. 

In all matters of international interest which are regulated by general conventions but 
which are not placed under the control of international bureaux or commissions, the 
Secretariat of the League shall, subject to the consent of the Council, and if desired by 
the parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall render any other 
assistai.ee which may be necessary or desirable. 

The Coune.il may include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat the expenses of 
any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction of the League. 

Article XXV. — The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the 
establishment and co-operation of duly authorized voluntary national Rett Cross 
organizations bavingaa purpose*: the Improvement of health, the prevention of disease, 
and the mitigation of sutt'ering throughout the world. 

Article XXVI.— Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by 
the Members of the League Whose Representative! compose the Council sad by a majority 
of the Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Assembly. 

No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League which signifies its dissent 
therefrom, but In that case it shall Cease to b« a Member of the League. 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES 



xxxm 



U.S. of America 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

British Empire 
Canada 
Australia 
I in Armic* 

India 
i'hika 



(2) Members or the Lexers. 
Signatories of the Tremtu •/ Ptmee 

Cuba 

Czechoslovak n 

Bctjador 

Prance 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Hedjaz 

Hobpcras 

1TALT 

Japa.« 



Liberia 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Perc 

Poland 

Port coal 

Rumania 

Serb-Croat-Slotbke 

State 
Bum 
Urpcuat 



Albania 
Vkgkntina 

Al >TKIA 

bulgaria 
Chill- 
Colombia 
Costa Rica 



Other Members of tkt l.tmerue. 

Denmark Persia 

finland salvador 

Luxemburg 8pain 

Netherlands Sweden 

noewat switzeblano 

Paraocat Venezuela 



Prt'ident of the Le-ifu-.— M Pichon. 
8erretarf'Ge»erml. — Sir Rric Drornmond. 

(3) THE BUDGETS OF THE LEAGUE. 

tint Bu//pr<(May 5, 1919, to June 30,1920).-The Fir-' Budget •mounts'' to 297,0»?. 
8eeond Budget (July 1, to Dec. 31, 1920).— This amounted to 10.000,000 gold francs 
41/0,0001.). 

Third Budget (Calen<ia<- Year 1921)— This amounted to 20,650,000 gold francs (836,0001.) 
Details of the Second and Third Budgets are shown a« follow 

Second Budeet (Julv 1 Third Budget (Jan. 1 
to Dee. 31, 19301.' to Dec. 31. 1921). 



Capital Accounts. 

Instalment of the 5,500,000 gold francs, 
payable in five years in six-monthly 
instalments with interest, for the pur- 
chase of the Hotel National. Geneva, 
and purchase of furniture 

Library 

Printing, 4c 



irect expenses. 

Salaries, travelling, and living expenses 
Meeting of the Assembly. 
Establishment charges, 4c 
Office expenses, official journal, 4c 



G..M francs 



160,000 


1,859,167 
335,000 
298,477 




2,393,644 


L840,000 

500,000 

350.000 

'•00 


4,550,000 
150,000 
325,000 
775,000 



3,275.000 



.-.civ, m 



XXXiV 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 





8econd Budget (July 1, 


Third Budget (Jan. I, 




to Dec. 31, 1920). 


to Dec. 31, 1921). 


Indirect expenses (over which the League 






has control). 


Gold francs 


Gold francs 


Communications and transit organisa- 








— 


50", 000 


Permanent Court of Justine . . ! 


150,000 


1,500,000 


Financial and statistical organisation . 


575,000 


.(50,000 


Repatriation and prisoners of war . 


— 


150,000 


Various commissions and organisations 






provided for in Articles 23 and 24 of 








— 


1,000,000 




1,025,000 


— 




1,750,000 


3,500,000 


Reserve Fund for Working Capital 1. 


1,725,000 


2,350,000 




13,950,000 


To this amount must he added for the 






International Labour Bureau, which the 






League has to finance, but over the 






expenses of which it has no direct 






control 


3,250,000 


7,000,000 


Grand Total .... 


10,000,0 JO 


20,650,000 



' The fund of working capital is considered necessary in view of the inevitable delays 
i n the passing of votes of credit by Parliaments. 

The expenses of the League are divided among the members according to the scale of 
the Universal Postal Union, which divides the members into seven classes as follows : — 

I. — Ten countries, each paying -25 units 250 units 

(Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Canada, Australia, South Africa, 

India, China, Poland.) 
II. — One country, paying 20 units 20 ,, 

(Spain.) 
III.— 8even countries, each paying 15 units ....... Itt 

(Belgium, Brazil, Czechoslovakia, Holland, Rumania, Sweden, 

Switzerland.) 
IV.— Four countries, each pa\ing 10 units 40 

(Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Serb-Croat-Slovene State.) 
V. — Five countries, each paying 5 units 25 ,, 

(The Argentine, Chile, Colombia, Greeee, Peru.) 
VI. — Twelve countries, each paying 3 units M 

(Bolivia, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, New Zealand, Panama, Paraguay, 

Persia, Salvador, Sia n, Uruguay, Venezuela.) 

VII. Two countries, each paying 1 unit I ,, 

(Liberia, the Hed.jaz.) 

47S .mils 

(4) BOOKS OK RKKKRICVCK ON Till-: l.KAWUK OF NATIONS 

The Covenant of the League of Nations with a Commentary thereon (Cind. 151; Mis- 
cellaneous Papers No. 3 of 1919). London, 1919 

Report by the Seer, tai v-(iineial to the FirM Asxinl.h of the League on the work of 
the Council fCind. 1022). London, 19J0, 

League of Nations Official Journal. No. 1. February, IPSO. 

The League of Nations Treat; Series (No, I. Bept 19801, London. 1920. 

The League of Nations Starts : An outline by its organisers. London, 1920. 

Adam* (<J. Iturton), The British Empire and a League of Peace. New York, 1919. 

Jwjell (Norman), The Political Conditions of Allied DUeoeeS. London, 1918. 

Barclay (Sir Thomas), New Methods of Adjusting International Disputes and the 
Future. linden, 1918. 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES XXXV 

Berry (T. T ), The Hoi>e of the World. An Appreciation of the League of Nations 
Scheme. London, 1919. 

Bryce (Viscount), Editor. The League of Nations. Oxford, 1918. 

Butler (Sir Geoffrey), A Handbook to the League of Nations. London, 1919. 
Crosby (Oscar T ), International War : Its Causes and its Core. London, 1919. 

Dickinson (G. Lowes), Problems of the International Settlement. London, 1919. 
Ihignan (S. P.), The League of Nations. The Principle and the Practice. London, 
1920. 

Ertberaer (M. ), The League of Nations (English translation). London, 1919. 

Fayle (C Ernest), The Fourteenth Point : A Study of the League of Nation*. (Th* 
Garton Foundation.) London, 1919. 

Ferrero (G.), Problems of Peace. From the Holy Alliance to the League of Nations. 
New York, 1919. 

Fried (Alfred), Editor, Der Volkerbund, Vienna, 1919. 

Qarvin (J. L.), The Economic Foundations of Peace; or, World- Partnership as the 
Truer Basis of the League of Nations. London, 1919. 

Gore (Bishop C .), The League of Nations : The Opportunity of the Churches. London 
1918. 

Hamilton (Sir Ian), The Millennium? London, 1918. 

Houston (Herbert S.), Blocking New War*. New York, 1018. 

Hudson (Alfred), Vers laSociete des Nations. Buenos Aires, 1919. 

Jackson (H. E.), Editor, The League of Nations. New York, 1919. 

Kallen (H. M.X The League of Nations. New York, 1919.— The Structure of Lasting 
Peace. New York, 1919. 

Lammaseh (Heinrich). Der Friedensverband der Staaten. Leipzig, 1919.— Der Volker- 
bund zur Bewahrung des Friedens. Olten, 1919. 

Lawrence (T. J.), The Society of Nations : Its Past, Present, and Possible Future. 
London, 1919. 

Lippmann (Walter), The Political Scene : An Essay on the Victory of 1918. New York. 
1919. 

Marburg (Theodore), League of Nations : Its Principles Examined. 2 roll. New 
York, 1919. 

Marriott (J. A. R.), The European Commonwealth. Problems Historical and 
Diplomatic. London, 1918. 

if t nor (R. C), A Republic of Nations. London, 1919. 

Ollivant (Alfred). The Next Step : An Essay on the Missing Policeman. London, 1920. 

Oppenheim (L.), The League of Nations and its Problems. London, 1918. 

Paish (Sir George), A Permanent League of Nations. London, 1919. — (Editor), The 
Nations and the League. London, 19*20. 

Pares (Sir Bernard), The League of Nations and Other Questions of Peace. London, 
1919. 

Percy (Lord Eustace), The Responsibilities of the League. London, 1919. 

Pollock (Sir F ), The League of Nations. London, 1919. 

Powers (H. H.). The Great Peace. London, 1919. 

Seclle (Georges), Le pacta des Nations et sa liaison avec le traite de paix. Paris, 1919. 

Swtuts (J. C), The League of Nations. London, 1919. 

StaUibrass (W. T. 8 ), A Society of States, or Sovereignty, Independence, and Equality 
in a League of Nations. London, 191S. 

Thierry (Albert), Les Conditions de la Paix. Paris, 1919. 

Walker (James) and Petre (si. D.), State Morality and the League of Nations. 
London, 1919. 

Walston (Sir Charles), The English-Speaking Brotherhood and the League of Nations 
Cambridge, 1920. 

Wehberg (Hans), Die Internationale Beschrankung der Riistungen. Berlin, 1919. 

Weul (Walter E.), The End of the War. New York, 1919. 

Yorlr( Elizabeth), Leagues of Nations : Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern. London, 1919 

(5) BOOKS OF REFERENCE ON RESULTS OF THE WAR. 
Economic Conditions in Central Europe. I. (Miscellaneous Series, No. 1, 1920). Cmd. 

Economic Conditions in Central Eurone. II. With Map. (Miscellaneous, No. 6, 1920). 
Cmd. 641. 

Currencie> After the War. A survey of conditions in various countries. Compiled 
under the auspices of the International Secretariat of the League of Nations. London, 

Angell (Norman). The Peace Treatv and the Economic Chaos of Europe. London, 1919. 
n (Ernest L.), Direct and Indirect Costs of the Great World War. New York, 
' Preliminary Economic Studies of the War.' 



XXXVI 



THE STATESMAN S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



Buxton. (Charles Roden aad Dorothy Frances), The World after the War. London, 
1920. 

Ghisholm (Archibald), Labour's Magna Charta. A Critical Study of the Labour Clauses 
of the Peace Treaty and of the Draft Conventions and Recommendations of the Washington 
International Labour Conference. London, 1921. 

Dormg (C), Die Bevdlkerungsbewegung im Weltkriege (I. Germany. II. Austria- 
Hungary). Copenhagen, 1919. [Nos. 4 and 5 of the Series ' Bulletin der Studiengesell- 
schaft fur soziale Folgen des Krieges.'] 

Hashing (C. H.), and Lord (R. H.), Some Problems of the Peace Conference. London, 
1920. 

Keynes (J. M.), The Economic Consequences of the Peace. London, 1020. 

Newbiqin (Marion J.), Aftermath. A Geographical Study of the Peace Terms. 
London, 1920. 

Ogilvie (P. M.), International Waterways. New York, 1920. 

Scott (A. P.), An Introduction to the Peace Treaties. Chicago, 1920. 

Temperley (H. W. V.), The History of the Peace Conference of Paris. 5 vols. London, 
1920-21. 

Vissering (G.), International Economic and Financial Problems. London 1920. 

XIII.— TREATIES. 

I. List of Treaties of Peace, 1919 <fc 1020. 

The territorial and other rearrangements consequent on the various treaties of peace 
have been noted in the text of the Statesman's Year Book under the respective countries. 

The following table contains a list of the treaties and instruments published (up to 
May 1, 1921), with particulars as to places and dates of signature, price, etc. In the case of 
treaties, they are between the Allied and Associated Powers and the country named. All 
these publications are obtainable from H.M.'s Stationery Office. 



Country 



Particulars 



Germany. 



(Versailles, June 23. 1919). 



(1). A large edition of the Treaty (costing 21s.) 
contains the complete English and French text, with 
the Protocol annexed to the Treaty (No. 4 below), the 
Agreement respecting the military occupation of the 
territories of the Rhine (No. 5 below), and also the 
Treaty between France and Great Britain respecting 
assistance to France In the event of unprovoked aggres- 
sion by Germany (No. 7 below). Contains maps and 
signatures in facsimile. 

(2). There is also an edition with the English 
French, and German texts. 

(3). A smaller edition (Treaty Series No. 4 of 1919. 
Cmd. 153. Price 4s.) is also available, giving only the 
English text of the Treaty and maps. Identical in 
pagination with No. 1. 

(4). Protocol supplementary to the Treaty of Peace. 
(Treaty Series No. 5 of 1919. Cmd. 290; Prtee Id.). 

(5). Agreement with regard to the Military occupa- 
tion of the Territories of tho Rhine. (Tieatv Series No. 
7 of 1919. Cmd. 222. Price Id.) 

(0). Declaration of tho Allied Governments in 
regard to the occupation of the Rhine provinces. 
(Cmd. 240. Price lrf.) 

(7). Treaty respecting assistance to Frauce in the 
event of unprovoked aggression by Germany. (Treaty 
No Oof U19. Cmd. 221. Price ]</.). 

(S). Index to the Treaty of Peace anto Germany. 
(Treaty Series No. 1 of 1920.' Cmd. 516. Price I},!.). 

(9). The text of the Treaty in English, and other 

treaty engagement* sinned at Versailles Juno 28, 1919, 

together with Index to the Treaty, and reply of the 

bo the ebaarratioDe of the Oanaan Delegation 

on the Conditions of Pence. (Price 9*. td,) 

(10). Onlin dices and [natructioni issued by the 
iiiIci-aiIm.i Rhinaland n (Cmd. 591. 

Price Mi). 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES 



XXXVll 



Country 



Particulars 



-main, September 10, 
1920). 



(U).-Text in English. (Trea . 11 of 

1919. Cmd. 400. Price 1*, 6d.)- 



Buloaria. English Text with Map. (Treaty Series No. 5 

of US - 1 Price 1«. 64) 

(Neuilly, November 27, 1919) (13)l Convention between Greece and Bulgaria, 

arising out of Article 56 of No. 11 (Cm-l. 589. Price Id.). 



(Versailles, June 28, 1919.) 



(14). English Text (Treaty Series So. 8 of 1919. 
Cmd. 233. Price 3d.). 



Czccho-Slovakia. 

(St. Germain, September 10, 
1919). 



(15). English Text (Treaty Series No. SO of 1919. 
Cmd. 479. Price Id.). 



Serb-Croat-Si-ovenx State. 

(St. Germain, September 10, 
1919.) 



(16). English Text (Treaty 8erie« No. 17 of 1919. 
Cmd. 461. Price Id.). 

(17). Declaration of Accession of the Serb-Croat- 
Slovene State to the various Treaties affecting 
that country. Signed at Paris, December 5, 1919. 
(Treaty & of 1920. Cmd. 638. Price Id.). 



Rumania. 



(Paris. December 9, 1919.) 



Hungary. 

(Trianon. June 4, 1920). 



English Text (Treaty Series N< 
Cmd. 58S. Price Id.) 



(19). English Text with Map (Treaty Series No. 10 
of 1920. Cmd. 896. Price it.). 



Greece. 



(Sevres, August 10, 1920.) 



(20). English Text (Treaty 8erie» No. 13 of 1920. 
Cmd. 960 Price Id.). 



Turkey. 



(Sevres, August H 



(21). English Text with Maps (Treaty Series No 11 
of 1020. Cmd. 964. Price 3*.). 

(22). Tripartite Agreement between the British 
Empire, France and Italy respecting Anatolia, with 
Map. Signed at Sevres, August 10, 1920 (Treaty 
Series No. 12 of 1920. Cmd. 963. Price 9d.). 



Belgium and Umud Koran (23). Agreement respecting boundaries in East 

Africa, viz. Mount 8orbino to the Congo-Nile water- 
(Bigned at London, Februai) shed. Text in English and French. With Maps. 
3, 1915. Ratifications exchange' (Treaty Series No. 2 of 1920. Cmd. 517. Price 4».) 
at London, October 20, 1919 



XXXV111 



THE STATESMAN S TEAR-BOOK, 1921 



Country 

Allied and Associated Powers. 

(St. Germain, September 10, 
1919.) 


Particulars 

(24). Convention revising the General Act of Berlin, 
February 26, 1885, and the General Act and Declara- 
tion of Brussels, July 2, 1890. English and French 
Texts, concerning Freedom of Trade in the regions of 
the Congo Basin. (Treaty Series No. 18 of 1919. 
Cmd. 477. Price Id.) 

(25). Convention relating to the Liquor Traffic in 
Africa. (Treaty Series No. 19 of 1919. Cmd. 478. 
Price Id.) 

(26). Convention for the Control of the Trade in 
arms and ammunition. (Treaty Series No. 12 of 1919. 
Cmd. 414. Price Id.) 


United Kingdom and Portugal. 

(Signed at London, May 6, 
1920.) 


(27). Agreement respecting the boundaries in 
Sonth-East Africa. With Map. (Treaty Series No. 16 
of 1920. Cmd. 1000. Price 6d.) 


Italy and Serb-Croat-Slo- 
vene State. 
(Rapallo, November 12, 
1920.) 

Mandates. 


(28). Recognition by Great Britain of the Treaty 
of Rapallo. (Treaty Series No. 12 of 1921. Cml. 1238. 
Price Id.) 

(29). Mesopotamia and Palestine. (Miscellaneous 
No. 3 of 1921. Cmd. 1176. Price 2d .) 

(30). Franco-British Convention of December 23, 

1920, on certain points connected with the Mandates 
for Svriaand the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia. 
(Miscellaneous No. 4 of 1921. Cmd. 1195. Price Id.) 

(31). German Possessions in the Pacific South of 
the Equator. (Miscellaneous No. 5 of 1921. Cmd. 

1201. Price Id.) 

(32). Nauru. (Miscellaneous No. Oof 1921. Cmd. 

1202. Price Id.). 

(33). German Samoa. (Miscellaneous No. 7 of 1921. 
Cmd. 1203. Price Id.) 

(34). East Africa (British). (Miscellaneous No. 14 of 

1921. Cmd. 1284. Price Id.) 



II. Protection of Minorities. 

Provision is made in all the treaties for the protection of minorities, in these terms : — 
Nationals who belong to racial, religious or linguistic minorities shall enjoy the same 
treatment and security in law and in fact as the other nationals. In particular they shall 
have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense charitable, 
religious and social institutions, schools and other educational establishments, with the 
right to use their own language and to exercise their religion freely therein. 



AUDIT 1 \'L> CORRFj 

UNITED KINGDOM. 

Mileage of principal railicay Un4* (p. 80).— The following table shows in comparative 
orm the mileage of the principal British railways : — 

Psrtly owned. 

Great Western *.•** Ul 

L. and N.W. and Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

MidUnd - . 1,786 01 

N. Eastern l."l- 3* 

N. British 1,276 1« 

Gt. Eastern 1,107 74 

Gt. Northern — 

L. A S. Western 

INDIA. 

PretUUnt* of Leoitlatura, as provided for in the Government of India Act, 1919 
(p. 115):- 

Thf. Indian Legislature. 
The Council of State— Mr. A. P. Muddiraan, I.C.S. 
The Legislative Assembly.— Mr. A. P. Whyte. 

The Provincial LeorsLATURKR. 

Bengal.— Nawab Syed Sir Staamsul Hada. 

Madras.— Sir Raja-gopala Achariyar. 

United Provinces.— Mr. Michael Keane, I.C.S. 

The Punjab.— Mr. M. S. D. Butler, I.C.S. 

The Central Provinces. — Rao Bahadur R, N. Mudholkar. 

Bihar and Orissa.— Sir Walter Mande, I C.S. 

Assam (temporarily).— Mr. J. C. Arbuthnot. 

' Provincial Government (p. 118). — The following is a list of members of the newly-elected 
Provincial Legislatures who have been chosen by their respective Governors to be 
Ministers :— 

Bengal.— Sir Surendranath Bannerji, Mr. Provash Chandra Mitter, CLE., barrister, 
and Nawab Saivid Nawab AH Chaudhri. 

Bombay.— Khan Bahadur Shaikh Gnulam H. Hidayatallah, Mr. Chunilsl V. Mehta, and 
Mr. R P. Paranjpye. 

Madras.— Di wan Bahadur A. S. Beddiyar Garu, Diwan Bahadur Rayanlngar Avergal , 
and Rai Bahadur K. V. R. Reddi Nayudu Gam. 

United Provinces. — Mr. C. Y. C •incamani and Pandit Jagit Narain. 

The Punjab.— Khan Bahadur Main Fazal-Hussen and Lala Harkishen Lai. 

Bihar and Orissa.— Khan Bahadur Saiyid Muhammad Faker- ud-Din and Mr. Mad- 
husudan Das. 

Central Provinces.— Shankar Madhao Chitnavis, I.S.O., and Rao Bahadur Narayan K. 
Kelkar. 

Assam.— Rai Bahadur Ghanasyam Barush and Khan Bahadur Syed Abdul MajM. 

Population, (p. 120).— Census of March 16, I021,*shows ajpopulation of just over 319 
millions, as compared with 315,150,000 in 1911. 

Finance, 1921-22 (p. 132).— Estimated expenditure, 129,00O,0O0L; against revenue on 
existing taxation, 110,500,0001. Proposals are made for increase in customs (8. 170,0001. \ 
railway charges (5,500,0001.). postal charges (2,250,000*.), and taxes on income (3,250,0001.) ; 
total estimated yield of additional taxation, 19,170,0001. 

erop Sttimatet, 1920-21 (p. 13S) :— 

Acres. Yield. 

Rice .... 78,023,000 3,000 tons. 

Cotton . 21,016,000 3,556,000 bales (400 lbs.) 

Wheat .... 24,945,000 — ' 

Sugar .... 2,553,000 2,465,000 ton*. 

Sesame . 3,964,000 232,000 tons. 

Ground nuts . 1,951,000 931,000 ton*. 



xl 



THE STATESMAN S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



Foreign trade, 1920 (p. 143).— Imports of foreign merchandise, 322,707,0001. (1919, 
186,518,0001.); exports, 272,606,000*. (1919,287,378,000!.); re-exports, 19,247,000*. (1919, 
18,922,000*,). Imports of treasure, 60,000,000*. Exports of treasure, 11,000,000*. 

liBurma.— A Bill has been introduced into Parliament to place Burma into line with 
the eight ' Governors' provinces,' but the minimum proportion of elected members of the 
Legislature is to be 60 per cent, instead of 70 per cent, of the whole. Council. The total 
strength will be 92 (p. 119). 

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 
Population, 1920, estimated at 868,160, inclusive of military (p. 165). 
Finance, 1920.— Revenue estimated at 2,154,000*. (p. 166). 

FEDERATED MALAY STATES. 
Trade, 1920 (p. 173).— Imports, 175,917,000 dollars ; exports, 282,230,000 dollars; re- 
exports, 6,882,000 dollars (1919, 119,496,000, 272,647,000, and 7,006,000 dollars respectively). 

SOUTHERN RHODESIA. 

Mineral Production, 1920 (p. 205).— Gold, 552,000 oz., 3,057,000*.; silver, 159,000 oz., 
58,000*. ; diamonds, 243 carats, 1,918*. ; copper, 3,108 tons, 333.000*. ; chrome ore, 60,000 
tons, 245,000*. ; asbestos, 19,000 tons, 460,000*. ; arsenic, 437 tons, 17,000*. ; mica, 97 tons 
25,0001. ; coal, 578,000 tons. 

Trade, 1920 (p. 205) (including specie).— Imports, 5,262,318*. ; exports, 5,752,858*. 

NORTHERN RHODESIA. 
Trade, 1920 (including specie) (p. 207). -Imports, 677,448*. ; exports, 539,239*. 

UNION OP SOUTH AFRICA. 
Mineral Production, 1920 (p. 220) : - 



Weight 
Fine oz. 



Gold .... 
Silver .... 

Diamonds 

Coal .... 
Copper .... 
Tin .... 
Other minerals 

Total value 



8,158,455 

892,205 

Carats 

2,551,665 

Tons 

11,473,452 

10,874 

2,451 



Value 

£ 



34,654,92-i 
224,769 

14,762,956 

4,506,572 
445,007 

446,284 



55,194,204 



Trade, 1920 (p. 221).— Imports, 105,927,107*., including apparel, 7,959.019*. J cotton 
manufactures, 10,512,591*. ; drugs, Ac, 1,52:1,131*.; food and drink, 15,099,189*.; hard- 
ware, 4,485,554*. ; iron and steel manufactures, 4,205,708*. ; leather and leather goods, 
3,850,771*. ; machinery, 4,144,904*. ; vehicles, 4,642,631*. ; specie, 4,100,003*. Exports, 
83,632,484*., including hides, 4,238,186 ; diamonds, 11,597,451*. ; gold, 35,547,079*. ; ostrich 
feathers, 547,336*. ; wool, 15,988,103*/ 

Skippcn,!/, 1920 (p. 223). -Oversea, entered, 1,201 vessels of 4,085,303 tons; cleared, 
1,104 of 4.029,675 tons. Coastarse, entered, 2,467 vessels of 5,557,679 tons ; cleared, 2,454 
of 5,608,810 tons. 

• SOUTH-WEST AFRICA. 
The Commission appointed to" study the future government of mandated Smith-West 
Africa in its llnal report recommends that at first mi Administrator, assisted by a 
nominated advisory council, should be appointed, and eventually this form of government 
should be succeeded without any intermediate stage by the form of government now pro- 
vailing in the four Provinces of the Union — that is, the population should have full repre- 
sentation in the Provincial Council and in Parliament. When that stage is retched the 
mandated area will be administered as a fifth Province of the Union, with a similar 
system of government, subject to the conditions of the mandate (p. 239). 

NIGERIA, 

Northern Provinces.— Lieut. -Governor, Colonel Jenkins Colonial Secretary of Barbados 
appointed March, 1921 (p. 243). 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS 



xli 



GOLD COAST. 
Mineral Production, 1919 (p. 249).— Gold, l,254,258f. ; manganese ore, 50,7851. 

EGYPT. 
Finance, 1921-22 (p. 204).— Estimated revenue, £E36,701,000 ; estimated expenditure, 
£ES8,682.000. 

Shipping, 1920 (p. 269).— Arrivals at all ports, 6,167 steamers of 17,844,000 net tons. 
Departures, 6,151 steamers of 17,783,000 net tons. Sailing vessels (excluding sponge and 
fishing boats), entered, 2,010 of 103,000 net tons ; depart* !, 2,045 of 101,000 net tons. 

CANADA. 

Immigration, 1920 (p. 286).— Number of immigrants, 147,503 ; -98,636 by way of the 
ocean ports and 48,866 by way of the United States. 61,963 settled in Ontario, 19,483 
in Quebec, 13,013 in Manitoba, 13,643 In Saskatchewan, 18,484 in Alberta, 14,136 in British 
Columbia, 

Mineral Protluction in 1020 (p. 294). -Total, 1920, 217,775,080 dollars; compared with 
176,686,790 dollars in 1919. • 



Cobalt, metallic and contained in oxide, Ac. 



> at 2 - 50 dollars per lb. 

Copper, value at 17'456 cents per lb. 

Gold, at 20071834 dollars .... 

Iron, pig, from Canadian ore .... 

Iron ore, sol'i .... 

Lead, value at 8-940 cents per lb. . 

Nickel, value at 40 cents per lb. . 

Platinum, from alluvial sands 

Platinum, palladium, 4c. from Sudbury 

matte 

8ilver, value at 100"90 cents per or. 
Zinc, value at 7-t>7 1 cents, per lb. . 



lb. 






.i. ■...:■■'...> 

,136 198 
17 

,793,541 
,1*8,200 



Value 

Poll irs 



1,484,800 

- 
|,0M.tv7 

3,038,84ti 

704 

i •:•.>. -;••! 

12,908,683 



Total 



:7,236.370 



Non-Metallic 

Actinolite tons 

Arsenic, white, and in ore 

Asbestos ,, 

Ksbestic , 

i Barytes, manganese and talc 

[ Chromite 

; Coal 

Feldspar ,, 

. Fluorspar 

; Graphite 

lGriiidstor.es 

[Gypsum 

"agnesite ,, 

[agnesium sulphate ,, 

ica „ 

ineral water 

atural gas 1,000 cu. ft. 

sides tons 

Peat ,, 

itrolenm. crude brls. 

yrites tons 

lartz 

It . . 

flium sulphate . . 

ipolite 

Total 





1,16V 


2,408 


313,575 


167,731 


13,677,841 


2 ',956 


57,601 


— 


131.832 


10,500 


-'44,984 


16,623,598 


77,326,853 


36.856 




11,389 


360,446 




173,537 


2,319 


78,136 


•39,146 


1.876,595 


18,378 


..12,755 


1,855 


30,648 


2,150 


368,2117 


— 


24,109 


16,961,384 


4,225,887 


18,768 


144,409 


3,900 


15,600 


196,937 


8 2 1,545 


174,744 


751,009 


-.095 


466,631 


210.211 


1,547 


818 


19,877 


260 


8,600 


— 


102,353,863 



xlii 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



Besides the above, structural materials and clay products to the value of S, 184,848 
dollars were produced. 

Summary of the Trade of Canada, 1920 (p. 295).— 



Imports 



Vegetable products 
Animal products .... 
Fibres and textile products . 
Wood, wood products, and paper 
Iron and its products . 
Nonferrous metal products . 
Non-metallic mineral products . 
Chemicals and allied products 
• All other commodities . 

Total, 1920 . 
„ 1919 
,, 1918 



Dollars 
275,897,527 

77,687,752 
301,427,914 

58,71(3,384 
255,445,012 

61,459,298 
191,885,040 

39,666,402 

74,735,742 



Exports 



Dollars 

485,723,778 
220,783,480 
25,209,768 
291,812,295 
84,604,821 
55,853,191 
41,289,726 
21,276,249 
46,204,134 



1,336,921,021 
941,013,613 
910,149,140 



1,272,657,442 
1.240,995,606 
1,199,636,463 



Total value of re-exports in 1920, 30,147,672 dollars, against 53,834,766 dollars in 1919, and 
44,093,309 dollars in 1918. 

BRITISH 'COLUMBIA. 

Mrs. Mary E. Smith has been appointed President of the Council and a Cabinet 
Minister (p. 309). 

Forest Products (p. 310.)— Value, 1920, 92,628,000 dollars (including 21,000,000 dollars 
value for pulp). 

ONTARIO. 
Expenditure (p. 320).— Estimate for year ending October 31, 1920, 13,814,000 dollars. 

QUEBEC. 
Dairy Products, 1920 (p. 324).— Butter, 40,038,000 lbs 22,352,000 dollars. Cheese. 
52,442,000 lbs., 18,356,000 dollars. 

BAHAMAS 
Trade, 920 (p 339).— Imports, 1,087,7167. 

AUSTRALIA. 
Mineral Production and Exports, 1920 (page 357) : — 



Coppsr— 

(a) Bar copper . 

(b) In blister copper 

(c) In copper ore 
Lead— 

(a) Lead 

(b) In lead bullion 

(c) In concentrates 
Zinc 

Zinc concentrates 
Tin ... . 
Tig iron 
Arsenic ... 






Production 


Exports 


Tons 


Tons 


24,069 


28,612 


2,000 


2,000 


115 


115 


4.077 


50,069 


1,939 


1,798 


4,122 


4,122 


0.M6 








4,108 


3,015 


344,000 


22,657 


1,202 




oz. 


HZ. 


701,177 


341,001 



The gold production in 1920 was 948,672 02., of which 617, biJ o/. were produced u 
Western Australia. 

VICTORIA. 
Trade, 1920 (p. 387).— Imports 53,000,000/., Ex] rtt. : n<><>0,000/. (191 30,000."<iO . 

rod 41,000,000/.). 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTION'S 



xliii 



AUSTRIA. 
Ntw MinitUn (p. 081).— On April 7, 1921. the two following ministers wen; ap 
pointed : — 

Minister of Juttiee.— Dr. Rudolf Rauiek. 
Minuter of Defence.— 11 err Vaugoins. 

Foreign Trade in 1919-20 (p. 680).— The imports into Austria in the year ending June 
30, 1920, amounted to 4,502,170 metric ton?, and the exports to 977,060 metric t n». Im- 
ports from Germany amounted 1,802,670 metric tons, or 40 per c:ut. ; exports to Ger- 
many 190.320 metric tons, or 20 per rent. 

The following table shows particulars of the foreign trade of Austria for the year 
ending June 30, 1920 :- 







Import 






Kxpor 


s 


Commodities 
















From all 

countries 


From 

Metric 


Germany 


Metric 


To Germany 




Mt trie 


Metric 






tons 


tons 


Kronen 


tons 




Kronen 


Potatoes and other 














regetables . 


168,100 


26,000 


90,000,000 


— 




— 


Animal by-products 


— 


I 


— 






2 ',"00,000 


Wine 


— 


— 1 




11,800 






Building wood 


— 


_ 

i 




244,900 


23.600 


150,000,00w 


Coal 


2,191,200 


1,613,300 


3,300,000,000 


- 


- 


— 


Celluloid 


110 










— 


Building stone 


— 


— 


— 


20.000 


14,100 


21. "00,01 «i 


Mannegite 


— 


— 






27,300 


l'.«i.O00,O0" 


Graphite . 




— 


— 






000,000 


Cotton yarn and 














cotton goods 




M0 








l'.N),000,000 


Woollen yarn and 














woollen goods 


4.21(1 


90 


137,000,000 


840 


.'0 


67,0O0,0< 


Silk and silk good* 


670 


200 


580,000,000 


350 


30 


77.000.i-0o 


Ready-made clothing 


210 


w 


70,000,04)0 


9i0 




3"- -.000,000 


Hats 


730,0001 


48,000' 1 


15,000,000 


5S2.0001 


2S7.0001 


lTu.oOO.OUO 


Paper and paper 














goods . 


19.730 


3,990 


•"0,000 


07.300 


2,900 


lSo.oOOOO" 


Rubber goods. 


590 


60 


45,000,000 


730 




50,000,000 


Leather and leather 














goods . 


040 


230 


270,000,000 


2,130 


120 


200,000,000 


Furrier's and skin- 














ner's goods . 


60 


50 


400,000.000 


170 


70 


6SO,0«JO.Ouo 


Wood en ware . 


5,000 


1,500 




15,7oO 


950 


110,000,000 


Glass and glassware 


IS, 500 


1,400 


170,000,000 


— 


— 


— 


Cement . 


— 


— 


— 


10,600 


10,000 


30,( 


Pottery . 


27.700 


3.SO0 


UK',000,000 


21.200 


8,250 


120,0"0,00" 


Iron and ironware . 


110,700 


19,960 


1,175,000,000 


157,800 


9,400 


'J0.00U 


Metals and goods 














made therefrom . 


5,630 


2,fl7li 


465,000,000 


is,«m 


9.J-00 


830.000,000 


Machines 


17,030 


10,780 


1,100,000,000 




560 


miM 


Electric machines 


1,280 


830 


l,O50,CO0,O00 








and apparatus 




160 


r.'O.OOO.Ooo 


Vehicles . 


750 


Sin 


80,000,000 


»,0M 




130,000,00" 


Instruments . 


630 


490 


700,000,000 


1,410 


140 


27U.OO0.0O" 


Chemical materials 














and products 


43.600 


| 20,000 


300,000,000 


35,320 


13,200 


400,000,000 


Dyes, varnishes and 














medicines . 


2,100 


1,500 


900,000,000 







_ 


Literary and art 














works . 


3,600 


3,100 


1,500,000,000 


2,200 


900 


6so.boo.ooo 


By-products . 


— 




— 


56,000 
765,910 


28,700 


• 25,000.000 


Total 


2,631,860 


1,709,610 


13,427.000,000 


164,570 


5,419,000,000 



1 Number. 



xliv 



THE STATESMAN S YEAR-BOOK, 1921 



FINLAND. 

AVi/> British l r i:ii*ter.— E. A. Rennie, Esq., has been appointed British Minister in 
place of George ) idston (May, 1921) 

FRANCE. 

Debt on March 1, 1921 (p. 853\— The internal debt stood at 218,303 millions of francs. 
and the external debt at 83,241 millions of francs ; total on March 1, 1921, 301,550 million 
francs. The foreign debt was made up of 50,590 million francs of fixed debt. 2<>,9t>9 
million fivmcs of floating debt, and 2.6S2 million francs of bank credits. 

GEORGIA. 

.Soviet Rule (]>]> 914 and 1,224).— Tn May, 1921, Georgia was occupied by Soviet troops. 
the Soviet form of Government » as established, and the Constitutional Government fled. 

GERMANY. 

Xew German Cabinet (May 10, 1921).— A new German Cabnet was formed on May It, 
1921. as follows:— 

Chancellor. — Dr. Joseph Wirth (Centre). 

Vice-CHancellor and Minister of (he Treasury. — Gustav Bauer (Majority Socialist). 

Minister of Foreign Affairs. — Dr. Friedrich Rosen. 

Minister of the Interior. — Herr Oradenauer (Majority Socialist). 

Minister of Finance. — The Chancellor. 

Minister of Justice. — Herr Schiffer (Democrat). 

Minixter of Labour. — Dr. Heinrich Brauns (Centrp). 

Minister of Posts. — Johann Qiesberts (Centre). 

Minister of Railways. — WilheJm Oroener. 

Minister of Economics. — Robert Schmidt (Majority Socialist). 

Minister of Defence. — Dr. Otto Oessler ( Democrat). 

Minister of Food. — Dr. Andreas Hermes (Centre). 

Minister of Reconstruction.— Dr. Walther Rathenau. 

Foreign trade for second and third quarters o/1920. — From official returns of different 
countries the following figures have been compiled showing the foreign trade of Germany 
during the second and third quarters of 1920 compared with the quarterly average of 1913; 
the values have Veil converted to pounds sterling at approximate pre-war rates : — 







Imports. 




Exports. 


Countries. 


Quarterl) 

avrase 

1913 


April to 
June, 1920 


July to 

September, 
1920 


Quarterly 

average, 

1913 


April to 
June, 1920 


July to 
September. 

l'.c-O 


United Kingdom 
Belgium .... 
France 

ItMlV 

United States . . 

India 

South Africa . . . 
Canada 


£ 

20,103,000 

7,618,000 

10,688,000 

6,127,000 

1,745,000 

9,694.000 

1,798.000 

841.000 

7o.\ouo 


£ 

7,773,000 

7.754,000 

23,574,000 

7,275,000 

167,000 

4,116,000 

42,000 

133,000 

51,000 


£ 

8,751,000 

9,380,000 

33,057,000 

6,469,000 

845,000 

6,798,000 

120,000 

381,000 

82,000 


£ 

10,169,000 

9.404,000 

8,668,000 

3,434,000 

335,000 

18,33C,000 

4,542,000 

603,000 

184,000 


£ 

6,021,000 

11,777,000 

9,666,000 

1,986,000 

20,000 

13,337,000 

294,000 


£ 

■ 

13,297,000 

7,612,000 

3,760,000 

45,000 

14,011,000 

1,200,000 

32.000 

173,000 



1921. 



PORTUGAL. 
Itemization of the Ministry (p. 1194'.- The Macha:lo Ministry resigned on May 21, 



FEDERATION OF CRN TRAli AMERICA. 



Ratification of Treaty.— On January 19, 1921, th< re was signed at San Jose, Costa Rica, 
a Treaty by Representatives of the Republics of Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras and 
Co«ta Uica for the purpose of establishing the Federal Republic of Central America. 
The Treaty became effective on April 8, 1921, when Guatemala was the third State to- 
ratify the Tieaty. 

ERRATA. 

Page 672 : The internal debt of Argentina was 642 791,606 pesos. 
PMC 718: Seventh line from the top: B«ad Hrazilian IJoyd. 



Slesvig Boundary Adjustment 




Temtoi^ which has changed hands indicated by red ruling 



j-- ..--^t?a.lx- 



PART THE FIRST 
THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

The British Empire consists of: — 

I. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 
II. India, the Dominions, Colonies, Protectorates, and 
Dependencies. 

Reigning King and Emperor. 

George V., born June 3, lS6f>, son of King Rdvwd VII. and Quern 
Alexandra, eldest daughter of King Christian IX., of Denmark ; married 
July 6, 1893, to Victoria Mary, born May 26, 1867, daughter of the late Duke 
of Teck ; succeeded to the crown on the death of his father, May 6, 1910. 

Living Children of the King. 

I. Edward Albert, Prince of "Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of 
Rothesay, Heir-apparent, born June 23, 1894. 
II. Prince Albert Frederick, Duke of York, born December 14, 1895. 

III. Princess Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary, born April 25, 1897. 

IV. Prince Henry "William, born March 31, 1900. 
V. Prince George Edward, born December 20, 1902. 

Living Sitteri of the King. 

I. Princess Louise, Princess Royal, born February 20, 1867 ; married July 37, : 

the late Duke of Fife, who died January 29, 1912. Offspring :— (1) Alexandra Victoria, 
Duchess of Fife, born May 17, 1881; married October 15, 1913, to Prince Arthur, son of 
the Duke of Connaught. (2) Maud Alexandra, born April 3, U 

II. Princess Victoria Alexandra, born July 6, U 

III. Princess Maud Charlotte, born November 26, 1S69; married July 22, 1896, to 
Charles, Prince of Denmark, now King Haakon VJI. of Norway. OBspring: — OUt, Crown 
Prince of Norway, born July 2, 1903. 

Living Brother and Sitter* of the lale King. 

I. Princess Hdena, born May 25, 1S46 : married July 5, 1866, to Prince Christian of 
Sehleswig-Holsteiu (died October 28, 1917). Living offspring: — Albert John, born Feb. 
2u, 1S69; Helena Victoria, born May 3, 1S70 ; Marie Louise, born Ang. 12, 1S72, married 
V> Prince Aribert of Anhalt July 6, 1891 : the marriage was dissolved December 13, 1900. 

II. Princess Louite, born March 18, 1848; married March 21. 1871. to John, Marquis of 
Lome, who became Duke of Argyll, April 24, 1900, and died May 2, lvH. 

III. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, born May 1, 1850; married March 18, 1879, to 
Princess Louise of Prussia, born July 25, 1860 ; died March 14, 1917. Living offspring :— (1) 
Arthur, born Jan. 13, ISsS, married Alexandra Victoria, Duchess of Fife, October 15, 
1913 ; (2) Patricia, born March 17, 1SS0. married Hon. Alexander R. M. Ramsav, D.8.O. 
R.N. 

IV. Princess Beatrice, born April 14, 1S57 ; married July 23, 1S85, to Prince Henry (died 
January 20, 1896), third son of Prince Alexander of Hesse. Living offspring :— (1) Alexander 
Albert, born Nov. 23, 1886, married Lady Irene Denison ; (2) Victoria Eugenie, born Oct. 24, 
18S7 ; married May 31, 1906, to Alfonso XIII., King of 8pain ; (3) Leopold Arthur Louis, 
born May 21, 1S89. 

The King's legal title rests on the statute of 12 and 13 "Will. III. c. 3, by 
which the succession to the Crown of Great Britain and Ireland was settled 
on the Princess Sophia of Hanover and the ' heirs of her body beicg 
Protestants.' By proclamation of May 9, 1910, under the Royal Titles Act, 
1901, the title of the King is declared to be 'George V., bv the Grace of 
God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and" of the British 

b a 



4 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.' 
By proclamation of July 17, 1917, the Royal family became known as the 
House and Family of Windsor. 

By Letters Patent of November 30, 1917, the titles of Royal Highness 
and Prince or Princess are (except for existing titles) to be restricted to the 
Sovereign's children, the children of the Sovereign's sons, and the eldest 
living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. 

The Regency Act, 1910 (10 Edw. VII. and 1 Geo. V., ch. 26) appointed 
Queen Mary to act as regent in the event of the demise of the King and his 
succession by any of his children under the age of 18 years. 

Provision is made for the support of the Royal household by the settlement of the Civil 
List soon after the commencement of each reign. (For historical details, see Year- 
book for 1908, p. 5.) By Act of 10 Ed. VII. and 1 Geo. V. c. 28 (August 3, 1910), the Civil 
List of the King, after the usual surrender of hereditary revenues, is fixed at 470,000*., of 
which 110,0001. is aupropriated to the privy purse of the King and Queen, 125,800/. for 
salaries of the Royal household and retired allowances, 103.000Z. for household expenses, 
20,000!. for works, 13,2002. for alms and bounty, and 8,0002. remains unappropriated. 
The same Civil List Act of 1910 also provides for an auuuity of 70,0002. to Queen Mary in 
the event of her surviving the King. Should the Prince of Wales marry, the Princess 
of Wales will receive an annuity of 10,0002., and should she survive the Prince of Wales, 
this annuity will be raised to one of 30,0002. Further, there is to be paid to trustees for 
the benefit of the King's children (other than the Duke of Cornwall) an annual sum of 
10,0002. in respect of each son (other than the Duke of Cornwall) who attains the age of 21 
years, and a further annual sum of 15,0002. in respect of each such son who marries, and 
an annuity of 6,0002. in respect of each daughter who attains the age of 21 Or marries. The 
First Commissioner of the Treasury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Keeper of 
the King's Privy Purse are appointed the Royal Trustees under this Act. Queen Alexandra, 
the Queen-Mother, receives the annuity of 70,0002. provided by the Civil List Act of 1901. 
Civil List pensions may be granted, but are not chargeable on the sum paid for the 
Civil List. All these payments are charged on the Consolidated Fund, into which the 
surrendered hereditary revenues are carried. The King has paid to him the revenues of 
the Duchy of Lancaster, the payments made therefrom in 1920 being 43,0002. for His 
Majesty's use. 

On the Consolidated Fund are charged likewise the following sums allowed to members 
of the royal family :— 25,0002. a yearto the Duke of Connaught ; 6,O0OJ. to H.R.H. Helena 
Augusta Victoria; 6,0002. to Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll: 6,0001. to H.R.H. 
Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore ; 6,0002. to the Duchess of Albany; and 6,0002. to each of 
the late King's daughters. 

The Heir Apparent has an income from the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall, the 
payment in 1920 on his account being 10,0002. 

Sovereigns and sovereign rulers of Great Britain, from the union of the 
crowns of England and Scotland : — 

Date of Date of 

Accession. Accession. 

House of Stuart. 

Anne 1702 

House of Hanover. 

n ,,', t George 1 1714 

Commonwealth. George II. . 1727 

Parliamentary Executive . 1649 | George III 1760 

Protectorate .... 1653 i George IV 1820 

House of SluKii. 

Charles II 1660 

.lames II 1685 

tidihi of Stuart-Oranijr. 
William and Mary . . . 1689 
William III 1694 



House of Stuart 
James I. ... 

Charles I. 



William IV 1830 

Victoria . . . . 1S37 

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. 

Edward VII. . . . 1901 

House of Win/lsor. 1 

George V 1910 

i Change of title made July 17, 1917. Formerly House of Saxe-Coburg and Goths. 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT J 

THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND 

IRELAND. 

Constitution and Government. 

I. Impekial and Central. 

The supreme legislative power of the British Empire is vested in Parlia- 
ment. Parliament is summoned by the writ of the sovereign issued out of 
Chancery, by advice of the Privy Council, at least twenty days previous 
to its assembling. 

The annual session used to extend from the middle of February to about 
the middle of August, and only occasionally later, but since 1914 the 
sittings of Parliament have been interrupted only by comparatively short 
intervals. Every session must end with a prorogation, and all Bills which 
have not been passed during the session then lapse. A dissolution may 
occur by the will of the sovereign, or, as is most usual, during the 
by proclamation, or finally by lapse of time, the statutory limit of the duration 
of any Parliament being rive years. The life ol the last Parliament, 
ning in November 1910, should have ended in January, 1916, but wis, owing 
to the war, extended by successive Acts to November, 1918, nearly eight 
years' duration. 

Under the Parliament Act, 1911 (1 and 2 Geo. V, ch. 13), all Money Bill* 
(so certified by the Speaker of the House of Commons), if not passed by the 
House of Lords without amendment, may become law without their con- 
currence on the royal assent being signified. Public Bills, other than 
Money Bills or a Bill extending the maximum duration of Parlian; 
passed by the House of Commons in three successive sessions, whether of the 
same Parliament or not, and rejected each time, or not passed, by the House of 
Lords, may become law without their concurrence on the royal assent being 
signified, provided that two years have elapsed between the second reading 
in the first session of the House of Commons, and the third reading in the 
third session. All Bills coming under this Act must reach the House of Lords 
at least one month before the end of the session. Finally, the Parliament 
Act limited the maximum duration of Parliament to five years instead of seven 
(but the duration of the last Parliament was specially extended, as stated 
above). 

The present form of Parliament, as divided into two Houses of Legislature, 
the Lords and the Commons, dates from the middle of the fourteenth century. 

The House of Lords consists of peers who hold their seats — (i) by 
hereditary right ; (ii) by creation of the sovereign ; (iii) by virtue of office — 
Law Lords, and English archbishops (2) and bishops (24) ; (iv) by election for 
life — Irish peers (28) ; (v) by election for duration of Parliament — Scottish 
peers (16). The full house would consist of about 726 members, but the 
voting strength (in January, 1921) was about 709. 

The House of Commons consists of members representing County, 
Borough, and University constituencies in the three Divisions of the 
United Kingdom. No one under 21 years ot age can be a member of 
Parliament. Clergymen of the Church of England, ministers of the 
Church of Scotland, and Roman Catholic clergymen are disqualified from 
sitting as members ; Government contractors, and sheriffs, and returning 
officers for the localities for which they act, are also among those disqualified. 
No English or Scottish peer can be elected to the House of Commons, but 
non-representative Irish peers are eligible. Under the Parliament (Qualifi- 
cation of "Women) Act, 1918, women are also eligible, and the first woman 
member took her seat in December, 1919. 



6 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

In August, 1911, by resolution of the House of Commons, provision was 
first made for the payment of a salary of 400Z. per year to members, other 
than those already in receipt of salaries as officers of the House, as Ministers, 
or as officers of His Majesty's household. Payment began as from April 1, 
1911. This provision does not extend to the House of Lords. 

Under the Representation of the People Act, 1918, the franchise was 
revised and extended, several million women and new male voters 
being enfranchised. Male electors must be of full age (twenty-one 
years), and have resided, or occupied business premises of an annual 
value of not less than ten pounds, in the same parliamentary borough 
or county, or one contiguous thereto, for six months ending on January 15 
or July 15 (in Ireland the latter date alone applies). A woman voter must 
be thirty years of age, and entitled to be registered as a local government 
elector (or, as regards Scotland, deemed to be so registered) in respect of 
the occupation of premises of a yearly value of not less than five pounds, or 
of a dwelling house ; or she must be the wife of a husband entitled to 
be so registered : lodgers in unfurnished, but not furnished, rooms can vote, 
if otherwise qualified. There is also a University franchise, to be qualified 
for which a man must be twenty-one years of age, and a woman thirty years, 
and each must have taken a degree, or, in the case of a woman, have fulfilled 
the conditions which would entitle a man to a degree. In Scotland and 
Ireland other scholastic attainments are admitted as qualifications. Male per- 
sons who served in the war are entitled to be registered at the age of nineteen 
years, if otherwise qualified. 

No person may vote at a general election for more than two constituencies, 
for one of which, in the case of a man, there must be a residence qualification, 
and, in the case of a woman, a local government qualification, her own oi- 
lier husband's. The second vote must rest on a different qualification. 

Disqualified for registration are (among others) infants, peers, idiots and 
lunatics, aliens, bankrupts ; and, for five years after the war, conscientious 
objectors who have not fulfilled certain conditions as to the performance of 
war work or other work of national importance. Receipt of poor relit'}' or 
other alms no longer counts as a disqualification. 

Two registers of electors must be prepared each year, one in the spring, 
and the other in the autumn, except in Ireland, where only one is required ; 
and the authorised expenses are met by local and State funds in equal 
parts. University registers may be made up as the governing bodies decide, 
and a registration fee not exceeding \l. may be charged. 

In university constituencies returning two or more members the elections 
must be according to the principle of proportional representation, each 
elector having one transferable vote. At a general election all polls must 
be held on the same day, except in the case of Orkney and Shetland, 
and of university elections. Provision is made for absent electors to vote, 
in certain cases by proxy. 

Under the same Act the seats in Great Britain were, redistributed 
on the basis of one member of the House of Commons for every 70,000 of the 
population. By a separate Act, redistribution in Ireland was made on the 
basis of one for every 43,000 of the population. The total membership of the 
Mouse of Commons was thereby raised from 670 (as established in 13S5) to 707. 

The number of persons qualified for registration as parliamentary 
electors under the Representation of the People Act, 191S, waK in 1920 about 
21, 770,000 (neatly one-half of the population). Women numbered 8,856,000. 
Trior to this Act the number qualified was about 8,350,000 (all males). 

The following is a table of the duration of Parliaments called since 
the accession of Queen Victoria (for heads of the Administrations see p. 10.) — 



CONSTITUTION AND OOVEPwXMENT 



Reign 


Parliament 


When met 


When dissolved 


Existed 












V. M. D. 


Victoria . 


lit 


15 Nov. 1837 


S3 


June 


1841 


3 7 9 




2nd 


1» Ang. 1841 


23 


Jolv 


1847 


5 11 4 


... 


3rd 


11 Nov 1847 


1 


Juh- 




4 7 21 


,. . 


4th 


4 Nf.v. 1852 


M 


Mar. 


1857 


4 4 18 


. 


5th 


30 April 1S57 


23 


April 


1859 


1 11 23 


« 


6th 


31 Mar 1859 


6 


July 


1865 


6 1 6 


,, . 


7th 


1 Feb. Vm 


11 




1868 


2 9 11 


... 


sth 


10 Dec 1868 


26 


Jan. 


1874 


5 1 M 


,, . 


9th 


4 Mar. 1874 


25 


Mar. 


1SS0 


21 


.< 


10th 


20 April 1880 


18 


Nov. 


1885 


5 6 20 


... 


11th 


12 Jan. 1886 


26 


Jnne 


1886 


5 14 




12th 


5 Aug. 1886 


28 


Jnne 


1892 


1 10 23 


,, • 


13th 


4 Ang. 1892 


I 


July 


1805 


2 11 4 




14th 


12 Aul- 


25 




1900 


5 1 13 




lf.th 


3 Dec 1900 


8 


Jan 


1906 


t 1 5 


Edward VII. 


1st 


IS Feh. 1906 


10 


Jan. 


191U 


3 11 24 


,, 


2n<l 


• . 1910 




Nov. 


lPlu 


9 14 


George V. 


1st 
2nd 


31 Jan. 1911 
4 V e b. 1910 




Nov. 


1918 


7 9 25 



The executive government of Great Britain and Ireland is vested nominally 
in the Crown, but practically in a committee of Ministers, called the 
Cabinet, whose existence is dependent on the support of a majority in the 
House of Commons. In November, 1918, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland set 
up an advisory Council of seven members to advise on matters affecting Ireland. 

An Act to establish a separate Parliament in Ireland was passed in 1914, but never 
came into force. In 1990 this was repealed and a new Act passed, the Government of 
Ireland Act, 1920, under which two Parliaments are to be established, one for " Northern 
Ireland " (comprising the parliamentary counties of Antrim, Armaeh. Down, Fermanagh, 
Londonderry, and Tyrone, and the parliamentary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry), 
and one for 'Southern Ireland " (the rest of the" country). Each Parliament will consist 
of a Senate and a House of Commons, and will have i<ower to legislate for their respective 
areas except in regard to (1) matters of Imperial concern, and (2) certain matters concern- 
ing Ireland which are temporarily -'reserve-!" to the Imper al Parliament (police, postal 
service, Post Office and Trustee savings banks, designs for stamps, registration of deed*. 
Public Record Office, land purchase). Certain funds derived from Irish taxation will he 
allocated to tie two Irish Exchequers, after deduction of (1) a contribution towards 
Imperial liabilities and expenditure (temporarily fixed at £18.000.000 a year) and (2) the 
cost of " reserved "services, while the Parliaments are eiven certain powers of independent 
taxation. The executive power is vested in the Lord Lieutenant (appointed for six years), 
advised by ministers responsible to the respective Parliaments. The Senate of S. Ireland 
will consist of 3 ex officio, 17 nominated, and 44 elected persons; that of N. Ireland, of 2 
ex-officio and 94 elected persons. Senators will hold office for a fixed term of years. ' The 
House of Commons of S. Ireland will consist of 128 and that of N. Ireland of 52 elected 
members, and the Houses will continue for five years, unless sooner dissolved. Money 
Bills must originate in the Commons, a»d the powers of the Senates with respect thereto 
are limited. Disagreement between the two Houses is to be settled by joint sitting*. The 
qualifications for membership of the Parliaments are similar to those for membership of 
the Imperial House of Commons. Ireland will cntinne to return 46 members to the latter. 

There is also to be e.-tablished a " Council of Ireland," consisting of 40 persons elected 
in equal numbers by the two Parliaments. This Council will administer the railwavs and 
fisheries, Diseases of Animals Acts, and any powers deleeated to it bv identical Acts of the 
two Parliaments, and it may consider any questions hearing on the welfare of Ireland and 
make su^estions in relation thereto to the two Parliaments. The latter may establish bv 
identical Acts, in lien of this Council, a Parliament for the whole of Ireland, consisting of 
two Houses, and so bring about Irish Union. This Parliament will take over the powers 
of the two Parliaments, except as otherwise provided, and will also control certain of the 
services temporarily " reserved " to the Imperial Parliament. 

The Act is to come into force generally on Mav 3. 1921. 

The Cabinet, prior to December, 1916, consisted of the political chiefs 
of the principal Government Department*, and exceeded twentv in number. 
With the formation of Mr. Lloyd George's Government at that date, the 
Cabinet vm reduced to about six in number. This Cabinet became known 
as the ' War Cabinet, ' and, as occasion required, was expanded into an 
' Tmnprial Wir Po1«'t><»* * K~ fk. ;.„l„ n :. ca. t>_- ms_«^. , ., 



8 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

representative ministers, of the various parts of the Empire. The con- 
stitution of the ' Imperial War Cabinet' in 1917 may be taken as a formal 
recognition of the equality of status between the various responsible govern- 
ments of the Empire. Continuity in the work of this Cabinet was secured 
by giving in July, 1918, the Prime Minister of each Dominion the right to 
nominate a Cabinet Minister, either as a resident or a visitor in London, to 
represent him at the meetings of the Cabinet held between the plenary 
sessions 

A meeting of Prime Ministers has been summoned for June, 1921, to act 
on the lines of the Imperial War Cabinet, to deal with urgent problems of 
common interest. 

In June, 1918, a 'Standing Committee of Home Affairs' was formed 
from among the political heads of Departments, whose function was to consider 
questions of internal policy and such domestic questions as required the co- 
operation of more than one Department, or were of such importance that they 
would otherwise have called for the consideration of the War Cabinet. Its 
decisions were circulated to, and, when necessary, revised by, the War Cabinet. 

In October, 1919, the 'War Cabinet' and the Home Affairs Committee 
were dissolved, and a full Cabinet of about twenty members re-constituted. 

The head of the Ministry is the Prime Minister, a position first constitu- 
tionally recognised, and special precedence accorded to the holder, in 1905. No 
salary is attached to the office of Prime Minister, as such, and it is usually held 
in conjunction with some other high office of State, generally that of First Lord 
of the Treasury. His colleagues in the Ministry are appointed on his recom- 
mendation, and he dispenses the greater portion of the patronage oftheCrown. 

The present Government (appointed January, 1919) consists of the 
following members : 

(a) The Cabinet. 

1. Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury. — Right Hon. D. 
Lloyd George, O.M., born 1863 ; M.P. for Carnarvon District since 1890. Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, 1905-8 ; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1908-1915; 
Minister of Munitions, 1915-16 ; Secretary of State for War, July to 
December, 1916. Present appointment, December, 1916. 

2. Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Commons. — Right Hon. 
Austen Chamberlain, born in 1863; Postmaster-General, 1902-3; Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, 1903-5, and 1919-21 ; Secretary of State for India, 
1915-17 ; member of War Cabinet, 1918-19. Present appointment, March, 
1921. 

5, Lord President of the Cotincil.-B.ight Hon. A. J. Balfour, O.M., 
F.R.S., born 1848 ; President, Local Government Board, 1885-86; Secretary for 
Scotland, 1886-87 ; Chief Secretary for Ireland, 1887-91 ; Leader of the 
House of Commons, 1891-92 and 1895-1905 ; Prime Minister, 1902-1905 ; 
First Lord of the Admiralty, 1915-16 ; Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 
1916-19. Present appointment, October, 1919. 

4. Chancellor of the Exchequer.— Right Hon. Sir Robert S. Home, 
G B.E., K.C., born 1871; Minister of Labour, 1919-20; President of 
Board of Trade, 1920-21. Present appointment, April, 1921. 

5. Lord- Lieutenant of Ireland.— Right Hon. Viscount Fitz Alan of 
Dei went, G.C.V.O., D.S.O., born 1855. Present appointment, April, 1921. 

5. (aliter) Chief Secretary for Ireland.— Col. Right Hon. Sir Hamar 
Greenwood, Bart, &C. : , born 1870. Present appointment, April, 1920. 

6. Lord Chancellor. — Right lion. Lord /Hrkenhtad, born 1872 ; Solicitor- 
general and Attorney-General, 1915. Present appointment, January, 1919. 
■y. 7. Secretary of State for the Home Department.— Right Hon. Edward Shortt, 
K.C., born 1862 ; Chief Secretary for Ireland, 1918. Present appointment, 



CONSTITUTION* AND GOVERNMENT 9 

8. Secretary of Stale for Foreign Affair*.— Right Hon. Earl Curzon of 
Kedleston, . K-, bora 1859 ; Lord Privy Seal, May, 1915, 
to December, 1916; Lord President of the Council, 1*16-19. Present 
appointment, October, 1919. 

9. Secretary of S fate for the Colonies. — Right Hon. Winston S. 
Churchill, bom 1 lent, Board of Trade, 1908-10 ; ^Ury, 
1910-11 ; First Lord of the Admiralty, 1911-15; Chance J of 
Lancaster 1915-17 ; Minister of Munitions, 1917- T for War and 
Air, 1919-21. Present appointment, February, 1921. 

10. Secretary oj State for War. — Right Hon. Sir L. TVorthington-Etans, 
born 1868. Minister without portfolio, 1920-21. Present ap] 

ment, February, 1921. 

11. Secretary of State for India.— Right Hon. E. 3. Montagu, born 1879 : 

. 1916. Presen- 
of the Admiralty.— Right Hon. Lord Let of Fareham, 
G.B.E., K.C.B, born 1868. Minister of Agriculture, 1C< resent 

appointment, February, 1921. 

13. Secretary for Scotland.— Right Hon. Robert Munro, K.C., born 1868 ; 
Lord Advocate, 1913-16. Present appoints. 

14. President of the Board of Trade.— Right Hon. Stanley Ball win, 
bora 1867. 1'resent appointment, April, 1921. 

15. Minister r,f Jfrakh. 1 — Right Hon. Sir Alfred Mond, Bart., born IMS. 

i.issioner of Works, 1916-21. Present appointment, April, 
Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries.*— Right Hon. Sir A. Griffith- 
Boscawen, born 1865. Present appointment, February, 1921. 

17. President of the Board of Education.— 1... Herbert A. L. 

Fisher, born 1865. Present appointment since 1916. 

Minister of Labour. — Right Hon. T. J. Macnamara, LL.D., born 
1861. Present appointment, March, \ 

19. Minister of Transport. 1 — Right Hon. Sir Eric Campbell Geddes, 
.:., G.B.E., born 1876 ; First Lord of the Admiralty, 1917-19. Present 

appointment, September, 1919. 

20. Attorney-General.— Right Hon. Sir Gordon Hevoart, I. 
1870 ; Solicitor-General, 1916-19. Present appointment January, 1919. 

21. — Minister without Portfolio. — Right Hon. Christopher Addison, 
M. D., born 1869 ; Minister of Munitions, 1916-17 ; Minister in Charge of 
Reconstruction, 1917-19; Minister of Health, 1019-21. Present appoint- 
ment, April, 1921. 

(b) Other Ministers. 

Secretary of State for Air. — Capt. the Right Hon. F. 
C.B.E., D.S.O., bora 1875. 

Minister of Pensions.— Right Hon. J. I. Macpherson, K.C., bora 1880. 

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. — Right Hon. Viscount Peel, 
G.B.E., born 1867. 

Director of Overseas Trade Department. — Major Sir P. Lloyd-Greame, 
K.B.E., M.C. 

First Commissioner of Works. — Right Hon. The Earl of Crawford and 
Balcarres, born 1871. 

1 The Ministry of Health was established for England and W« 
tinder the Ministry of Health Act, 1919, and replaced or absorbed th<- 
Board and the National Health Insurance < onrmigjions. In Ireland, the Chief Secretary 
becomes Minister of Health, and acts Kith the advice and assistance of an 
Health Council." A corresponding Board of Health was estabi. Jane. 

1919, under the Scottish Board of Health Act, 1919. 

* The Board was converted into a Ministry under the Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries Act, 1919. The Ministry covers only England and Wales. 

* The Ministry of Transport is a new department established in September, 1919, 
under the Ministry of Transport Act, 1919. 



10 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

Solicitor-General— Sir E. M. Pollock, K.B.E., K.C., born 1861. 

Postmaster-General. — Right Hon. F. G. Kellaway, born 1870. 

Paymaster-General. — Sir J. Tudor- Walters, born 1866. 

Lord Advocate. — Right Hon. T. B. Morrison, K.C., born 1868. 

Solicitor-General for Scotland. — Lieut.-Col. C. D. Murray, K.C., C.M.G., 
born 1866. . 

Lord Chancellor of Ireland. — Rt. Hon. Sir James H. M. Campbell, Bt.,K.C. 

Attorney-General for Ireland. — Right Hon. Denis S.ffenry,K.C, born 1864. 

Solicitor-General ,, ,, — D. M. Wilson, K.C. , born 1862. 

Vice-President Department of Agriculture. — Right Hon. H. T. Barrie, 
born 1860. 

A Mines Department was set up in the Board of Trade in December, 1920, under the 
Mining Industry Act. 

Heads of the Administrations of Great Britain since 1846 (L = Liberal, 
C = Conservative). 

Heads of Dates of 

Administrations Appointment 

Lord John Russell (L) July 6, 1846 
Earl of Derby (C) Feb. 27, 1852 

Earl of. Aberdeen (Coalition), 

Dec. 28, 1852 
Viscount Palmerston(L) Feb. 10, 1855 
Earl of Derby (C) Feb. 25, 1858 

Viscount Palmerston (L) June 18, 1859 



Heads of Dates of 

Administrations Appointment 

MarquisofSalisbury(C), June 24, 1885 
W. E. Gladstone (L), Feb. 6, 1886 
Marquis of Salisbu ry (C), Aug. 3, 1886 
W. E. Gladstone (L), August 18, 1892 
Earl of Rosebery (L), March 3, 1894 
Marquis of Salisbury (C), June 25, 1895 
A. J. Balfour (C), July 14, 1902 



Earl Russell (L), Nov. 6, 1865 j Sir H. Campbell- 



Earl of Derby (C), July 6, 1866 

Benjamin Disraeli (C), Feb. 27, 1868 

W. E. Gladstone (L), Dec. 9, 1868 

Benjamin Disraeli (C), Feb. 21, 1874 

W. E. Gladstone (L), April 28, 1880 



Bannerman (I,), Dec. 5, 1905 

H. H. Asquith (L), April 8, 190S 
H. H. Asquith (Coalition), 

May 25. 1915 
D.LloydGeorge(Coalition),Dec.7,1916 



The state of parties- in the House of Commons at the end of 1920 was as follows :— 
Coalition Members: Unionists, 326 ; Liberals, 133 ; National Democratic Party, 12; total 
Coalition, 471. Non-Coalition members : Labour, 65 ; Unionists, 23 ; Irish Unionists. 96 ; 
Liberals, 34 ; Sinn Peiners, 73 ; Irish Nationalists, 7 ; others, 9 : total Non-Coalition, 236. 

II. Local Government. 

England and Wales. — In each county the Crown is represented by H.M. 
Lieutenant for the county, who is generally also custos rotuloritm, or keeper 
of the records. The recommendation of persons for appointment by the Lord 
Chancellor as justices of the peace rests with the Lieutenants, but 
local advisory committees are set up, as and when required, to advise 
the Lieutenants and the Lord Chancellor on these appointments. The 
Lieutenants are the presidents of the County Associations formed 
under the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act, 1907, and their duties 
as such relate to the organisation, equipping and maintenance of the 
Territorial Forces. Otherwise their duties are almost nominal. There 
is also a sheriff, who represents the executive of the Crown, an under-sheriff, a 
clerk of the peace, coroners, who are appointed and paid by the County 
Councils, and other officers. The licensing of persons to sell intoxicating 
liquors, and the administration of the criminal law — except that which deals 
with some of the graver offences — are in the hands of the magistrates. 

For the purposes of local government England and Wales are divided into 
sixty-two administrative counties, including the county of London, differ- 
ing in area from the old geographical counties, which, except for historical 
purposes, do not now exist. The new counties are administered by the 
justices and by a popularly-elected Council, called a County Council, who 
co-ont a nrescribed number of aldermen, either from their own hodv or from 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT 11 

outside it. Aldermen are elected for six years, half of them retiring every 
third vear. A councillor is elected for three years. Women are eligible. 
The jurisdiction of the County Councils includes all the administrative 
work formerlv performed by the justices and many new powers con- 
ferred by recent Acts of Parliament, the principal items being the 
making of countv and police rates ; levying of duties on licences for 
carriages, armorial bearings, guns, dogs, killing and dealing in game ; borrow- 
ing of money ; licensing of houses for music and dancing, and of racecourses; 
maintenance and management of pauper lunatic asylums ; maintenance of re- 
formatory and industrial schools ; management of bridges and main roads : 
regulation of fees of inspectors, analysts, and other officers ; coroner's salary, 
fees, and district ; Parliamentary polling districts and registration ; contagious 
diseases of animals : allotments, weights and measures, sale of food and drugs. 
Under Acts of 1902, 1903,and 1915 the County Councils are also the local edu- 
cation authorities, and other recent acts have in minor matters extended their 
jurisdiction. The control of the county police is vested in a standing joint 
committee composed of an equal number of magistrates and members of the 
County Council. The London Metropolitan police are, however, under the 
control of the Home Secretary. 

The administrative counties, with the exception of the County of London, 
are subdivided into ' County Districts ' which are either ' Urban ' or * Rural,' 
as the case may be. Generally speaking, an urban district comprises a town 
or a small area more or less densely populated, and a rural district takes in 
several countrv parishes. Women" may be elected to these District Councils. 
The District Councils administer the" Public Health and Highway Acts, 
and also exercise powers under the Housing Acts. Urban District Councils 
mav also take over main roads from the County Councils; provide 
burial grounds, allotments, baths and washhouses, libraries, open spaces, 
museums, isolation hospitals, ic. : exercise powers under Provisional 
Orders or Private Acts for gasworks, tramways, electric light and power 
works, &c. Any urban district with 20,000 inhabitants may also be a 
local education authority. The Rural District Councils may also pro- 
vide allotments, cemeteries, &c. ; make arrangements for an adequate 
water supply : and exercise any ' Urban powers ' conferred on them by the 
Local Government Board. 

In every civil parish in a ' rural district ' there is a Parish Meeting, 
at which every parochial elector may attend and vote. In such parishes 
of over 300 inhabitants there is in addition a Parish Council. Women are 
eligible for election. Parishes of less than 800 inhabitants may have Parish 
Councils if authorised by the County Council. To these Parish Councils 
have been transferred all the civil powers of the old Vestries, including 
the election of overseers, and in addition very considerable powers over 
charities, allotments, and other public matters. Where there is no Parish 
Council some of these powers, including the appointment of the overseers, 
are exercised by the Parish Meeting. Urban District Councils can, by 
petitioning the Local Government Board — which is the supreme Local 
Government authority — obtain part or all of the powers of a Parish Council. 
Only Parish Meetings may have power to adopt the Public Libraries Acts, 
the Baths and Washhouses Acts, the Lighting and Watching Acts, the Burials 
Acts, and the Public Improvements Acts. 

The main central authority in London, the capital of the Empire, is 
the County Council, created by the Local Government Act of 1888. It has 
considerable powers in regard to public health, housing, bridges and ferries, 
asylums, street improvements, parks, main drainage, fire brigade, sanitary 
control, education, and numerous other matters. It is also the tramway 






12 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

sanitation, police, bridges, justice, &c, in the City of London. London 
comprises the ancient city with an area of one square mile, and an area of 
118 square miles beyond the city, which is divided into 28 metropolitan 
boroughs, under the London Government Act, 1899, each with a mayor, 
aldermen, and councillors (women are eligible). The Councils have powers 
in regard to public health, highways, rating, housing, education, &c, but they 
are not boroughs in the statutory sense as in the rest of the Kingdom. The 
County Council has certain powers of control over them. It sanctions loans, 
approves the construction of sewers and the carrying out of local improvements, 
and has considerable public health duties in connection with the boroughs. 

In all the great towns, local business is administered by a municipal 
Corporation, which derives its authority from charters granted by the Crown, 
as modified by the Great Municipal Corporations Act of 1837, and the Act of 
1882. There are three kinds of boroughs, county boroughs, quarter session 
boroughs, and small boroughs of special and generally ancient jurisdiction. 
The County Boroughs are outside the jurisdiction of the County Councils, 
but in other Municipal Boroughs these Councils have certain powers and 
duties. A municipal Corporation consists of the mayor, aldermen, and 
burgesses, and acts through a Council elected by the burgesses — practically 
by the ratepayers. The councillors serve for three years (women are eligible), 
one- third retiring annually ; the aldermen are elected by the Council, and 
the mayor, who serves for one year, also by the Council. A municipal 
Corporation has practically all the powers of an urban district council, and 
in some cases municipal boroughs have a separate commission of the peace 
and maintain their own police force. As to Poor Law and Education 
administration, see 'Pauperism' and 'Instruction.' 

Scotland. — By the Local Government (Scotland) Act, 1894, a Local Govern- 
ment Board for Scotland was constituted. It consists of the Secretary for 
Scotland as President, the Solicitor-General of Scotland, the Under-Secretary 
for Scotland, and three other members nominated by the Crown. The Local 
Government Act which was passed for Scotland in 1889 followed in its main 
outlines the English Act of the previous year. The powers of local administra- 
tion in counties formerly exercised by the Commissioners of Supply and Road 
Trustees were either wholly or in part transferred to the new Councils, which 
took over their duties and responsibilities in 1890. The Act of 1894 provided 
that a Parish Council should be established in every parish to take the place 
of the Parochial Boards and to exercise powers similar to those of the Parish 
Councils in England. Municipal bodies exist in the towns of Scotland, as 
in those of England, with bailies and provosts instead of aldermen 
and mayors. There are in Scotland five kinds of burghs — (1) Burghs 
of barony ; (2) Burghs of regality (no practical distinction between 
these two) ; the councils of these two classes of burghs ceased to exist in 
1893 by statutory enactment ; (3) Royal Burghs, representatives of which 
meet together annually in a collective corporate character, as the ' Convention 
of Royal Burghs,' for the transaction of business ; (4) Parliamentary Burghs, 
which possess statutory constitutions almost identical with those of the Royal 
Burghs ; (5) Police Burghs, constituted under genera] or local Police Acts, 
in which the local authority is the Police Commissioners. These two 
latter burghs, by Acts passed in 1879 and 1895, are enabled to send repre- 
sentatives to the convention. 

Ireland. — The principal county authority for local government used to 
be the grand jury, appointed under the Act 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 11G ; but, 
by the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, provision was made for the 
establishment of popularly elected Councils for counties and rural districts. 
Under the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1919, the councillors are 



AREA AND POPULATION 



13 



elected for three years, on the system of the single transferable vote. 
The Council of each county and rural district, immediately after any 
triennial election, may choose additional members to hold office till 
the next triennial election. The administrative business formerly man- 
aged by the grand juries and presentment sessions has been transferred 
to these Councils. The Act of 1898 gave them the assessment and collection 
of the rates, except in urban areas, the maintenance in part of asylums and 
infirmaries, and the appointment of Coroners. They have functions also in 
respect of many other matters, such as technical instruction, school attend- 
ance and medical inspection of school children, regulation of motor car traffic, 
collection of licence duty on mechanically-profiled vehicles, treatment of 
tuberculosis and venereal disease, and the alteration of Parliamentary Polling 
Districts and Places. The general business relating to public health an*! 
labourers' cottages, formerly vested in the Board of Guardians, now devolves 
on the Rural District Council. The administration of the poor relic: 
is exercised by Boards of Guardians. Each Board comprises the councillors 
of each rural district in the union, together with specially elected repre- 
sentatives of each urban district in the union. The cities of Dublin, Belfast, 
Cork, Limerick, Londonderry, and Waterford are county boroughs, and 
they, together with five other corporate boroughs, have a mayor, aldermen, 
and councillors, whose powers are regulated by 3 4 4 Vict. c. 108. The 
ordinary affairs of the borough, such as lighting, paving, and cleansing, 
are administered by the Council, which has power to levy rates for 
these purposes. The County Boroughs, Corporate Boroughs, and other 
populous centres are Urban Districts, and their Councils are the local 
authorities for the purposes of the Public Health, Local Government 
and Housing Acts. In the absence of any other form of incorporation, 
the Urban, District Council, and not the town itself, is the body 
corporate. In a few small towns, the local affairs are administered by a 
body of Commissioners appointed under the Towns Improvement Act, 1854, 
who have powers to discharge certain municipal functions, and are em- 
powered to levy rates to defray the cost of administration. Towns must have 
1,500 inhabitants to enable them to obtain municipal government under this 
md any such town may be constituted an Urban District. 
Under the Local Government Act of 1898 and the Local Authorities 
(Ireland) (Qualification of Women) Act, 1911. women are eligible for election 
as members of all local government elected bodies in Ireland, in the same 
manner and on the same conditions as men. 

Area and Population. 
I. Progress and Present Condition-. 
The population was thus distributed at the census, taken April 2, 1911 : — 



Divisions 



England (including Monmouth 

shire) .... 
Wales .... 
Scotland .... 
Ireland .... 
Isle of Han 
Channel Islands 
Army and Navy abroad . 

Total . 



Area in 
sq. miles 




7,466 



- 



16.421,298 
1,024,310 






Fmralei 



L800.8 n 



Total 
Population on 
Aprils, 1*11 



60,670 



4,760,904 

4,3yO,21i' 

52,016 

96,899 

145,7» 



121,633 ; 22,162,390 23,353,869 ' 45,516,259 



14 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

Population at each of the four previous decennial censuses : — 



Divisions 


1871 
21,495,131 


1881 


1891 


1901 


England .... 


24,613,926 


27,489,228 


30,813,043 


Wales .... 


1,217,135 


1,360,513 


1,513,297 


1,714,800 


Scotland .... 


3,360,018 


3,735,573 


4,025,647 


4,472,103 


Ireland .... 


5,412,377 


5,174,836 


4,704,750 


4,458,775 


Isle of Man 


54,042 


53,558 


55,608 


54,752 


Channel Islands 


90,596 


87,702 


92,234 


95,618 


Army, Navy, and Mer-\ 
chant Seamen abroad/ 


216,080 


215,374 


224,211 


367,736 


Total, United Kingdom, &c. 


31,845,379 


35,241,482 


38,104,975 


41,976,827 



Decennial rate of increase or decrease ( - ) per cent. 



- 


1871 


1881 


1891 


1901 


1911 


England . 
Wales 
Scotland . 
Ireland . 


13-4 
9-5 

97 
-67 

8-8 


14-5 

11-8 
11-2 
-4-4 


117 

11-7 

7-8 
-9-1 


12-1 

13-3 

11-1 

-5-2 

9 9 


105 

18-1 

6-5 

-1-5 


Total U.K. 


10-8 


8-2 


9-1 


Isle of Man 
Jersey 
Guernsey, &c. 


3-0 

1-8 

-3-9 


-0-9 

-7-4 
3-S 


3-8 
4-0 
7-0 


-1-5 
-36 
14-1 


-5-0 
-1-3 

4-6 



Proportion per cent, of the population living in the various divisions of 
the United Kingdom, &c, from 1861 to 1911 :— 



Divisions 


1861 


1871 


1SS1 


1891 


1901 


1011 


England 




64-6 


67 5 


69-8 


72-2 


73-4 


74-8 


Wales . 




3-8 


3-8 


3-8 


3-8 


4-1 


4 4 


Scotland 




10-4 


106 


10-6 


10-7 


10-7 


10-5 


Ireland . 




19-8 


17-0 


14-6 


125 


106 


97 


Isle of Man . 
Channel Islands . 






•2 
•3 


•2 
•3 


•1 
•2 


1 
•2 


•1 
•2 




•3 


Army, Navy, and Mercl 


iant\ 


'9 


•Q 


•7 


5 


"9 


•3 1 


Seamen abroad 













' Army and Navy abroad. 

In 1911, in Wales and Monmouthshire 190,891 persons 3 years of a^e and upwards, or 
7*9 per cent, of the total population, were able to speak Welsh only, and 787,074. or $•>•$ 
per cent., able to speak Welsh and English. In Scotland, is. loo persons 8 years of a^e 
and upwards, or - 4 per cent, of the total population, could speak QmIIo only, and 
188,906, or 3-9 per cent., could speak Gaelic and English. In Ireland. ln,S7:», or << 
cent, of the population, could speak Irish only, and 1)65)678 01 !.: •!' per cent., could 
speak Irish and English. 



AREA AND POPULATION 



15 



The age distribution of the population of the United Kingdom in 1911 
was as follows : — 









Numbers in thousands 




















United Kingdotr 


i 


Age-group 




England 
and Wales 


Scotland 


Ireland 
























430 


Males 


Females 


Total 


Under 


5 


3,854 


533 


2,431 


2,404 


4,835 


5 and under 


10 


3, 697 


514 


m 


2,333 


2,829 


*.■".' 


10 „ 


15 


3,500 


490 


427 


MM 


2,511 


4,431 


15 .. 


•JO 


3,337 


462 


423 


2,110 


•J.! 'J -5 


4,236 




25 


i:.i7t> 


420 


376 


1,902 


UN 


3,984 




35 


5,957 


741 


636 


3,506 


SJUB 


7,356 


35 t | B | 


45 


4.S45 


601 


536 


2,909 


3,093 


iV"'- 




55 


3,528 


447 


394 


2,114 




l>M 




65 


zJM 


296 


383 


1,367 


1,521 


1>M 




70 


807 


104 


146 


4S4 


578 


1,062 






554 


80 


168 


345 


461 


806 




85 


454 


63 


111 


M 


369 


631 


S5 and upwar 




64 


10 


16 


34 


57 


91 


Total . 


36,071 


4,761 


4,390 


22,017 


wjnt 


45,370 



1 Including Isle of Man and Channel Islands. 

Estimated population of the United Kingdom and its divisions (exclu- 
sive of army, navy, and merchant seamen abroad) at the end of June: — 



Tear England 

(30 June) and Wales 



Scotland 



Ireland 



:ated civilian population. 



Provisional figures. 



Total of 
United Kingdom 



1914 


36,960,684 


4,747,167 


4,381,398 


46,089,249 


1917 


33,711,000 > 


4,854,738 


4,380,000 


42,279,100 1 


1918 


33,474,700! 


4,886,274 


4,399,000 


42,041,700 * 


1919 


36,800,000 


4,894,077 


4,462,000 


46,156,077 


1920- 


37,609,600 


4,864,396 


4,470,000 


46,943,996 



1. England and Wales. 
The census population of England and Wales 1801 to 1911 :- 



Enaction Population 


Pop. per 
sq. mile 

152 
174 
206 
238 
273 
307 


Date of 

1 Enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
sq. mile 


1801 . . 8,892,536 
1811 . . 10,164,256 
1821 . . 12,000,236 
1831 . . 13,896,797 
1841 . . 15,914,148 
1851 . . 17,927,609 


i 1861 . 
I 1871 . 
: 1881 . 

1891 . 

1901 . 

1911 . 


20,066,224 
22,712,266 
25,974,439 
29,002,525 
32,527,843 
36,070,492 


344 
389 
445 
497 
558 
618 



Population of England and Wales and of the Administrative Counties 



16 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



and County Boroughs in 1901 and 1911. (For areas of administrative counties, 
etc., see Statesman's Year Book for 1916, p. 17.) 





Area in 

Statute 

Acres, 1911 


Census Population 


Estimated 














(Land and 






Administra- 


Popula- 
tion of 

Adminis- 
trative 

Counties 
in 1919 




Inland 


Counties, 


including 


tive 




Water). 


County Boroughs 


Counties 




Counties, 

including 

County 






only 












Boroughs 


1901 


1911 


1911 




England. 












Bedfordshire 


302,942 


171,707 


194,588 


194,58S 


205,894 


Berkshire .... 


403,834 


259,069 


280,794 


193,101 


189,288 


Buckinghamshire 


479,300 


197,046 


219,551 


219,551 


227,222 


Cambridgeshire 


315,1 6S 


120,264 


128,322 


128,322 


131,470 


Isle of Ely . 


238.073 


64,495 


69,752 


69,752 


71,217 


Cheshire .... 


056,370 


835,941 


954,779 


676,275 


625,978 


Cornwall .... 


868,167 


322,334 


328,098 


328,098 


318,537 


Cumberland 


073,086 


266,933 


265,746 


205,740 


214,597 


Derbyshire 


650,369 


599,094 


683,423 


560,013 


671,294 


Devonshire 


1,671,364 


062,196 


099,703 


457,331 


40S.071 


Dorsetshire 


625,612 


202,003 


223,260 


223,260 


217,115 


Durham .... 


649.244 


1,187,474 


1,369,860 


929.214 


927,b79 


Essex .... 


979,532 


1,083,998 


1,350,881 


1,061,851 


880,785 


Gloucestershire 


1 805,794 


708,439 


736,097 


329,014 


322,260 


Herefordshire . 


538,924 


114,125 


114,269 


114,269 


110,782 


Hertfordshire . 


404,523 


25S.423 


311,284 


311,284 


320,205 


Huntingdonshire 


233,985 


64,125 


55,577 


55,577 


53.S71 


Kent .... 


'J7.0,966 


961,139 


1,045,591 


1,020,965 


1,023,416 


Lancashire 


1,061,015 


4,878,298 


4,707,832 


1,720,485 


1,732,050 


Leicestershire . 


532,779 


437,490 


470,553 


249,331 


261,836 


Lincolnshire — 












The parts of Holland . 


268,992 


77,010 


82,849 


82,849 


85,277 


The parts of Kesteven . 


465,878 


103,962 


111,324 


111,824 


114,207 


The parts of Liudsey . 


970,423 


318,450 


369,787 


237,843 


247,497 


London .... 


74.816 


4,536,267 


4,521,685 


4,521,6S5 


4,540,002 


Middlesex .... 


148,701 


792.476 


1,126,465 


1,120,405 


1,280,271 


Monmouthshire 


349,552 


298,078 


395,719 


312.02S 


370,030 


Norfolk .... 


1,315,064 


476,553 


499,116 


321,733 


308, S59 


Northamptonshire . 


585,14S 


294,506 


303,797 


213,783 


216,162 


Soke of Peterborough . 


53,464 


41,122 


44,718 


44,71$ 


45,302 


Northumberland 


1,291,515 


603,119 


696,898 < 


► 371.474 


393,897 


Nottinghamshire 


540,123 


514.459 


604,098 




3S1.607 


Oxfordshire 


479,220 


179,962 


L89.484 




130,250 


Rutlandshire . 


97,27:s 


19,709 




20,340 


17,566 


Shropshire 


861,800 


289,788 






240,421 


Somersetshire . 


1,032,490 


184,950 


458,025 


338,852 


373,158 


Southampton . 


958,947 


717,104 


802,898 


483,506 


417,282 


Isle of Wight 


94,145 


82,418 


88.1S6 


88,186 


83,165 


Staffordshire 


741,318 


1,188,998 


1,279,649 


070. 3SO 


702,806 


Suffolk, Bast . 






277,155 




200,623 


Kuil'olk, West . 


890,916 




116,905 


116,906 


110,329 


Surrey .. . . 








'•.7i'., 027 


710,140 


Sussex, East 


580,570 




4*7,070 




287,160 


Sussex, West . 




161,276 


176.808 


176,808 




Warwickshiie . 


605.2T5 


1088,909 






;;:;s.ti9i 


Westmorland . 


505,880 


ill. ten 






60,432 


Wiltshire . 


804,1$] 










Worcestershire . 








288,687 




Yorkshire, East Rii 








164,768 




Yorkshire, North Riding . 


1,862, 




119,546 


814,779 


297,412 


Yorkshire, West Riding . 


1,773,529 




3.045,377 


<l,880 


1,490,169 


Totals - 


82,559,355 


80,818,048 


34,045,290 


23,188,479 


24,189,281 



AREA AXD POPULATION 



17 





Area in 

Statute 


Census Population 






Acres, 1 '.'11 








Estimated 




(Land and 


Counties, 


including 




Population 






County Boroughs 








Water). 


stratiTe 

Counties 

only. 


stratiTe 




Counties, 






Count i-s 




including 


1901 


1911 


in 191 '-• 




:-ity 






1911 






B roOgBS 










Wales 












Anglesey .... 


170,630 


to,gd6 


50,928 


50,928 




Brecknockshire. 






469,281 


54,213 


f0,S87 


59,287 




Cardiganshire . 






443,153 


61,078 


I»,g79 






Carmarthenshire 








■ 


160,408 


M0.4M 


176,82:. 


Carnarvonshire 












125,043 




Denbighshire . 
Flintshire . 








131,582 


I4i.7>:> 




147,667 






163,025 






92,705 




Glamorganshire 








859.9S1 


1.12<..910 




829,1 If. 


Merionethshire . 








48,852 


45.565 




41,440 


Montgomeryshire 






510.110 


54,901 


53,146 




50,822 


Pembrokeshire . 






303,003 


87,894 


M I '■ 


89,960 


■ 


Radnorshire 


301,165 


23.2S1 


22,590 


22,500 




Total Wales ( 1 2 Counties) 


4,776,182 


1,7U,S00 


2,025,202 


1,647,290 




Totals— 












.nd and Wales 


37,337,537 


7.843 


36,07' 


H.m.1 


25,877,53'.' 



The area and population of the County Boroughs, and more important 
other Boroughs, are given iu the following table. The County Boroughs are 
designate.! bi the totters C. B. 



Enolakd 
Acerington 
Ashtonunder-Ljne . 
Barnsley (C.B.) 
Barrow-in-Furness (C. B. 
Bath, City of(C.B.). 
Bedford 
Birkenhead (C.B.) . 

nghani, City of (C.B. 
Blackburn (C.B.) . 
Blackpool (C.B.) 
Bolton (C.B.) . 
Bootle(C.B.) . 
Bournemouth (C.B.) 
Bradford, City of (C.B.) 
Brighton (C.B.) 

City of (C B.) 

Burnley (C.B.) . 

Burton-upon-Trent (C.B. 

Bury (C.B.) . 

Cambridge 

Canterbury, City of (C.B 

Carlisle (C.B.) . 

Cnatham . 

Cheltenham 

Chester, City of (C.B.) 

Chesterfield 

Colchester 

Coventry, City of (C.B.) . 



Area in 1 


Census P< 


)pulation 


Estimated 


Statute ! 






Population 


Acres, 1911 | 


1901 


1911 


1919 


3,427 


43,122 


45.020 


45,479 


1.S45 


4S.-V 


4=., 172 




2,385 


ajm 




>T; 


11,023 


57,581 






5,152 


66,950 






2,223 


35,144 




4'. i M 


3.S4S 


110,915 


130,7C'4 




43,601 


,oos 








J 16 


133.' 


111,246 


3,601 


47,348 








16>._ 


18". ! 




1,947 


60,235 


69,876 




5,742 




78,674 




22,881 


279,767 






2,536 


123. - 


131 


137,931 


17,460 


339.042 


357.04S 


376,312 


4.619 


97,350 


106,765 


105.21T 


4.203 


50.3S6 


48,266 


49,670 


5,955 


M£44 


59,040 


56,510 


5,457 


50,453 


55,819 




3,975 






23,186 


1,418 










37,057 




40,038 


4,718 


49,431' 




46,863 




3S.S09 




42,464 


2.643 


32,335 


37,406 


39,848 


11.333 


38,373 


43,452 


43,084 


4,147 


,•3.97* 


, 106,349 


t 187.554 



18 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



-UNITED KINGDOM 





Areas in 


Census Population 


Estimated 




Statute 






Population 




Acres, 1911 


1901 


1911 


1919 


England— continued 










Crewe . 


2,184 


42,074 


44,960 


47,544 


Croydon (C.B ) 


9,012 


133,895 


169.551 


191,922 


Darlington (C.B.) . 


3,956 


44,61 1 


55,081 


66,729 


Darwen 


5,959 


38,212 


40,332 


39,252 


Derby (C.B ) . . . . 


5.272 


114.84S 


123,410 


1-J9,098 


Dewsbury (C.B.) 


6,720 


51,246 


53,351 


55,178 


Doncaster 


1,695 


28,932 


30,516 


53,743 


Dover 


1,948 


42,672 


43,645 


40,920 


Dudley (C.B) . . . . 


3,546 


4S,733 


51,079 


56.270 


Eastbourne (C.B.) . 


6,472 


43,574 


52,542 


50,443 


East Ham (C.B) 


3,324 


96,008 


133,487 


150,475 


Eccles 


2,057 


34,369 


41,944 


44.17S 


Exeter, City of (C.B.) . 


3,166 


47,185 


48,664 


61,475 


Gateshead (C.B.) . 


3,132 


109,888 


116,917 


12S,538 


Gillingham .... 


4,98S 


42,745 


52,252 


45,314 


Gloucester, City of (C.B.) 


2.31S 


47,955 


50,035 


52,189 


Great Yarmouth (C.B.) . 


3,598 


51,316 


55,906 


55,291 


Grimsby (C.B.) 


2,868 


63,138 


74,659 


82,100 


Halifax (C.B.) . 


13.9S3 


104,944 


101,553 


106,036 


Hastings (C.B.) 


4,495 


65,528 


61,145 


60,079 


Hove ...... 


1,521 


36,535 
95,047 


42,173 
107,821 


■15,590 


Huddersfield (C.B.) 


11,859 


116,981 


Ipswich (C.B.) 


8.112 


06,630 


73,932 


81.264 


Keighley 


3,902 


41,564 


43,487 


40,715 


Kingston-upon-Hull, City of 










(C.B.) 


9,042 


240,259 


277,991 


291,327 


Lancaster 


3,506 


40,329 


41,410 


3S,325 


Leeds, City of (C.B.) 


21,593 


428,968 


445.550 


448.S01 


jueicester, City of (C.B.) 


8,582 


211,579 


227,222 


245,903 


Leigh 


6,359 


40,001 


44 103 


46,322 


Lincoln, City of (C.B.) . 


3,755 


48,784 


57,285 


63,107 


Liverpool, City of (C.B.) 


16,642 


704,134 


746,421 


8«4,.-8S 


Luton 


3,132 


36,404 


49.973 


5S.75S 


Manchester, City of (C.B.) 


21,645 


644,873 


714,333 


771,973 


Middlesbrough (C.B.) 


2,686 


91,302 


104,767 


132,444 


Newcastle-upon-Tyne, City of 










(C.B.) 


8,452 


247,023 


266,603 


286,571 


Newport (Monmouth) (C.B.) 


4.504 


67,270 


83,691 


90,890 


Northampton (C.B.) 


3,469 


87,021 


90,064 


92,858 


Norwich. City of (C.B.) . 


7,896 


113,922 


121,478 


124,997 


Nottingham, City of (C.B.) . 


10,935 


239,743 


259,904 


288,814 


Oldham (C.B ) . 


4,736 


137,246 


147,483 


143,409 


Oxford, Citv of (C.B.) . 


4,719 


(9,8M 


53,048 


60,071 


riy mouth (C.B.) 


5.719 


— 


207,456 


18S ■ 


Portsmouth (C,B.) . 


8,100 


188,928 


231,141 


284,228 


Preston (C.B.) .... 


3.971 


. 112,989 


117,0SS 


122,168 


Reading (C.B.) 


9,108 


SO, 823 


S7.693 


95,175 


Rochdale (C.B.) 


0,116 


83,114 


91,428 


93,806 


Ilotherham (C. H.) 


6,001 


54,349 


62,488 


71,913 


St. Helens (C.B.) . 


7,284 


84,410 




in.,, 009 


Sal ford (C.B.) . . . . 


5,202 


220,957 


231, 357 


.659 


Sheffield, Citv of (C.B.) . 


24,358 


410,893 


459,910 


493,450 


Smcthwick (C. B.) . 


1,929 


54,539 


70,694 


7.'., 161 


Southampton (C.B.) 


•1.60.1 


104,824 


118,0 


131,289 


Sonthend-on Sea (C.B.) . 


r.oes 


— 


70,878 


S7.:3S 


Southport (C. B.) 


0,428 


68,594 


69,643 


78,089 


South Shields (C.B.) 


2,399 


100,888 


108,64 7 


116,152 


Stockport (C.B.) 


6,488 




108,882 


180J868 


Stockton -on-Teet 


2,935 


51,478 


62,154 


68,288 


Stnkcon Tr.-nt(C.B.) 


11,142 


214,712 


234,634 


..,.,...„, 



AREA AND POPULATION 



19 





Areas in 


Census 


Population 


Estimated 




Statute 
Acres, 1911 






Population 




1901 


1911 


1919 


Esi;hm>— tontinued. 










8nnderland(C.B.) . 


1 ■'■■ 


146,077 


151,159 


K5,4S8 






45,006 






Trnemouth (C.B.) . 


4.372 




58.S16 




Wakefield. Citv of iC.B.) 


4060 




51,511 




Wallasev (C.B.) 


*,?H9 


53,579 




M 


Wallsenrt ... 


3.4*0 


31.602 


41.4*1 




Walsall (C.B ) .... 




86,430 


92.115 




Warrinsrton (C.B.) . 


3057 


64,242 






West Bromwich (C.B.) . 


6,869 




68,332 


'- 


West Ham (C.B.) 


4,6-3 
2.684 


62.627 


289.' 


'-'•'"•"■ ■ 


West Hartlepool (CB.) . 






Wigan (C.B.) . 


5,083 






• 


Wimbledon .... 


3,0*21 


41,652 


5*. 966 




Wolverhampton (C.B.) . 




94,187 




.•07 


Worcester, CitT of (C. B. ) 


3,185 


46,624 






York, City of (C.B.) 


3,730 


77.914 


uju 




Wale* 








212,9*2 


Cardiff, Citv of (C.B) 






MerthyrTvdnl(C.B.) 


17,761 


69,228 


■L^ttO 




Swansea C.B.) 


5,202 


94,537 


114.663 


16. ,516 



The number of married persons in 1911 was 13,126,070 (6,495.786 males 
and 6,630,284 females), and widowed 1,980,615 (615,811 males and 1,364,804 
females). 

The number of buildings used or intended as dwellings in England and 
Wales in 1911 was: inhabited, 7,141,781; uninhabited, 408,652; being 
built, 38,178. In 1901, the numbers were : 6,260,852, 448,932, and 61,909 
respectively. 75,604 inhabited blocks of flats (comprising 253,243 separate 
flats) were enumerated in 1911. The average number of persons per inhabited 
building was 5 - 05 in 1911. against 5 - 20 in 1901. Buildings not used as 
dwellings in 1911 included 49,970 places of worship, 10,533 government 
and municipal buildings, and 3,050 theatres and other places of amusement. 

Assuming that the population of urban sanitary districts is urban, and the 
population outside such districts rural, the following table shows the distribu- 
tion of the urban and rural population of England and Wales in 1901 and 1911 , 
their percentage of increase during the decennium, and percentage of popu- 
lation living in the different classes of towns : — 



Popnlation of Districts 



Xo. of 
Districts 



Aggregate population 



250,000 and upwards 

100,000—250.000 . 

50,000—100,000 . 

20,000— 50,000 . 

10.000— 20.000 . 

3,000— 10,000 
Under 3,000 . 

Total Urban 
Rural 

Total Population 



1901 



1911 



Percentage Percentage 

of of Popula- 

increase ! tion in 1911 



12 
32 
53 
148 
231 
458 
203 



S.S59.683 
3.981,499 
3,045,692 

2,787,843 

2,373.186 

370,386 



9.147,488 , 

«,Mff,S04 

8,566.927 

3,256,011 
2.643.73S 



1.137 25,351,118 28,161936 

657 7,176,725 7,907,556 



— 32,527,843 ; 36,070,492 



33 

14-2 

17-6 

16-8 

11-4 

52 



11-1 
102 



22 
IN 



c 2 



20 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



The municipal and parliamentary City of London, coinciding with the 
registration City of London, has an area of 675 acres, and in 1901 had a 
night population of 26,923, arid in 1911, 19,657. A day census of the 
City of London, taken on April 25, 1911, gave a population of 364,061. The 
previous day census, taken in 1891, gave atotal of 301,384. The registration 
County of London (the London for purposes of the Census, the registration 
of births, deaths, and marriages, and for poor law puipOses), coinciding 
with the administrative county, has an area of 74,816 acres, and nearly 
coincides with the collective area of the London parliamentary boroughs. 
The population of registration London, of the 'Outer Ring,' and of 
' Greater London,' (the area covered by the City and Metropolitan police), 
According to the census returns of 1891, 1901 and 1911, and the estimated 
civilian population in 1919, were : — 



— 1891 1901 


1911 


1919 


EeCistration London. 
' Outer Ring' . 


4,227,954 4,536,267 
1,405,852 2,045,135 

5,633,806 6,581,402 


4,521,685 
2,729,673 


4,540,062 
3,022,062 


' Greater London' 1 . 


7,251,358 


7,562,124 



1 Area about 693 square miles. 

Occupation statistics of the population in England and Wales aged 10 
years and upwards in 1911 : — 



- 


Males 


Females 


Total 




248,624 


50,975 


299,599 




205, S17 




205,817 




367,578 


347,043 


714,621 




387,677 


1,734,040 


2,121,717 




2,062,710 


151,321 I 


2,214,081 


Agriculture and Fishing 


1,165,654 


94,822 


1,260,476 




7,015,605 


2,452,583 > 


:',468,18S 


Unoccupied and unspecified 


2,208,585 


10,026.879 , 


12,234,914 


Total 


18,662,200 


14,857,113 [ 


2S,519,813 



2. Scotland. 

Area 29,797 square miles, including its islands, 186 in number, but ex- 
cluding inland water 609 square miles. 

Population (including military in the barracks and seamen on board 
vessels in the harbours) at the dates of the several censuses : — 



Date of 
Enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
gq. mile 


Date of 

Enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
sq. mile 


1801 
1811 

1821 
1831 
1841 
1851 


1,608,420 
1,805,864 
2,091,521 
2,364,386 
2,620,184 
2,888,742 


54 
60 
70 
79 
88 
97 


1861 

1871 
1881 
18M 
1901 
1911 


3,062,294 
3,860,018 
3.735,573 
4,025,647 
4,472,103 
4,760,904 


100 
111 
126 
185 

150 
160 



AREA AND POPULATION 



21 



The number of married persons in 1911 ww 1,506,582 (743,747 males 
and 762,835 females), and widowed, 264,109 (82,612 males and 181,497 
females). 

There are 33 civil counties, as follows : — 



Census Population 



1. Aberdeen 
1 Argrll . 

■ . r 
4. Banff . 
". Berwick 
•'.. Bute 

.ithness 
uckmannan 
9. Dumbarton . 

10. Dumfries 

11. Edinburgh (Midlothian) 

12. Elgin (or Moray) 

13. Fife 

14. Forfar . 

15. Haddington . 

16. Inrerness 

17. Kincardine 
IS. Kinross . 

rkcudbright 

20. Lanark . 

21. Linlithgow . 

. rn . 

23. Orkney . 

24. Peebles . 

25. Perth . 

26. Renfrew 

27. Ross and Cruinartv 
2& Roxburgh 

29. Selkirk . 

30. Shetland 

31. Stirling . 

32. Sutherland . 

33. Wigtown 



Total Scotlakd 



Area in 

Statute 

Acres 



i.m,ft2i 

l,:«.«'.47-J 

UM i 

34.927 
107,43^ 

666,602 

322,844 
559,037 

170.^71 

244.4S2 
575,832 

1.595,802 
168,332 

352.31;' 
NMfl 



1911 
1901 
Total 



■ mated 



■OMM 

254,468 
33,870 

218,840 
BMH 
38,066 
90,104 

1.:. °9.::-7 

65,708 

9,291 

•_-.-•'.•■• 
15,006 

76,450 

■ 
28.3™ 

21,440 

tMSfi 



812,177 
70,906 

31,121 
130,861 

I 
267,739 

43,254 

41,008 

1,447,034 

• 

314,652 

77.^-4 

47.: i2 

HXt.991 



147,37.7 

130, i"»; 

8.09* 

14,6*7 

65,024 

20,493 
132,133 

21,463 

42,440 

19,760 

3,617 

4,330 

7,066 

161,061 

38,763 

11.382 
12,5-9 
82,335 
9,8«1 
15,078 



16.674 

147,363 
538,182 

mjm 

M .".: 
44.535 
80,010 

85,602 

22,731 
\4.1S1 

70,: 14 
24.1.'>3 

18,1 : I 



19,070,466 ) 4,472,103 4,760,904 ' 2,308,899 



4,8«4,07 



Of the total population in 1911, 917 per cent, were born in Scotland, 
347 per cent, in England and Wales, 3 - 67 per cent, in Ireland, 0'52 per cent, 
in foreign countries, and 0*64 per cent, elsewhere. 

Inhabited houses 1911, 1,013,369 ; uninhabited, 89,060 ; building, 4,718 ; 
total, 1,107,147. The average number of persons to each inhabited house 
was 492 in 1891 ; 4"82 in 1901 ; and 4*70 in 1911. 

The 'urban' population of Scotland in 1911 is defined as the popu- 
lation of localities containing over 1,000 persons, and are burghs, special 
scavenging districts, or special lighting districts. On this basis the 'urban' 
population was 3,591,276 or 75*4 per cent, of the total, and the 'rural' 



22 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINQDOM 



population 1,169,628 or 24'6 per cent. Population of the principal 
burghs : — 





Census 


Census 


Estimated 




Census 


Census 


Estd. 


Burghs 


fop. in 


Pop. in 


Pop. in 


Burghs 


Pop. in 


Pop. in 


Pop. in 




1901 


1911 


1919 




1901 


1911 


1919 


Glasgow i . 


; 775,594 


784,496 


1,113,454 


Motherwell 1 . 


31,144 


40.3SO 


42,130 


Edinburgh . 


317,459 


320,318 


338,060 


Kirkcaldy 


34,079 


39.601 


40,615 


Dundee K . 


162,982 


165,004 


183,3S8 


Hamilton 


32,775 


38.644 


39,531 


Aberdeen . 


153,003 


163,891 


167,146 


Cly.lebankl . 


20,898 


37,543 


48,025 


Paisley 


79,363 


84,455 


89,425 


Perth i . 


: 33.995 


35,854 


36,214 


Leith . 


77,439 


80,488 


84,281 


Kilmarnock . 


34,165 


34,728 


37,604 


Greenock 1 ^ 


68,911 


75,140 


79,613 


Falkirk . 


j 29,280 


33,574 


34,8.i] 


Coatbridge . 


36,991 


43,2S6 


44,513 


Ayr. 


28,697 


32,986 


33,603 



1 In these cases the boundaries of the burghs have been altered since 1901, and the 
1901 population of the burghs as they stood in 1911 is given. 



The' occupations of the population aged 10 years and upwards, according 
to the census of 1911, were as follows : — 



- 


Males 


Females 


Total 

47,408 

81,675 

201,066 

283,465 

227,111 

1,226,242 


Government and defence 
Professional .... 
Domestic .... 
Commercial and transport 
Agricultural and fishing . 
Industrial .... 

Total occupied 
Unoccupied and non-produc- 
tive ..... 


42,476 

45,713 

34,488 

245,621 

193,731 

911,728 


4,932 
35,962 

166,578 
37,844 
33,380 

314,514 


1,473,757 
309,024 


593,210 
1,338,410 


2,066,967 
1,647,434 


Total . 


1,782,781 


1,931,320 


3,714,401 



3. Ireland. 
Area 32,586 square miles ; population at different census periods : — 



SS&S 1 Popul * tlon 


Pop. per ! 
sq. mile 


Tear of j m....i.iin. i Pop. per 
Census 1 Population „,,.' ,„'„,. 


1801 
1811 
1821 
1831 
1841 
1851 


5.395,456 
5,937.856 
6,801,827 
7,767,401 
8,175,124 
6,552,385 


166 1861 5,798,564 178 
186 1871 l 5,412,377 167 
209 1 1881 5,174,836 159 
239 1891 4,704,750 144 
251 1901 4,458,775 137 
201 1911 4,390,219 135 



AREA AND POPULATION 



23 



The number of married persons in 1911 was 1,191,142 (589,861 males and 
601,281 females), and widowed, 296,263 (91,523 males and 204,740 females). 

Population of the counties and countv boroughs at the censuses of 1901 
and 1911 :— 







Population 






Are* in 








Persons 


Comities Statute Acres 




1011 

1 


per 100 


and County Boroughs (exclusive 


1901 
Total 






Acres 




of water) 


Total 


Ma 


1911 










Province of Lettuter. 








Carlow . 


. 


37,748 


36,252 


18,481 


16 


Dublin Countv 




•218.873 


157,568 




njoj 




Hublin C.B. . 




7.911 


290,638 






3,853 


Kildare . 












37,684 


16 


Kilkenny 






509.458 


71'. 169 






15 


King's 






493,968 


60,187 




£9,904 


12 


Longford 






857,770 


49,971 






w 


Louth 






202,181 


65..S2U 




32,191 


32 


Meath 






577,785 






33,934 


11 


Queen's . 






42»,S3S 


.'.7,417 




ta.ni 


13 


Weslmeatli 






434,665 


61.029 




31,910 


11 


Wexford . 






580, 950 


104,104 


102,273 


51,568 


is 


Wicklow. 






999 .'■; 


60,824 


60,711 


31,113 


12 


Total of Leinster . 
Province of ilunster. 


i 4.847,781 


1,152,829 


1,162,044 


582,967 


24 












Clare .... 


112,334 


104,232 


53,877 


IS 


Cork Conn' 
Cork C.B. 




1,841. OS', 
2,681 


32S.4S9 
79,123 


915,441 


161,1*5 


17 






36,351 


Sy999 


Kerry 


1,191 




159,691 


81,474 


14 


Limerick County . 


991,674 


107.947 


104,551 


53,527 


16 


Limerick C.B. 


2,385 


33,151 


38,518 


18,709 


1,614 


Tifiperart 


1,051,304 


160,232 


198.499 




15 


Waterford County . 


453,061 


60,418 


99,509 


29,133 


13 


Waterford C. B. 


1,433 


26,769 


27,464 


13,317 


1.910 


Total of Munster . 


5,963,556 


1,076,188 


1,035,495 


526,130 


17 


Province of Ulster. 










Antrim .... 


702,654 


196,090 


198,864 


93,651 




Armagh . 






312,772 

14,937 


125. 392 




181. 99U 


39 


Belfast C.B. 


349. ISO 




2,591 


C.i van 






467.025 


97. .".4! 


91,173 


47,743 


20 
14 


Donegal . 






1,193,641 


173,722 


198,997 


Down 






008,862 


205,889 


204,303 


97,951 


34 


Fermanagh 






417,912 


0.3,430 


01,836 


31.690 


15 


Londonderry County . 


912,691 


104,312 


99.845 


49,138 


20 


Londonderry C.B. 


2,579 




40,780 




1,581 


Monaghan 


318,990 


74,611 
1. '.0,507 




35,953 


23 


Tyrone .... 


779, '.63 


143,996 


71,738 


18 


Total of Ulster 


5,331,620 


1,582,826 


1,581,696 


770,862 


30 


Province of Connuught. 






• 






Galway . ... 1,467.850 


192.549 


181,224 


94,408 


13 


Leitrim . 




376,510 


69.343 


«3,582 


32.759 


17 


Mayo 




1,333,356 


199,160 


192.577 


96,345 


15 


Roscommon 




608,290 


101,791 


93,950 


48,522 


16 


Sligo 




442,205 


84,083 


79,045 


40,060 


18 


Total of Connaught 


4,22S,211 


646,932 


610,984 


312,089 


14 


Total of I 


relai 


d 


50,371,124 


4,458,775 


4,390,219 


2,192,048 


21 



24 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



Of the total population in 1911, 96'4 per cent, were born in Ireland, 2-1 
per cent, in England and Wales, 0'9 per cent, in Scotland, and - 6 per cent, 
abroad. 

The population of Dublin and its suburbs was 375,135 in 1901, and 
403,030 in 1911. The estimated population of the registration area in 1919 
was 399,000. The estimated population of Belfast in 1919 was 393,000. 

Inhabited houses, 1911, 861,879; 1901, 858,162 ; 1891, 870,578. Unin- 
habited houses, 1911, 69,010 ; 1901, 74,321 ; 1891, 69,320. Houses building, 
1911, 3,608 ; 1901, 2,536 ; 1891, 2,602. 

The civic population in 1911 is shown in the following table : — 



In Towns of 



Over 100,000 . 

Between 50,000 and 100,000 

,, 20,000 and 50,000 

10,000 and 20,000 

5,000 and 10,000 

2,000 and 5,000 

Total 





No. of ' 




Towns 




2 




1 




5 


, 


14 


, 


23 


1 


64 




109 



Inhabitants 

691,749 
76,673 
173,896 
169,554 
152,270 
206,453 

1,470,595 



Per cent.of Total 
Population 

155 
1-7 
4-0 
3 9 
3-5 
4-7 



33 5 



In 1901, the 'civic' population numbered 1,384,929, or311 percent, of 
the total population. 

The population was divided as follows according to occupation in 1911 
and 1901 :— 

Total, 1901 





Males 


Females 


Total, 1911 


Professional class . 


103,603 


37,531 


141,134 


Domestic ,, . 


25,831 


144,918 


I70,7f9 


Commercial , , 


101,396 


9,747 


111,143 


Agricultural ,, 


721,669 


59,198 


780, So7 


Industrial ,, 


434,699 


178,698 


613,397 


Indefinite and non- 








productive 


804,880 


1,768,079 


2,572,929 


Total 


2,192,048 


2,198,171 


4,390,219 



131,035 
219,4 IS 
97,889 
8 7 6, 062 
639,413 

2,494,958 

4,45S,775 



The population of these Is 
cessive censuses : — 


lands was 


bund to bo 


as follows 


at the suc- 


Islands 


Census Population 


A rea 


1891 

55,608 

64,518 

35,287 

1,857 

572 


1901 

51,762 

52,576 

40,47-1 

2,062 

506 


1911 


Acres, 1911 


Isle of Man 

Jersey .... 
Guernsey, llei in, andJethou 
Alderney .... 
Sark, Brechou, and Inhou 


52,016 

51,898 

41,858 

2,561 

582 

148,916 


145,3)25 
28,717 
16,018 

1,386 


Total . 


147,842 


150,370 


193,408 





MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION 



25 



II. Movement or the Population. 

I. Births, Deaths, and Marriage*. 

England and Wales. 



Tear 



1914 

1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 ; 



Estimated 

Population 
at 30th June 



36,960,684 
33.711, 000 1 
33,474,700 1 
36,800,000 
37,609,600 



Total Births 



Illegitimate 
Births 



879,096 
668,346 
662,661 
692,438 
957,994 



37,329 
37,022 

41,876 



Mh 



516,742 
498,922 
611,861 
504,203 
406,211 



■antofM 



294,401 
118,866 



1 Estimate*! civil population. 



- Provisional figures. 



In 1920 the proportion of male to female births was 1,052 male to 1,000 
female. 

Scotland. 





Estimated 




Tear 


Population 
at 30th Jane 


Total Births 


1914 


4.747,167 




1917 


S.738 


97,441 


1918 


".274 


98,554 


1919 


;.077 


J 06, 


1920 ' 


4,864,396 


IS'' 



Illegitimate 



1 •»•!.- 






Marriages 






1 Provisional tigi. 
Proportion of male to female births in 1920 was 1,044 to 1,000. 
Ireland. 



Tear 


Estimated 
Population 
at 30th June 


Total Births 


Illegitimate 
Birth* 




Marriages 


1914 


4,381,398 


9S.S06 


2,943 


71.345 


23,695 


1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 * 


4,380,000 
4,399,000 
4,462,000 
4.470,000 


86. 

:104 


L'.. 


''95 
812 

06. 793 


'73 

:.70 
.93 



1 Provisional figures. 

The proportion of male to female births in Ireland in 1920 was 1,061 to 
1,000. 

2. E<-< 'ration and Imnitfiration. 
In the thirty-eight yea: J number of emigrants from 

the United Kingdom was 3,463,592. Up to 1S52 the emigration returns 
made no distinction betweenjihitish subjects and foreigners. From 1853 to 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



1920 inclusive, the number of passengers of British origin, to places out of 
Europe, was 14,140,000; and the number of foreigners, to such places, was 
5,880,000, total, 20,020,000. Figures of the passenger traffic to and from 
non-European countries in recent years are given as follows : — 





Outward 


Inward 


Balance 




British 
subjects 


Aliens 


Total 


British 
subjects 


Aliens 


Total 


Total 


1913 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 


469,640 

104,919 

76,479 

20,578 

17,319 

180,232 

352,429 


232,051 
21,588 
17,410 
7,293 
5,505 
21,272 
84,355 


701,691 
126.507 
93,889 
27,871 
22,824 
201,504 
436,784 


227,643 

129,652 

84,654 

21,026 

15,414 

153,230 

180,064 


144,975 
17,537 
13,929 
13,016 
10,556 
40,371 

103,641 


372,618 

147.189 

98,583 

34,042 

25,970 

193,«0l 

283,705 


329,073 
20,682 1 
4,094 1 
6,171 i 
3,146 1 
7,903 

153,079 



1 Balance inward. 

A revised form of passenger list adopted since April 1, 1912, shows that tne number 
of British emigrants (excluding persons only temporarily absent from the Unitel Kingdom) 
to places out of Europe was about 390,000 in 1913, 215,000 in 1914, 77,000 in 1915, 53,000 
in 1916, 10,000 in 1917, 10,600 in 1918, 147,000 in 1919 ; 285,000 in 1920 ; and the immigrants 
of British nationality about S6.000 in 1913, 104,000 in 1914, 92,000 in 1915, 5S.OO0 in 1910, 
12,000 in 1917, 8,800 in 1918, 93,000 in 1919 ; 86,000 in 1920. 

The destinations of British subjects leaving the United Kingdom for 
non-European countries in 1920 were mainly the United States (90,429), 
British North America (134,079), Australasia (49,357), British South Africa 
(29,019), India and Cevlon (19,326). The bulk of the aliens travelled to 
the United States (61,224 in 1920). 

The passenger movement between the United Kingdom and European 
countries (including all ports in the Mediterranean and Black Seas) in recent 
years is given as follows : — 





Passengers 




Year 


To U.K. 


From U.K. 


Balance Inward 


1913 

1915 
1916 
1917 
191S 
1919 
1920 


1,309,874 
447,270 
212,491 
182,481 
171,320 
425. 1S3 
725,253 


1,184,412 
431.080 
219,017 
'.Ml, 953 
isn,225 
600.989 
7.1S.860 


136,462 
16,190 

IV, 409' 
17,9961 
III. 73H1 
18,6071 



i Balance outward. 

The number of Irish who emigrated from Ireland was in 1913, 30,967 ; 
1914,20,314; 1915,10,659; 1916,7,302; 1917,2,129; 1918,980; 1919, 
2,975. The total number from May 1, 1851, to the end of 1919 was 4,322,668. 

Religion. 

1. England and Wales. 

The Established Church of England is Protestant Kpisropal. Civil 
disabilities on account of religion do not attach to any class of British 
subjects. Under the Welsh Church Acts, 1914 and 1919, the Church in 
Wales and Monmouthshire was disestablished as from March 31, 1920. Wales 



RELIGION -7 

has been formed into a separate Archbishopric. Property belonging to the 
Church in Wales, and a sum of 1,000,000/. provided by Parliament, have 
been assigned to a temporary body not exceeding three persons, called the 
Welsh Commissioners, for distribution to a body representing the Church 
(called the Representative Body), an 1 to certain other authorities including 
the University of Wales. 

The King is by law the supreme governor of the Church in England, 
possessing the right, regulated by statute, to nominate to the vacant arch- 
bishoprics and bishoprics. The King, and the First Lord of the Treasury in 
his name, also appoint to such deaneries, prebendaries, and canonries as are 
in the gift of the Crown, while a large number of livings and also some 
canonries are in the gift of the Lord Chancellor. 

There are- 3 archbishops (at the head of the three 'provinces' of Can- 
terbury, York and Wales) and 43 bishops, and 39 suffragan and assistant 
bishops in England and Wales. Each archbishop has also his own particular 
diocese, wherein he exercises episcopal, as in his province he exercises 
archiepiscopal jurisdiction. Under the bishops are about 30 deans and 
100 archdeacons. Under the Church of England Assembly Power- 
1919, there is a National Assembly, called ' the Church Assembly,' in England 
consisting of a House of Bishops, a House of Clergy, and a House of Laymen, 
which has poarer to legislate regarding Church matteis. The first two Houses 
consist of the Convocations of Canterbuiy and York, which in turn consist 
of the bishops (forming an Upper House), archdeacons, and deans, and a 
certain number of pro<tors, as the representatives of the inferior clergy 
(forming the Lower House). The House of Laymen is elected by the lay 
members of the Diocesan Conference. Parochial affairs are managed by a 
Parochial Church Meeting and Church Council. Every measure passed by the 
Church Assembly mu-t be submitted to an Ecclesiastical Committee, con- 
sisting of fifteen members of the House of Lords nominated by the Lord Chan- 
cellor, and fifteen members of the House of Commons nominated 1 
Speaker. This Committee reports on each measure to Parliau.e nt. and the 
measure becomes law if each House of Parliament passes a resolution to 
that effect. 

The number of civil yarishes (districts for which a separate poor rate 
is or can be made) at the census of 1911 was 14.614. These, however, 
in most cases, do not coincide with ecclesiastical parishes, which have 
lost their old importance. Of such parishes there were il911) 14.357. 
inclusive of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Each parish 
has its church, presided over by an incumbent or minister, who must 
be in priest's orders, and who is known as rector, vicar, or perpetual 
curate, according to his relation to the temporalities of his parish. 
Private persons possess the right of presentation to about 8,500 benefices ; 
the patronage of the others belongs mainly to the King, the bishops 
and cathedrals, the Lord Chancellor, and the universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge. In 1918 thete were about 13,000 beneficed clergy, and 
6,800 curates, etc. The voluntary offerings in the Church of England in 
191S amounted to 8,853,000Z. 

Of 33,6S2 churches and chapels registered for the solemnisation of 
marriage at the end of 1919, 16,114 belonged to the Established Church and 
17,568 to other religious denominations. Of the marriages celebrated in 1919. 
597 per cent, were in the Established Church. 5 "2 percent, in the Roman 
Catholic Church, 11 5 per cent, were Nonconformist marriages, 0*04 per 
cent, were Quaker marriages, 0'5 per cent. Jewish, and 231 per cent, civil 
marriages in Registrar's Office. 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



The following summary of statistics of Nonconformist churches (England 
and Wales, Channel Islands, and Isle of Man) in 1915 is taken from the 'Free 
Church Year-Book ' 1'pr 1916. It only claims to present an approximation of 
the actual condition. Figures relating to the Anglican Church are appended :- 















Sunday 




Sitting 


Full 
Members 


Ministers 


Local 


Sunday 


School 


Denomination 


accommo- 


in 


and Lay 


School 


Scholars 




dation 


Charge. 


Preachers 


Teachers 


and Bible 














Class 


Wesjeyan Methodist 


2,371,937 


469,095 


2,513 


22,500 


130,107 


922,773 


Primitive Methodist 


1,058,134 


200,549 


1,104 


15,238 


56,772 


437,936 


United Methodist . 


628,532 


148,927 


6S5 


5,119 


40,325 


285,681 


I ndependent Methodist 


47,690 


9,016 


411 


2 


3>106 


26,677 


Wesleyan Reform Union 


52,595 


8,526 


25 


500 


2,641 


23,172 


Congregational 


1,726,131 


453.13S 1 


2,923 


4,928 


68,928 


624,589 


Baptist .... 


1,410,021 


388,252 a 


1,955 


5.003 


55,883 


526, S92 


Presbyterian . 


189,456 


8S.166 


340 


- 


8,492 


78,585 


Calvinistic Methodist . 


559,615 


184,843 


7S6 


457 


27,189 


177,67$ 


Moravian 


12,433 


3,959 


34 


665 


— 


5,48? 


Free Episcopal-" . 


9,300 


1,500 


23 


25 


361 


4,500 


Reformed Episcopal 3 . 


6,000 


1,278 


28 


— 


256 


2,600 


Lady Huntingdon's Con- 














nexion 


13,310 


2,294 


24 


■ — 


392 


3,439 


Churches of Christ 


25,000 


15,228 


— 


— 


2,083 


18,749 


Disciples of Christ 


6,000 


1,643 


12 


12 


215 


1,485 


Society of Friends 


— 


IS, Si '.4 




— 


2,814 


21,098 


Total of above 


8,116,144 


1,995,278 ■< 


10,8m 


54,449 


399,624 


8,181,791 


Total Anglican 


7,307,118 


2,359,599 


14,079 


— 




3.003,-187 



' 45 Churches have not made returns. a 283 Chinches have not made returns. 

9 Approximate only. •» Does not include members on trial. 

The Unitarians have about 350 places of worship, the Catholic Apostolic 
Church about 80, the New Jerusalem Church about 75. The Salvation Army, 
a religious body with a semi-military organisation, carries on both spiritual and 
social work at home and abroad, and had (December, 1919) about 24,600 
officers and employi*, 11,170 corps and outposts, and 71,400 local officers: then- 
places of worship in the United Kingdom have-about 550,000 sittings. There 
are about 260,000 Jews in the United Kingdom with about 200 synagogues 

Roman Catholics in England and Wales are estimated at 1,900,000. There 
are (1920) four archbishops (of whom one is a cardinal), thirteen bishops, and 
one archbishop and three bishops-auxiliary ; about 3,900 priests (not all 
officiating) ; and about 1,920 churches, chapels, and stations. 

2. Scotland. 

The Church of Scotland (established in 1560 and continued in 1688) is 
presbyterian, the ministers all being of equal rank. There is in each 
parish a kirk session, consisting of the minister, aiid of several laymen 
railed elders. There are 8-1 presbyteries (formed by groups of parishes), 
meeting frequently throughout the year, and these are grouped in 16 synods, 
which meet half-yearly and can be appealed to against the derisions of the 
presbyteries. The supreme court is the Cenrral Assembly, which con- 
sists of over 700 members, partly clerical and partly lay. . hosm by the 
different presbyteries, royal burghs, and universities. It meets annually in 
May (under the presidency of a Moderator appointed by the Assembly, the 
Sovereign 1 >i • i 1 1 - represented by a nobleman known as Lord High Commis- 
sioner), and sits for fen days, any matters not decided during this period 
being left to a < 'omniissioii. 

The number of parishes is 1,461, and the number of churches, chapels, 
and stations about 1,700. Under regulations enacted by the General 



RELIGION 29 

Assembly, the parishioners choose their own minister*. The entire 
endowments of the Chinch from all sources, including 
amount to ahout 392,000/. per atinum. The voluntary contributions of the 
congregations for religious and charitable purposes in 19l9 amounted to 
39/. The number of communicants in 1919 was about 728,000; 
ministers, about 1,800; lay missionaries, 105 ; Sunday scholars. 192,50 

On October 31, 1900," the Free Church of Scotland and tl 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland (formed by secessions at various t 
the Church of Scotland^ constituted themselves into the United 
Church of Scotland. A minority, representing 26 congregations, re- 
girding themselves as the Free Church of Scotland, claimed all tin 
ind endowment funds. A Royal Commission reported that tn< 
Church was unable adequately to carry out all U 

The Churches (Scotland) Act, 1905, was passed foi f the 

church property between the Free and the Un by an 

Executive Commission of five, and the result was that funds amounting to 
459,469/. were allocated to the Free Church (310,000?. for general provision 
and the remainder for College provision and various othef purposes). The 
United Church's foreign mission was extended in 1918 to the <jf the 

Basel Mission (formerly under German domination) in the Gold Coast. The 
foreign mission agents including natites'i number 5,017, and income 395,000/. 
The United Church had, on December 31, 1919, 1,489 congregations, and 
30 preaching stations ; 528,000 members, besides adherents ; 2,050 Sunday 
schools, with 21,647 teachers and 201,000 children in attendance. The 
Church courts are the General Assembly, 12 synods, 64 pr- and 2 

continental presbyteries. Annual revenue from free-will offerings is over a 
million sterling. The Church has three theological colleges (at Edinburgh, 
Glasgow and Aberdeen) with 19 professors and lecturers. The Free Church 
had in 1919, 150 congregations and stations, 89 ministers and probationers, 
and one college. Contributions to schemes amounted to 18,437/., and 
other income to 24,022/. There are in Scotland some small outstanding 
Presbyterian bodies and also Baptists, Congregations odists, and 

Unitarians. The Episcopal Church in Scotland has 7 bishoprics, 416 Churches 
and missions, 320 clergv, and 56,000 communicants. 

The Roman Catholic Church had in Scotland (1920) two archbishops, 
our bishops and one bishop-auxiliary : about 600 priests, 454 churches, 
chapels, and stations, and about 546,000 adherents. 

The proportion of marriages in Scotland according to the rites of the 
various Churches in 1918 traS: Established, 3S - 5 percent.; United Free, 
22-6; Roman Catholic, 11*0 : Episcopal, 3 "6 ; others, 7*1 ; irregular, 17 2. 

3. Ireland. 

The principal religious professions in Ireland, as recorded at the census of 
1911. are as follows • — 

— U-inster | Munster Ulster Connmu^ht | Tot-1 



Roman Catholics . . j 990,045 j 973,805 

Protestant Episcopalians 140.182 I 50,64* lP.Oin 

Presbyterians . . ' IMN 4,130 421.410 2,069 I 440,525 

Methodists . . . 8,068 4,175 1.323 , 62,362 

Other Professions . _ 2.6S9 j 

Total . . . 1.162.044 l,n35,4>>5 _ 

The Roman Catholic Church in Ireland is under lour archbishops, of 
Armagh, Cashel, Dublin, and Tuam, and 24 bishops, besides one bishop- 
auxiliary. On a vacancy the clergy of the diocese nominate a successor 
in whose favour they postulate or petition the Pope. The bishops 



30 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

of the province also present the names of two or three eligible persons 
to the Pope. The new bishop is generally chosen from this latter 
number ; but the appointment virtually rests, with the cardinals. 
The emoluments of a bishop arise from his parish, which is generally 
the Joest in the diocese, from licences of marriage, &c, and from 
the cathedraticum, a small contribution paid by incumbents of parishes. 
The incomes of all classes of the Roman Catholic clergy of Ireland arise 
partly from fees, but principally from Christmas and Easter dues, and other 
voluntary offerings. Number of priests in Ireland (1919), about 3,830. 

The Church of Ireland (Protestant Episcopal) ceased to be ' established 
by law ' by Act of Parliament (1869) 32 & 33 Vict. cap. 42. It has 
(1920) two archbishops, 11 bishops, and 1,500 clergymen ; 1,400 churches. 
Previous to disestablishment its income was 600,000/., and its entire capital 
was estimated at 14.000.000Z. By the Disestablishment Act about 7,600,000Z. 
was allotted to it byway of commutation, and 500.000Z. in lieu of private 
endowments. The Church is governed by a General Synod, consisting of a 
House of Bishops (13 in number) and House of Representatives (208 clerical 
and 416 lay members). There are also 23 diocesan synods. The funds of 
the Representative Body on December 31, 1918, amounted to 9,569,302/. 

The largest Presbyterian body consists of 36 presbyteries, and has 626 
ministers and 561 congregations, with 105,000 members ; contributions 
during year 1919-20, 265,900/.; total church income, 348,000/. This 
Church has two colleges, one in Belfast purely theological, the other (Magee 
College) in Londonderry with theological, literary, and scientific departments. 
The two together have 15 professors and lecturers. 

The proportion of marriages in Ireland in 1919 according to the modes 
of celebration was: Roman Catholic, 68-9 per cent.; Church of Ireland, 
15-6 per cent.; Presbyterian, iri per cent.; civil contract, 1*9 per cent.; 
other denominations, 2*5 per cent. 

Instruction. 

University Education. 
In England the highest education is given at the ancient universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, the former having 22 colleges and 3 private halls, and 
the latter 17 colleges and 1 hall ; the university of Durham, founded in 1831, 
with a college of medicine, and since 1871, a college of science at Newcastle ; 
the university of London, founded in 1836 and reorganised in 1900 so as to be 
a teaching as well as an examining body, with 24 colleges or schools giving 
instruction in 8 faculties ; the Victoria University (Manchester), founded 
in 1880 • the Birmingham University, founded in 1900 ; the Liverpoo. Uni- 
versity, founded in 1903 ; the Leeds University, founded in 1904 ; the 
Sheffield University, founded in 1905 ; and the Bristol University, founded 
in 1909. There are also University Colleges at Exeter, 51 lecturers, &c, 740 
students, 1919-20; Nottingham (founded 1881), 122 lecturers, and 2,/60 
students, 1920-21 ; Reading (started with the establishment of art classes in 
1860), 113 lecturers, &c, 1,600 students, 1919-20 : and Southampton (founded 
1850) 39 lecturers, &e., 900 students, 1921. There are special Agricultural 
Colleges at Carlisle, Cirencester, Glasgow, Newport (Shropshire), Kingston- 
on-Soar (Derby), Wye (Kent), Uckfield (Sussex), and Ripley (Surrey). Ihe 
university of Wales, founded in 1903, has 3 colleges (Cardiff, Aberystwyth, 
and Bangor). In Scotland there are 4 universities, viz., at St Andrews, 
founded 1411 ; Glasgow, 1450 ; Aberdeen, 1494 : Edinburgh, 1582. Ihe 
Carne K io trust, founded in 1901 with a capital of 2,000,000/.. has an annual 
income of 100.000/., of which half is devoted to the equipment and expansion 
of the Scottish Universities and half to assisting students. In Irraml^ t he 
university of Dublin, founded 1591. In 1909 was founded in Dublin the 



INSTRUCTION 



31 



National University of Ireland, and in Belfast the Queen s University of 
Belfast The former has 3 constituent colleges, viz., the University Colleges 
of Cork, Galwav, and Dublin. The following table gives the approximate 
number of professors, lecturers, kc, and students of the Universities in the 
United Kingdom for 1920-1921. 



Universities 

England — 
Oxford . 
Cambridge 
Durham . 
London . 
Manchester 
Birmingham . 
LJTerpool 
Leeds 
Sheffield . 
Bristol . 



Total for England 



N mber 
; of Profes- 
sor*, fcc- 



Number of 

Students 



Universities 




.ni— 

St. Andrews . 
Glasgow 
Aberdeen 
Edinburgh . 

Total for Scotland 

Ireland — 
Dublin (Trin. Col.). 
Dublin (National) . 
Belfast . 

Total for Ireland 

Wales 



N\:..'.>- r 
of Profes- 
sor*, Ac. 



Number of 
Students 



106 
188 

117 



653 

SO 
200« 



H 
4,500 
1.600 
l,300< 



11.230 



353 



220* 



1,400 
1,M0« 

1.3"''* 



4,500 



ToUl!> of above 4.21- 






1 Comprising about 200 professors, leaders and lectnrers. and 1,050 " recognised 
teachers," and "appointed tearhers." - UndersTa.: n . 

3 Internal students. In addition there are external students who comprise all sur- 
viving undergraduates of the Dn iv e r ally who h.-»ve not taken a degree nor been registered 
as internal students. The nombir is not ascertainable. 

4 Tear 1919-30. * Includes evening students. 6 Estimated. 

At most of the Universities and University Colleges women students are admitted on 
equal terms with men. There are, however, several colleges exclusively tor female 
Students :— Bedford (61 teachers, Ac, 570 students', Boyal Hollowav i31 teacl*- 
students) and Westfleld Colleges 1 18 teachers, Ac, 108 students) in London : Newnham US 
teachers, Ac, 250 students) and Girt^n (27 teachers, Ac, 170 students) Colleges in 
Cambridee ; Ladv Marparet Hall (6 teachers, Ac., 96 studentsl. Somcrville College 
(11 teachers, Ac," 123 students'. St. Hugh's College (7 tutors, 120 students), and St 
Hilda's Collece 16 teachers, 86 stu<'entsi, in Oxford. Women were first admitted to mem- 
bership of Oxford University, and to take degrees, in October, 1920. 
Secondary and Technical Education, <Lc. 

In England and Wales the councils of counties, of county boroughs, of 
non-county boroughs with population over 10,000, and of urban districts with 
population over 20,000, are the local authorities for higher education. Under 
the Education Act, 1918, County and County Borough Councils are required 
(with the approval of the Board of Education, and in co-operation, it 
necessary, with other educational authorities) to provide " for the progressive 
development and comprehensive organisation of education " in their several 
areas, and in any schemes submitted for approval to the Board of Education 
in furtherance of this object, provision must be made to secure that children 
and young persons (persons under 18 years of ape) shall not be debarred by 
inability to pay fees from receiving the benefits of any form of education from 
which they are capable of profiting. Continuation schools are being 
established, providing courses of study, instruction, and physical training, 
without pavment of fees, for young persons under 16 years of age. and 
subsequently for those under eighteen years of age ; subject to certain 
exemptions, attendance at these schools is compulsory for 320 hours (in 
some cases 280 hours) each year. The students' employment may be 
suspended, if required by the Education Authority, on any day during 
which attendance is necessary at these schools. " Works schools " may be 
recognised, and must be inspected. Local education authorities may also 
(with the approval of the Board of Education) provide or aid the supply of 



32 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

holiday or school camps; centres and equipment for physical training, 
playing fields, school baths and swimming baths ; and other facilities for 
social and physical training. Provision must be made for the supply and 
training of teachers ; and teachers and students may be aided to carry on 
research. County and County Borough Councils must also provide for the 
medical inspection of children and young persons in secondary schools, con- 
tinuation schools, and certain other non-elementary schools and educational 
institutions. To these purposes the local education authorities may apply 
money raised by rates, besides devoting to them the residue under the Local 
Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act, 1890, and they may borrow money. Grants 
are to be made to them by the Board of Education* amounting to not less than 
half the net expenditure recognised by the Board . They have power to provide 
scholarships, including allowances for maintenance, and to pay fees ; in 
schools pi ovided by them they must not pay for religious instruction ; in schools 
not provided by them they can neither impose nor forbid religious instruction. 
In 1917-18 there were in England and Wales 1,061 recognised secondary 
schools on the Grant List, with 238,314 full-time pupils (123,353 boys and 
114 961 girls). In addition there were 134 other secondary schools recognised 
by the Board of Education as efficient, with probably about 26,000 pupils. 
In 1917-18 there were also recognised 10 preparatory schools (i.e., preparatory 
to secondary schools proper) with 1,140 pupils. The Board also recognised 
a number of institutions providing technical instruction courses and day 
technical classes ; schools of nautical training ; university tutorial classes ; 
schools of art ; and evening and other part-time schools. Examinations 
in science and art are held by the_ Board, and scholarships, exhibitions, 
&c, are awarded to successful competitors. 

In Scotland, under the Education (Scotland) Act, 1918, the local 
authorities for the purposes of education are called ' education authorities, 
and the 'education areas' for which they are elected are the burghs of 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, and Leith, and the counties, 
including the remaining burghs. These authorities work through ' school 
management committees,' representing the authority, the parents and the 
teachers. Adequate provision of all forms of primary, intermediate, and 
secondary education in day schools, without payment ol fees, must be made 
by these authorities. They may grant assistance, by payment of fees (in 
cases where fees are pavable), travelling expenses, maintenance allowances, 
&o to suitable persons, to facilitate their attendance at intermediate or 
secondary schools, or at universities, training colleges, or other educational 
institutions. A county education authority may also provide books tor the 
use of the resident adult population. Continuation classes must be provided 
for young persons under the age of 16 years on a certain date, the age limit 
ultimately becoming 18 years, and attendance is required lor at least 820 
hours per year between the hours of 8 a.m. and 7 p.m. Exemption from 
such attendance may be granted in certain circumstances. In 1918-19 
there were 56 "rant-receiving secondary schools, with an avenge attendance 
in the secondary departments of 14,933 (and a total attendance ol 21,828). 

In frOM* tfceW is an Intermediate Education Hoard. Its income is 
derived partly from the intei est on the capital sum of one million sterling 
(Irish Church Funds), partly from an annual sum of 46,567/. provided 
under the Kevenue Act, 1911, in lieu ot the amount formerly payable under 
the l.oeal Taxation (Customs and Kxeise Act), 1890 '1 he income in 1919 
from these and certain other sources was 86,818fc In addition, under he 
Intermediate Kducatioli Act, Ireland, 1914, the Hoard received trom 1 arha- 
ment a sum of 40,000/., known as the Tearhers' Salaries (.rant, and a 
rurthM turn of 50,000/. voted by Parliament. 



INSTRUCTION 33 

The Board holds every year a general public examination for such candi- 
dates as present themselves. It pays grants to schools in respect of this 
examination, and also pays grants on the results of Inspection. In 1919 
these grants amounted to 59,748/., besides exhibitions *Dd prizes to students 
amounting to 6,413/. In that year 12,119 students (7,316 boys and 4,803 
girls) presented themselves for examination, and the numbers who passed 
were 3,819 boys, 2,340 girls, total 6,159. Apart from these subventions, 
secondary education in Ireland is in private hands. 

Throughout Ireland technical instructiou is organised under the Councils of county 
lioroughs, urban districts, and counties, and is controlled by the Department of 
Apiculture and Technical Instruction, with the advice of a Technical Instruction Board 
and a Consultative Committee of Education. The Department aims at tne co-ordination 
of its work with that of other educational authorities. In 1918-19, out of the Parliament- 
ary grant to the Department, SI, 1581. was paid as grants to technical schools and classes 
of science and art and technical instruction in non-agricultural subjects; 33,4502. as 
grants to day secondary schools; and 1,944/. as grants for drawing and manual instruction 
in primary schools. Theie is also an annual grant (out of the Dej>artiiient's Annual En- 
dowment Fund) of 55,0001. for technical education in n on -agri cultural subjects. 
Further, a grant of 7,9401. for manual instruction and domestic economy in rural 
districts, and 2,700?. for classes in lace and crochet making and other rural 
industries, was made by the Agricultural Board in 1918-19. Central institutions under 
the Department are the Roval College of Science, Dublin, with 2:.0 students (1918-19), 
the Metropolitan School of Art, with 276 pupils (191S-19L the Irish Traininp School of 
Domestic Economy, SO students. The Killamey school of housewifery had 29 students 
(1918-10). In urban and county technical schools and classes (191S-1! 1 ) there were 44,566 
students. 

uiUarif Education. 

England and Wales. — Elementary education in England and Wales is 
under the control of the Board of Education. The local administration is in 
the hands of the Councils of counties, of county boroughs, of non-county 
boroughs with population over 10,000, and of urban districts with population 
over 20,000. The last two authorities can transfer their powers to the local 
county councils. The education authorities work through committees 
(consisting of members of their own bodies, ether persons with special 
qualifications, and women) and school managers. Schools aided, but not 
provided, by local authorities have 4 ' foundation ' managers and 2 managers 
appointed by Councils. Women may be managers. On July 31, 1918, the 
number of Local Education Authorities in England and Wales for enforcing 
school attendance was 318. 

The local education authorities maintain all public elementary schools 
and control the expenditure necessary for this purpose. The only financial 
responsibility resting on the managers of ' non-provided ' schools is to 
supply the buildings. In the case of schools not provided by the local 
authorities, their directions as to secular instruction ^including the number 
and qualification of teachers) must be complied with ; they have power to 
inspect the schools, and they must receive, free of charge, the use of the 
school-house for elementary school purposes. Education funds are derived 
from State grants (to the extent of at least half the net expenditure 
recognised by the Board of Education), local rates, kc, and the education 
authorities have borrowing powers. Income from endowments for such 
purposes of elementary education as fall within the scope of the local educa- 
tion authorities is paid to these authorities and applied in aid of the rates. 

Elementary education is free. Attendance at school is to be compulsory 
between the ages of 5 and 14 years, and bye-laws may be made in any area 
requiring attendance up to the age of 15 years, either for children geneially, 
or with certain exceptions. (For attendance at Continuation Schools, see 
above, p. 31.) Provision must be made for courses of advanced instruction 
for the older or more intelligent children ; and for ' practical ' instruction in 

D 



34 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

cookery, laundrywork, housewifery, dairy work, handicrafts, gardening, &c. 
The local education authorities may supply, or aid the supply of, nursery 
schools and classes for children between 2 and 5 years of age, or such later 
age as may be approved by the Board of Education, and may make arrange- 
ments for attending to the health, nourishment, and physical welfare of 
such children Arrangements must also be made for the education ot 
phvsically or mentally defective children, and epileptic children. Provision 
mav also be made for holiday or school camps centres for physical training, 
school baths, and other facilities for social and physical training In ex- 
ceptional circumstances (such as remoteness of the homes from the school) 
board and lodging, and other facilities, may be provided. 

Provision must be made by local education authorities for attending „o 
the health and physical condition of children in public elementary schools, 

AnA iZ^Stlf°^ln under the age of 12, and street-trading under 
the age of 14, are prohibited. 

In 1919 the number of schools (ordinary elementary, higher elementary, 
special, and certified efficient) in England ^ Wa le%for elementary educa- 
tion was 21.473, with accommodation for about 7,100,000 pupils. The 
number of scholars on the books of these schools on January 31 1919 was^ 
221 862 aged under 5 ; 4,582,760 aged 5 and under 12 j 1,113,232 aged 11 
and oven total, 5,917,854. In 1920 there were 12,266 voluntary 
schools for ordinary public elementary education, with accommodation 
for about 2,730,000 pupils ; and 8,705 Council schools with accom- 
modation for about 4,355,000 pupils; total ordinary public elementary 
chool 20,971, with total accommodation of about 7,085,000. The average 
attendanceat these schools in 1918-19 was 5,108,000, and the number of 
teachers was 168,000. The number of higher elementary schools was 44 
with 11,550 registered pupils on the last day of January, 1919. Special 
Tchools comprised, in 1919, 57 for the blind with accommoda tl on fo 
3 200 pupils ; 50 for the deaf, with accommodation lor 4 600 pupils 
198 for mentally defective children, with accommodation for 15,500 pupils 
162 for physically defective children, with accommodation for 11,400 pupils . 
6 for epileptic children with accommodation for 500 pupils ; and 5. 
« certified efficient ' schools. There were also 59 poor law schools on March 
31 1919 In 1919-20 there were 87 training colleges forte ;1 che^ forelemen 
tar'v schools in England and Wales, with accommodation for 13,542 students 
Scotland -Under the Education (Scotland) Act, 1918, elementary edn 
cation is controlled by specially elected 'education authorities (,v<- undo 
SecoXrEducation,&c , p. 32). Education is compulsory up to the ,,p 
of 15 vears, with exemption, on certain conditions, for children over 13 
•NuJerv schools ' may be provided for children over 2 and under 5 years o 
seeTorY later age, if approved by the Scottish Education Department) 
E g xi9tin^volunUry' schools may be transferred to the education author, 
5£fX V m ust a/cept such traW. After November 1920 gran s 
voluntary schools, made under the Education (Scotland) Act, 1897, are t 

^ii^ment^tutn-uX^e age of 13, and street-trading umh 
the T n: numb^f'^nty schools in ree,„t of .rants in 1919 ™g 

schools ; accommodation, 41,702; average attendance, Sl.OoO , averaj 
number on register, 84,997. 



JUSTICE AND CRIME 



35 



There were in 1918-19 21,436 certificated teachers, 304 assistant teachsrs, 
and 6 pupil teachers. In 1919-20 there were at 4 training centres and 3 
training colleges 2,244 senior students ; and 2,198 junior students at 118 
training centres. In 1919-20 there were 956 continuation class centres. 

Ireland. — Elementary education in Ireland has been, since 1831, under 
the control of the ' Commissioners of National Education in Ireland.' 
In 1918 there were 8,002 primary schools in operation : the average number 
of pupils on the registers was 688,955 ; and the average attendance was 
488,031. 

The teachers receiving personal salaries from the Commissioners on 
December 31, 1918, numbered approximately 7,590 principal teachers, 6,770 
assistants, besides 45 workmistresses and 2,380 junior assistant teachers. 
There are 7 training colleges, affording facilities for the training of 1,195 
King's scholars. 

The expenditure under the Education Ac 19 was as follows : — 



England and Wale 
Scotland 
Ireland . 



Total U.K. 



Source of Income 



I.am1 RAt*« Parliamentary Other Receipt* T , 

L 06 * 1 ***** : Vote* t Grant*! (fees. A 



£ 

22,385,000 



I4,flO»,OM 



£. 

3,139.000 
2,340,000 



£ 
2,321,000 
986,000 
|l i a* 

3,749,000 




53,102,000 



Justice and Crime- 
England and Wales. 

The Supreme Court of Judicature is the ultimate authority in all cases, 
civil and criminal, in England an 1 Wales. It exercises its power through 
the High Court of Justice and a variety of subordinate local courts. The 
principal courts having criminal jurisdiction are the petty sessional 
courts, the general or quarter sessions, the courts of oyer and terminer and 
gaol delivery, more popularly known as ' assizes, : and the Central Criminal 
Court. Two or more justices of the peace, the Lord Mayor or any alderman 
of the City of London, or any metropolitan or borough police magistrate or 
other stipendiary magistrate, sitting in a court house, constitute a petty 
sessional court. The courts of quarter sessions are held four times a year by 
the justices of the county. Similar courts can be held at other times, and are 
then called 'general sessions.' Two justices constitute a court, but usually 
a larger number attend. Women may be magistrates. Certain cities and 
boroughs have a court of quarter sessions, with similar jurisdiction to the 
county justices in quarter sessions assembled, in which the recorder of the 
borough is the judge. The assize courts are constituted by Judges of the 
High Court (or in some cases by King's Counsel bearing His Majesty's special 
commission). These go on circuit twice or four times a year, visiting everv 
comity in turn, and hearing and determining all civil cases entered for trial 
and all criminal cases presented by the Grand Jury of the County or Riding 
of the County. Trials are, in general, by jury, and the jury, sabject to the 
direction of the Judge on points of law, are the sole judges of the facts of the 

D 2 



36 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

case Women are liable to serve on juries. The Central Criminal Court is 
the "court of oyer and terminer and gaol delivery for the City of London and 
a large surrounding district. The sessions of this court are held at least twelve 
times a year and more often if necessary. The Recorder and the Common 
Serieant and, if the number of the prisoners makes it necessary, the judge o 
the City 'of London Court, sit on the first two days, after which they are joined 
by one of the judges of the High Court on the rota, for whom the more serious 
cases are reserved. Criminal cases of special importance or complexity arising 
in any part of the country may, by direction of the Lord Chief Justice ^ be 
brought for trial in the Kings Bench Division of the High Court 
of Justice before three High Court Judges, the Lord Chief Justice himself 
presiding A petty sessional court deals summarily with minor ottences 
Cases of a more serious nature are usually investigated by a petty sessional 
court before being tried at the sessions or the assizes. To every sessions 
assize, and to eve^y sitting of the Central Criminal Court, the sheriff cites 24 
of the chief inhabitants of the district, of whom not less than 12 and not moi e 
than 23 are sworn and constitute a grand jury, which examines the bill 
of indictment against the accused person, hears the evidence of witnesses 
for the prosecution, and if it thinks a prima facie case for trial is made out 
endorses the bill 'a true bill.' All criminal trials, except those which 
come before a court of summary jurisdiction, take place before a judge and a 
petty jury of twelve persons. Appeal is allowed in criminal cases : CI on a 
point of law; (ii.) on a question of fact, or other sufficient ground if the 
Ke certifies the case as fit for appeal, or the Court o Criminal ^ Appeal 
grants leave to appeal ; and (iii. ) against the sentence (if not fixed by lav ) w ith 
the leave of the Appeal Court. On a conviction the judge can, it he think 
fit, reserve a question of law (but not of fact) for the Court of Crimma 
Appeal, which can reverse, amend, or affirm the judgment- ™*°*g 
other method of securing the revision of a sentence is by the Royal pre- 
rogative, exercised on the advice of the Home Secretary, by which a 
sentence can be modified or annulled. No man can be tried again for the 
same crime after a petty jury has found him ' not guilty. Nomina y all the 
judges are appointed by the King, but in practice the Lord Chancellor (wh* 
is administer ex-officio president of the House of Lords, ^{^*"g 
the ministry), the Lord Chief Justice, the Lords of Appeal, who sit in the 
House of Lords and on the Judicial Committee of the Trivy Council, and 
the Lords Justices of Appeal who sit in the Court of Appeal, arc appointed 
on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, and all the other judges on 
the recommendation of the Lord Chancellor. „„,«*„! 

The courts having jurisdiction in civil cases are the County Courts, cieated 
in 1846, Assizes, and the High Court. Above the High Court is the Court 
of Appeal, and above that the House of Lords. .. , 

The authorised strength of the police force in England and A\ ales on 
September 29, 1919, was 56,166. 

Scotland. 
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. 
It consists of all the judges of the Court of Session, and sits more or less fre- 
.Hiently, as the number of cases before it may require, in Edinburgh or in the 
circuit towns. One judge can, and usually does, try cases, but two or more 
preside in cases of difficulty or importance. It is the only competent court ir 
cases of treason, murder, robbery, rape, fire-raising, deforcement of messengers, 
and generally in all cases in which a higher punishment than imprisonment _« 
by statute directed to be inflicted ; and it has moreover an inherent junsdic, 
lion to punish all criminal acts, both those already established by common law 



JUSTICE AND CRIME 37 

or statute, and such as have never preTiouslv come before the courts and are 
not within any statute. 

The sheriff of each county is the proper criminal judge in all crimes 
occurring within the county which infer only an arbitrary punishment, and if 
the case is tried with a jury the High Court has no power of review on the 
merits. Even in cases indicted to the High Court the accused is, under the 
Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act of 1887, regularly asked to plead in the 
sheriff court, and minor objections to the indictment can be wholly or in part 
disposed of there. Borough magistrates and justices of the peace have jurisdic- 
tion in petty cases occurring within the burgh or county, and in a numl>er 01 
minor offences under various statutes. 

The Court of Session exercises the highest civil jurisdiction in Scotland, 
with the House of Lords as a Court of Appeal. 

The police force in Scotland at the end of 1919 had an authorised strength 
of 6,124. 

Ireland. 

In Ireland persons charged with crime are as a rule brought before a 
court of petty sessions. In most cases one magistrate is sufficient to form a 
court to try a case to be decided at petty sessions : in some instances two 
are requisite. Offences are divided into two classes, those in which justices 
have a 'summary jurisdiction,' in which cases they hear and determine 
the complaint, the Criminal Justice Administration Act, 1914, providing 
for an appeal in practically every case. The second class is ' indictable 
offences.' In these cases the justice merely takes the depositions and returns 
the case for trial to the next court having jurisdiction to try it — quarter 
sessions or assize court as the case may be. In the event of the prosecution 
failing to make out a case against the accused, the magistrates refuse informa- 
tions. The Attorney-General may send up a bill at assizes, even without the 
preliminary magisterial investigation, or in a case in which a magistrate has 
wrongly refused informations. There is this difference, however, between 
quarter sessions in Ireland and in England : in England they are presided 
over by an unpaid chairman, who need not be a lawyer and who is elected 
by his fellow justices of the peace for the county ; while in Ireland they 
are presided over by a paid official, who must be a practising barrister of ten 
years' standing, appointed by the Crown, and who is also judge of the county 
court ( which corresponds to the English county court). The criminal juris- 
diction of a county court judge is very extensive, and the Recorder of Dublin 
has practically the same criminal jurisdiction as a judge of the High Court. 
The assizes are presided over by one of the common law judges of the High 
Court of Justice. In the quarter sessions, recorder's court, and assizes the 
trial is by jury in all cases save appeals from petty sessions. In addition 
to the ordinary unpaid justices there are paid resident magistrates. The 
Criminal Law and Procedure Act contains special provisions for dealing 
with crime in certain cases. Nearly all the clauses of the Criminal Law 
and Procedure Act, however, require a proclamation of the Lord-Lieutenant 
in Council before they come into force. In the city of Dublin, the 
divisional magistrates for the police district of Dublin metropolis deal 
with all summary cases arising within their jurisdiction, and their jurisdiction 
is somewhat more extensive than that of the ordinary county justices. 

Under the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, there .is to be a Supreme 
Court of Judicature, consisting of two divisions, the High Court of Justice 
and the Court of Appeal, in Southern Ireland, and a similar court in Northern 
Ireland, and also a High Court of Appeal for the whole of Ireland. An 
apj>eal may lie from the latter Court to the House of Lords. 

The number of police on March 31, 1919, was 10,754. 



38 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



Criminal Statistics. 

Superior Courts. 



Number of persons for trial 



Males 



Females 



Total 



1914 
1917 

1018 
1919 



1914 

1917 
1918 
1919' 



1914 
1917 
1918 
,1919 



Enolanjd and Wales. (Assizes and Quarter Sessions.) 

11,408 
6,769 
0,047 
S.002 



1,292 
997 
780 

1,294 



10,132 
4,697 
4,920 
0,838 


1,276 
1,072 
1,127 
1,164 


ligh Court of Justic 


1,129 

823 
583 
986 


163 
174 
197 
308 



Convicted 



9,277 
4,567 
4,837 
6,311 



(a) 

1,012 
826 
630 

1,018 



(Assizes Dublin Commission, and Quarter Sessions.) 

1,698 ! 272 1,970 * 1,410 

1,122 292 1,414 I 918 

918 26J 1,181 787 

1,242 | 237 1,479 , 948 



(a) Exclusive of persons outlawed, and also of cases where bail was forfeited for ncm- 
apnearauee. 

Courts of Summary Jurisdiction. 



Year 



1914 
1917 
1918 
1919 



Indictable offences 



Non-indictable offences 



Persons apprehended 
or summoned 



Total 



Females 
only 



Con- 
victed 



Com- 
mitted 
for 
trial 



Persons apprehended 
or summoned 



Total 



England and Wales. 



68,665 10.S40 

66,018 13,129 

61.04S 11,877 

57,379 10,509 



24,949 
31.01S 
28,433 
25,908 



10,193 
5,737 
5,988 

8,288 





(<») 


(«) 


1914 

1917 


23,969 


3,960 


21,199 


3,724 


191S 


18,878 


8,109 


1919 


19,244 


2,716 



Scotland. 


17,046 


277 , 


14,765 


371 1 


13,518 


204 1 


14,015 





648,770 

511,938 
434,347 
522,448 



(e) 

141,819 
82,742 
00,494 

81,149 



Females 
only 



107,955 
105.787 

88,569 
85,834 



(«) 

29,320 
16,705 
10,716 
13,607 



Convicted 



491,760 
862,823 

397,149 



102,119 
51,850 
86,049 
64,425 



Ireland. 



1914 | 


6,611 


1,228 


1,977 


2,049 « 


W4,T©8 


■25,850 


136,828 


1917 ! 


5,4 IS 


; 1,4*1 


1 1,540 1 


1,347 [ 


109,071 


21.285 1 


87,472 


1918 


4,363 


1,165 


I 1,1« 


1,166 




19,850 , 


77,781 


1919 1 


4.431 


857 


i.in 


1,540 


90,998 


17, SOS 


79,051 



(a) Persons ' proceeded against ' and exclusive of number ' committed for trial.' 

(b) Persons reported to Crown Uounsui, who directed trial by Sheriff summarily. 
(«) Number ' proceeded against.' 



NATIONAL INSURANCE — OLD AGE PENSIONS 39 

National Insurance. 

Under the National Insurance Acts, 1911 to 1920, provision is made for compulsory 
insurance against loss of health, for the preTention and cure of sickness, and for 
compulsory insurance against unemployment. 

(i) National Health Insurance.— This is administered by the Ministry o Health in 
England and Vales and corresponding Departments in Scotland and Ireland ; by other 
specially constituted authorities ; and by approved friendly societies, trade unions, Ac. The 
persons who are compuls«>rily insured, known as employed contributors, comprise, with 
certain exceptions, all males and females aged 16 and under 70, whether British subjects or 
not, employed under contract of service express or implied, whether paid by time or piece. 
Among persons excluded are those employed otherwise than in manual labour at a rate 
of remuneration exceeding 250J. per year. Insured persons who are not members of an 
Approved Society must contribute to a Post Office Fund and are known as deposit con- 
tributors; their benefits are limited. Special provisions exist for married women, 
the army, navy, and air force, mercantile marine, and certain other classes. Certain persons 
not compulsorily insured may become voluntary contributors. The funds are provided 
by the employer (cVf, per week per employed person), the worker (M. per week by males 
and 4d. by females), and the State. Special rates are applicable in cases of voluntary 
insurers, and low wage-earners, and the rates in Ireland are Id. lower for contributors 
and }«". lower for employers than in Great Britain. Contributions cease at the age of 70 
when the Old Age Pension Acts (?.».) come into play. The benefits include medieal 
treatment, sanatorium treatment, payments during sickness (ordinary rate 15». per week 
for men, and 12«. for women), and disablement (7a, 6<j. per week), and (in the case of 
women) a payment of 40«. on confinement. Other benefits are also possible if fun<ls permit. 

The number of insured persons under the Health Insurance Scheme in 1919 was about 
15} millions. The total income in 1918-19 was about 30 ¥ million £ (ineluding 8J million £ 
contributed by the State), and the total expenditure 2(>{ million £. 

(ii) Unemployment Insurance. — This is administered ny the Board of Trade through the 
Employment Exchanges, Trade Unions, and Friendly Societies. Under the Unemployment 
Insurance Acts, 1920 and 1931, substantially all persons covered by the Health Insurance 
scheme art eompulsorily insured against unemployment, except out-workers and persons 
employed in agriculture and private domestic service. Employees of local authorities, rail- 
ways, and certain other public utility undertakings, and persons with rights under statutory 
superannuation schemes, are also exempted where the Minister of Labour certifies that they 
are employed under conditions which make the National Insurance unnecessary. The eontri- 
1 ulionsfrom July 3, 1921, are : Men of 18 and over,6d. per week from employer and 6d. from 
employee ; women of 18 and over, 5d. from employer and id. from employee ; boys between 
16 and 18, 3d. from employer and 2j<*. from employee ; girls between 16 and 18, 2}d. from 
employer and 2d. from employee. The State contributes, in addition, one-fourth of the 
aggregate amount of the contributions paid by employers and employees. The benefit 
consists of a weekly payment of 20j. for men, lt>«. for women, and half these amounts to 
contributors under IS, during a maximum period of 10 weeks in eight months, and after 
Ju!y 2, 1922, a maximum period of 20 weeks per year, subject to certain conditions. At the 
age of 60 insured contributors may, under certain conditions, obtain a refund of their own 
contributions, less any benefits paid, together with interest. Industries may, with the 
approval of the Minister of Labour, contract out of this scheme by setting up suitable 
schemes of their own. 

The number of persons covered by the national or special scheme is estimated to be 
about 12,000,000 (SJ millions men and 3£ millions women). Total income, 191S-19, 4o' 
million £ (including 1-1 million £ from State funds), and expenditure 600,0001 

Old Age Pensions. 

Under the Old Age Pensions Acts, 190S to 1919, every person over 70 years of 
age who has been a British subject for at least 10 years up to the date of the 
receipt of pension ; who, if a natural -born British subject, for twelve out of the 
twenty years, and if not a natural-born British subject, for twenty years up to 
the date of receiving a pension has resided in the United Kingdom (residence 
abroad is allowed to count in certain circumstances) ; and whose yearly means 
do not exceed 49£. 17*. 6d., is entitled to a pension : provided he is not in re- 
ceipt of indoor poor relief (medical and surgical relief for three months does not 
disqualify), or is not a lunatic in an asylum. The minimum age for blind per- 
sons has been reduced to 50 years. An existing pensioner may in certain circum- 
stances be disqualified for receiving further pensions. For everv borough and 
urban district with a census population of at least 20,600, 1 and for 
every county (excluding borough and district areas) a local pension 
f 2 1 I uOO° <>tl * Ild tb * popnl * tion limit docs not a PP lv : in Ireland the limit is 10,000 instead 



40 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



committee (who may appoint sub -committees) is appointed by the borough, 
district, or county council. Pension officers (to investigate and report to the 
committees) are appointed by the Treasury. The central pension authority 
is the Local Government Board. The weekly amount of the pension is 10s. if 
the yearly means of the pensioner do not exceed 261. 5s. If the yearly means 
exceed 261. 5s., the weekly pension decreases by 2s. for every 51. 5s. by which 
this limit is exceeded, up to 4.71. 5s., when the rate becomes Is. per week. If 
the yearly means exceed 49Z. 17s. 6d. no pension is payable. On March 28, 
1919, there were 920,198 pensions payable in the United Kingdom. The 
estimated cost of old age pensions in 1920-21 is 25,969,000Z. 

Pauperism. 

There is a Poor Law, under a variety of statutes, applicable to the three 
Kingdoms, by which paupers, under certain conditions, are to be relieved in 
their own houses or lodged in workhouses or poor-houses built for the purpose. 
The law is administered by the Local Government Board, through Boards of 
Guardians elected for the purpose. England and Wales, including the Me- 
tropolis and the municipal boroughs, are divided into 658 poor law unions, for 
each of which there is elected a Board of Guardians. In urban districts and 
in the Metropolis guardians are separately elected, but in rural districts the 
rural district councillors act as guardians for the parishes they represent 
on the district council. Guardians are elected on the same popular franchise 
as district councillors. Women are eligible. In every civil parish overseers 
are appointed whose duty it is to make and collect the poor rate. 

Amount expended in poor-relief for year ended March 25 for England 
and Ireland, and May 15 tor Scotland. For Scotland, the amount includes 
expenditure on buildings and loans repaid and interest : — 



Tear 


England 4 Wales 


Scotland 


Ireland 


Total U.K. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1899-1900 


11,567,649 


1,141,660 


1,125,110 


13,834,419 


1913-14 


15,055,863 


1,609,358 


1,320,987 


17,986,208 


1915-16 


16,085,586 


1,411,521 


1,400,406 


18,897,513 


1916-17 


16,187,748 


1,497,326 


1,474,297 


19,159,371 


1917-18 


17,039,623 


1,536,924 


1,599,531 


20,176,078 


1918-19 


18,423,883 


— 


1,816,093 


— 



The aggregate expenditure by local authorities in England and Wales, which is or- 
dinarily classed as relating to the relief of the poor, during the period of 80 years ended 
March 25, 1914, was approximately (576,000,0001. 







Statistics 

England 


of Paupers. 

and Wales. 






1st 

J miliar} 


Indoor 1 


Outdoor i 


Ivuuatics in 
County ami 
Borough Asylums, 
Registered Hos- 
pitals and 
Licensod Houses 

100,941 

'.'7.:: .<■ 
>>(),71S 
88,17! 
82.2S8 


Casual 
Paupers 

7,508 
2,875 
1,470 
1,091 
2.035 


Net total of 
persons 
relieved * 


1914 
1917 
1018 

1919 
1920 


2ii4,202j 
215,288 
198,498 
183,1111 
186,273 


388,917 
321,813 

HI! 
287,214 
805*822 


761 

687,387 

688,785 

5i4.(H7 

..7(">,418 



1 Excluding casual paupers. 

'i Deductions being made for persons counted twice in the preceding columns. 



FINANCE 



n 



Scotland. 



Jan. 15 



1914 
1918 
1919 
1920 



Poor relieved 
(Excluding Vagrant*) 



Vagnwti 



Paupers 

66,729 
57,620 
54,591 
55,643 



Dependents 

38,394 
29,137 
28,207 
29,985 



Paupers 



Dependents 



103 


19 


33 


5 


34 


3 


48 


2 



Total 



105,245 
86,795 
82,835 
85,678 



Ireland. 



J an nary 

(end of 

first Adult 



week) able-bodied 1 



Indoor paupers 



All others 




Total 



35,355 
27,513 

M.B0S 



Outdoor 
paupers 



36,081 

35,880 
85.511 



In asylums 



1,662 
1,690 

1,40) 



Total 



74.-4* 
61,832 



i Excluding any who may be temporarily disabled by sickness. 

Included in the number of indoor paupers in Ireland are casuals, who 
numbered 394 in January, 1920. 

Finance. 
I. Rryentje axd Expenditure. 







Revenue 




Tear ended 


Estimated 


Actual Receipts 


More ( + ) 




in the 


into the 


or less(-) 




Budgets 


Exchequer 


than Estimates 


1914ipre-war> 


£■ 
194,825,000 


198,242,897 


£ 
+ 3,417,897 


1918 


638,600,000 


707,234,565 


+ 68,634,565 


1919 


842,050,000 


889,020,825 


+ 46,970,825 


1920 


1,168,650,000 1 


1,339,571,381 


+ 170,921,381 


1921 


1,418,300,000 


1,425,984,666 


+ 7,684,666 


1922 


1,216,650,000 


— 


— 



Expenditure 



Tear ended 
March 31 


Budget and 

Supplementary 

Estimates 

£ 

199,011,000 

2,767,631,000 

2,972,197,000 

1,642,295,000 

, 1,271,168,000 


Actual Pay- 
ments out of 
the Exchequer 


More ( + ) 

or less(-) 

than Estimates 


191 4'pre-war) 

1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 


£ 

197,492,969 
2,696,221,405 
2,579,301,188 
1,665,772,928 
1,195.427,877 


£ 
-1.518,031 
-71,409,595 
-392,895,812 
+23,477,928 
-75,740,123 


1922 


: 1,039,728,000 


— 


— 



42 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



The revenue in detail for 1919-20 (exclusive of 301.720Z. duties collected 
for and due to the Isle of Man, but inclusive of the proceeds of duties 
the value of which is assigned under various Acts to local purposes), and 
the expenditure, are given below, as are also the Exchequer receipts for 
1920-21, and the Budget estimate for 1921-22. Of the revenue for 1920-21, 
72 per cent, was derived from taxation. 



Sources of Revenue 


Net Receipts 

lQ|n on 


Exchequer 
Receipts * 


Budget 
Estimate 








1920-21 


1921-22 












£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


i. Customs — Imports : 










Cocoa, Chocolate, &c. 


2,474,311 








Coffee 


621,161 








Chicory . 


57,492 








Currants . 


190,723 








Raisins 


519,892 








Other dried fruits 


342,974 








Motor spirit 


2,990,687 








Rum . ' 


9,188,301 








Brandy 


4,811,342 








Other spirits 


2,169,211 








Sugar, glucose, &c. . 


40,887,585 








Tea ... 


17,747,060 








Tobacco . 


60,857,917 








Wine 
Cinematograph Films 


2,235,400 








zuy,o i o 








Clocks and Watches . 


919,385 








Motor Cars and Motor 










Cycles . 


1,995,713 








Musical Instruments. 


237,491 








Matches and Lighters 


1,085,829 








Other articles . 


11,890 












149,553,677 


134,003,000 


12ii.S00,000 


ii. Excise — 




Spirits 


42,633,798 








Beer 


71,276,230 








Sugar, Saccharin, Glu- 










cose 


1,157,200 
13,142 








Tobacco (home grown) 






Motor Spirit 
Licence duties, &c. : 


9,800 
















Liquor 


1,498,067 








Other 


1,580,141 








Railways . 


7,393 








Table Waters and 










Cider . 


1,421,404 








Matches and Lighters 


2,311,741 








Entertainments 


10,479,516 






Patent medicines 


1,382,661 






Other sources . 


60,865 










133,781,958 


199,782,000 


196,200,000 







1 That is, revenue actually paid iuto the Exchequer during the financial year. 



FINANCE 



43 



Sources of Rktekcs 



Net Receipt* 
1919-20 



Exchequer 

Receipts ; 

1920-21 



Budget 

Estimate 
1921-22 



Motor vehicle duties — 
Estate, &c, duties- 
Estate duty 2 .36,637,708 
Temporary estate 

duty* . 1,040 
Probate and Account 

duty 3 . . . 13,210 

Legacy duty . . 5,084,682 

Succession 'duty . 973,119 

Corporation duty . 50,317 



£ £ x. 

7,073,000 9,000,000 



v. Stamps (excluding 
Fee, &c, Stamps) — 
Deeds 
Receipts, Drafts, &c 
Bills of exchange 
Contract Notes 
Companies' capital 

duty . 
Bonds to bearer 
Bankers' Notes, Ate 
Licences and Cer 

tificates 
Insurances 
Other sources . 

vi. Land Tax 

vii. House Duty 

viii. Property and Income 
Tax and super-tax 
ix. Excess Profits Tax 
x. Corporation profits tax 
xi. Land Value Duties . 



42,759,976 



11,658,732 

3,835,284 

1,589,339 

288,932 

3,694,433 
453,250 
282,734 

162,305 
814,187 
112,322 



.000 48,000,000 



22,891,468 

671,201 

1,935,413 



26,591,000| 21,000,000 

650,000! \ O500 000 

1,900,000./ A 50 °. 00U 



359,434,071 394,146,000 410.500.C00 

289,208,046 219,181, 000J 120,000,000 

— 650,000' 30,000,000 

650,596 20,000 — 



Total Produce of Taxea. — 



.1.000,886,406 1,031,725,000 964,000,000 



xii. Postal service . 
xiii. Telegraph service 
xiv. Telephone service 
xv. Crown Lands . 
xvi. Interest on Sue; 
Canal Shares, &c 
xvii Miscellaneous (in 
eluding Fee, &c. 
Stamps) 

Total non-tax Revenue 

Total Revenue 



31.110,728, 

5,024,145 

8,268,552 

678,931 

14,951,922 



36,100,000 

5,200,000 

8,200,000 

660,000 

30,770,729 



60,000,000 

650,000 

12,000,000 



— 280,926,88 5 313,328,937 180,000,000 
^ 340,961,143 394,259,666' 252,650,000 

— 280,926,885 1.425,984,666 1,216.65^000 



' That is, revenue actually paid into tne Excnequer during the financial year. 
- On property of persons dying after August 1, 1894. 
3 On property of persons dying before August 2, 1894. 



44 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



The national expenditure chargeable against Revenue falls under two cate- 
gories ; I., the Consolidated Fund Charges, mainly bestowed on the National 
Debt ; and II., the Supply Services, including the Army, Navy, and Civil 
Service. 



Branches of Expenditure 



I. Consolidated Fund : 

National Debt Services :— 
Interest of Funded Debt 
Terminable Annuities 
Interest of Unfunded Debt 
Management of Debt 
Interest, &c, on War Debt 



ii. Road Fund . 

iii. Payments to Local Taxation Accounts 
iv. Land Settlement . . . . 

v. Other Consolidated Fund Services : — 

Civil List ..... 

Annuities and Pensions . 

Salaries and Allowances 

Courts of Justice .... 

Miscellaneous . 



Total Consolidated Fund Services 



II Supply: 
i. Army 
ii. Air Force . 
iii. Navy 
iv. Civil Services 
v. Customs and Excise 
yi. Inland Revenue 
vii. Post Office Services 
viii. Votes jof Credit— Naval and Military 

All' 



Operations, &c. 



Total Supply Services . 



Total Expenditure Chargeable against 
Revenue . . . . . 




The Exchequer issues shown above arc those with which the various 
departments were supplied to meet all requirements, whether original 
or supplementary. 



FINANCE 45 

Iu addition to the ordinary expenditure above given, there were in 
1920-21 issues to meet capital expenditure under the Telegraph fMonev) Acts, 
1913 and 1920, 5,900,000/. ; Housing Act, 1914, 43,000/. ; the Post Office 
(London) Railway Act, 1913, 144,000/. ; amounting in the aggregate to 
6,087,000/. The monev raised for Supply purposes bv National Savings Certi- 
ficates was 41,130,794/" and by other loans, 70,960,875/.; total, 112,091,669/. 
The balance in the Exchequer on April 1, 1920, was 9,369,097/. ; the gross 
receipts into the Exchequer in the year 1920-21 amounted to 7,126,758,208/.; 
the gross issues out of the Exchequer amounted to 7,133,052,799/; 
leaving a balance on March 31, 1921, of 3,074,506/. 

Army and Navy and other war expenditure down to 31 March, 1919, 
was met by votes ot credit, the total of which, voted from August, 1914, 
to November, 191S, amounted to 8,742,000,000/., of which 362,000,000/. 
represented votes of credit for 1914-15, 1,420,000,000/. for 1915-16. 
2,010,000,000/. for 1916-17. 2,450,000,000/. for 1917-18, and 2,500,000,000/. 
for 1918-19. 

The following are the principal items of the Civil Service estimates for 
1921-22 :— 



Public Education . 63, 5 IS, 000 

Old Age Pensions ..... 26,150,000 

Ministiy of Pensions .... 111,557,000 

Ministry of Health, kc. Insurance, &c. 31,220,000 
Ministry of Labour. Civil Demobilisation and 

Resettlement, &c. . ... 18,325,000 

Loans to Dominions and Allies . 5,000,000 

Railway Agreements, Transport, Ac. . 30,673,000 

Ministries of Munitions and Shipping 13.046,000 

Coal Mines Deficiency ... 3,000,000 

Other Civil Services .... 76,546,000 



379,035,000 



The estimated expenditure chargeable against Capital in 1921-22 is as 
follows : — 



¥ 



Telegraph (Money) Act, 1913 . . 9,032,000 

Post Office (London) Railway Act, 1913 . 34,500 

Housing Act, 1914 . " . . 156,000 

Electricitv Supplv Act, 1919 . . 1,250,000 



10,472,500 



The net expenditure for the Revenue Departments in 1921-22 is 
estimated as follows : Customs and Excise, 6,676,000/. ; Inland Revenue, 
8,025,000/.; Post Office, 67,165,000/. Thus the total expenditure for 



46 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



Civil Service and Revenue Departments for the year is estimated at 
460,901,000^. 

The following statement shows for the year ended March 31, 1920, the net 
amount estimated to have been contributed by England, Scotland, and 
Ireland to the revenue expenditure on English, Scottish, and Irish 
services : — 





England 


Scotland 


Ireland 


From other 
Sources 

£ 

418,000 
89,000 

3,425,000 


Total 


Net Revenue as contributed:— 
Customs .... 

Estate, &c. duties 
Stamps .... 
Land tax .... 
House duty .... 
Income tax (including 

super-tax) 
Excess profits duty, etc. . 
Land value duties 


£ 

119,032,000 
109,870,000 
35,678,000 
20,859,000 
639,000 
1,801,000 

307,258,000 

244,812,000 

529,000 


£ 

16,269,000 

13,310,000 

4,991,000 

1,573,000 

32,000 

134,000 

37,498,000 

35,148,000 

119,000 


& 

14,253,000 

10,602,000 

1,673,000 

871,000 

11,253,000 

9,748,000 

3,000 


£ 
140,554,000 
133,7S2,000 
42,760,000 
22,892,000 
671,000 
1,935,000 

359,434,000 

289,208,000 

651,000 


Total revenue from taxes 


839,478,000 


109,074,000 


48,403,000 


3,932,000 


1,000,887,000 


Postal service 
Telegraph service 
Telephone service 
Crown lands 
Receipts from Sundry 

Loans, etc. . 
Miscellaneous 


26,679,000 

4,282,000 

7,120,000 

632,500 

4,000 
1,523,000 


2,912,000 

453,000 

900,000 

34,000 

114,000 


1,520,000 
289,000 
248,000 
12,000 

5,500 
137,000 


14,942,500 
279,152,500 

294,095,C00 


81,111,000 

6,024,000 

8,268,000 

678,500 

14,952,000 
280,927,000 


Total non-tax revenue 


40,240,500 


4,413,000 


2,212,000 


840,960,500 


Aggregate revenue . 


879,718,500 


113,487,000 


50,615,000 


298,027,000 

General 

services 

936,276,500 


1,341,847,509 


Expenditure (Exchequer 
Issues) : — 

Debt, Army, Navy, Air 


English 
services 


Scottish 
services 


Irish 
services 


Total 
936,276,500 


Civil Government Charges : 
On Consolidated Fund : 
Civil List and Miscel- 
laneous charges 
Payments to local tax. 
ation accounts, Ac- 
Land settlement . 
Voted 


439,500 

7,^94,500 

3,477,500 

151,663,500 


163,500 

1,288,000 

22,236,500 


147,000 

1,568,500 

23,989,500 


982,500 

371,164,500 

372,147,000 

1,311,500 
1,227,000 

87,000,0(0 


1,732,500 

10,746,000 

3,477,500 

569,054,000 


Total Civil Government 

charges .... 

Customs and Excise and 

' nJiiiid Revenue 
Post Office services 
Votes of Credit— Naval and 
Military Operations, *c. 


163,475,000 

6,688,000 
39,436,000 


23,683,000 

S87.500 
4,420,000 


25,705,000 

535,000 
2,981,000 


*85,010,000 

9,422,000 
48,064,000 

87,000,000 


Total expenditure . 


209,599,000 


U,9M,tM 


29,221,000 


1,397,962,000 


l,e00,772,6OO 



FINANCE 



47 



II. Taxation. 

The net receipts from the principal branches of taxation were as follows 
in the vears stated : — 



Tear ended 
March 31 



1913-142 

1915-16 

1918-17 

1917-18 

1918-19 

1919-20 

1920--J! 3 



CusMms 1 



Estate, , d 

Excise* 4c. Stamps' _ 

Duties' lax 



Thous. £ Thous £ Thou.«.£ rhous.£ Thous.f 



M,M0 

70,71 

70,890 

103,466 

149,554 

134,003 



39 65S 

61,908 

56,488 

i 38,578 

60,663 

133,782 

1W,T82 



27,M0 
30,938 
31,192 
81,735 
BO.8O0 
42,760 

47,:-.".' 



»,983 

6,780 
7,764 
BJftM 

12,417 
22,891 
26.591 



690 
680 
658 
683 
643 
071 
650 



Inhabited 
House 
Duty 

Thous. £ 
1,994 
1,975 
1,888 
1.941 
1,860 
1,935 
1,900 



Property A 
Income Tax 



Value 



andSuper ™ 



Tax 



Thous. £ 


KbpncJ 


47,241 


736 


129,161 


369 


205,678 


524 


238,136 




293,268 


710 


359,434 




394,146 


20 



1921-224 I 126,800 190,200 48.000 21,000 






410,500 



1 The principal items included In these branches of revenue are shown on pages 42-43 
above. 

'-' Pre-war year. 

a Exchequer Receipts. 

•* Budget estimates. 

An Excess Profits Tax of 50 per cent, upon the excess of profits orcr 
pre-war standards was introduced in 1915, and produced 187,846*". in 1915-16. 
The rate was later increased to 60 per cent., producing 141,614,932/. in 
1916-17 (including a special munitions levy from 'controlled' establish- 
ments), and then to 80 per cent., producing 223,116,090*. in 1917-18, 
283,976,861?. in 1918-19, and 289,208,046/. in 1919-20. The budget of 
1919 reduced the rate to 40 per cent, and that of 1920 raised it to 60 percent. 
The yield in 1920-21 was 219,181,000/., and the estimate for 1921-22 is 
120,000,000/. 

The gross amount of income brought under the review of the Inland 
Revenue Department in the year ended April 5, 1918, in the United 
Kingdom, was 1,967,066,000/.; in 1913-14 it was 1,167,184,000/.; in 
1904-5 it was 912,130,000/. In 1918-19 it was estimated at 2 290 millions. 
The income on which tax was actually received in 1917-18, after allowing for 
exemptions and abatements, was 1,083,982,282/. 

Prior to April 6, 1915, incomes of and below 160/. per year were 
exempt from income tax. Fiom April, 1915, to April, 1920, the limit was 
130/. per year. In the case of taxable incomes, abatements were made, 
and also allowances for children, wife, and insurance premiums, on the 
lower range of incomes. The rates of tax per £ of taxable income varied as 
follows : 

1913-14 
1914-15 
191.5-16 
1916-17 
1917-18 
191S-19and 1919-20 

From April, 1920, exemption is allowed to bachelors with earned 
incomes below 150/. (or unearned below 135/.), and to married persons with 
earned incomes below 250/. (or unearned below 225/.) The abatements and 
allowances (for children, dependent relatives, life assurance premiums, &c), 
on higher incomes have been revised. The " standard " rate of tax is 6s., 
but on the first 225/. of a person's " taxable " income the rate is S*. 



». 


d. 





9 to 


1 


„ 


1 


!»? .. 


•> 


3 ,, 


•J 


3 .. 


1 


3 » 



so 


me. 


Unearned Income. 


>. 


d. 


*. d. i. d. 


l 


2 


1 2 


l 


8 


1 4 to 1 S 


8 





2 4f „ 3 


5 





3 ,.5 


B 





3 ,,5 








3 „ 6 



48 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



The gross income and income on which tax was received in 1917-18 were 
distributed as follows : — 



Profits from the ownership of Lands .... 
,, ,, Houses 

,, ,, Other property 

Profits from the occupation of lands .... 
,, British and other Government securities . 
Profits from businesses, concerns, professions, em- 
ployments (except those of a public nature), and 

certain interest 1,285, 234,191 

Salaries of Government, Corporation, and Public 

Company officials 265,641,713 



Gross income 

£ 

52,000,000 

235,051,205 

1,296,300 

51,230,000 

76,612,502 



Income taxed 
£ 

172,583,580 

16,441,034 
66,068,602 



682,053,924 
146,S35,142 



Total 



1,967,065,911 1,083,9S2,2S2 



Estimated gross income in 1918-19: profits from lands, &c, 290,000, 0001. ; 
occupation of lands, 100,200,000*. ; securities, 80,000,000*. ; businesses, 
&c, 1,494,800,000*. ; salaries, 325,000,000*. ; total, 2,290,000,000*. 

The gross income from the ownership of land and houses in 1917-18 was 
distributed as follows : — 



— England Scotland i Ireland 


United Kingdom 


£ 

Land . 36,710,000 

Houses . . . | 207,495,090 


£ £ 

5,590,000 9,700,000 
21,892,900 5,663,305 


i 

52,000,000 
235.051,205 



The amount of super-tax received was 2,891,345*. in 1910-11 ; 3,018,388*. 
in 1911-12; 3,599,7J6*. in 1912-13 ; 3,339,008*. in 1913-14; 10,121,023*. in 
1914-15; 16,787,654*. in 1915-16; 19,140,411*. in 1916-17 ; 23,278,704*. 
in 1917-18 ; 35,560,083*. in 1918-19 ; 42,405,000*. in 1919-20, The esti- 
mated aggregate income of the super-tax payers in 1918-19 was 340,000,000*., 
and the estimated number of persons chargeable, 48,000. Super-tax is 
payable by persons with incomes exceeding 2,000*. per year (prior to 1918-19 
3,000*. per year, and in 1918-19 and 1919-20, 2,500*. per year). 

In accordance with various Acts passed between 1888 and 1911, there 
are paid out of the Consolidated Fund to the Local Taxation Accounts of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland sums equivalent to the proceeds (in some 
cases, of the year 1908-9, and in other cases of the current year) of certain 
excise licence duties, part of the beer and spirit duties, and part of the pro- 
bate and estate duties. Certain other grants are also payable. 

The payments actually made to the Local Taxation Accounts in 1919-20 
are given as follows : — 



On account 

— of beer and 

spirit duties 


On account 

of licence 

duties 


On account 

of estate 

duties 


Other 

grants, &c. 


Total 


Payments to : £ 
England . . . 1,107,260 
Scotland. . . 162,248 
Ireland . . . ! 124,567 


£ 

2,071,060 
391,226 
210,746 


£ 

4,676,154 

641,378 
3S4.866 


£ 

40,000 
98,428 
848,208 


£ 

7,894,474 
1,283,280 
1,668,887 


Total payments . 1.384,075 


2,673,032 


5,702,398 


986. 63(i 


10.746.141 



III. National Debt. 
Borrowing by the State on the security of taxes was practised in Norman 
times, but the National Debt really dates from the time of William HI. 
The acknowledged debt in 1689 was about 664,000*., on which the annual 
charge for interest and management was only 40,000*. At various subsequent 
dates the amounts were as follows (including the Irish debt throughout) : — 





FINANCE 


Tear 


Debt* 




Million £ 


1727. 


Accession of George II. ... 52 


1756. 


Commencement of Seven Years' War 75 


1703. 


End „ ., „ 1S3 


1775. 


Commencement of American War . 1 27 


1784. 


End „ „ „ 243 


1703. 


Commencement of French Wars . 248 


]>15. 


End ,, „ ,. 861 


1817. 


Consolidation of English and Irish 




Exchequers f39 



49 

Anneal Annuities only 
charge, includ- (included in prt- 
ing annuities vious column) 



Million £ 


Millie ii £ 


2-4 


0-2 


2-8 


0-2 


5-0 


0-5 


47 


0-5 


95 


1-4 


9-7 


13 


32-6 


1? 



31-C 



2-0 



Tear 



1 These amounts do not include the capital value of terminable annuities. 

Gross debt 

including Annual Annu 

terminable cbarge.inciud- (included 
Debt 1 annuities ing annuities vious column) 
Million £ Million * Million £ Million £ 



mmeneement of Crimean War 

Knd ,. „ „ 

ommencement of Boer War 

1!**?. End ,. „ . . 

1914. Commencement of European War 

1917. iMarch 31) 

'■larch 31) 

1919. (March 31) . ... 

MarehSl) 

U'21. (March 31) 

i These amounts do not include the capital value of terminable annuities. 
'-' Including 1,162,000,0001. owing to other countries. 

The following statement shows the total amount of the Gross Liabilities 

unci the Assets of the State on March 31, 1920 :— 

Liabilities : Million £ Million £ 

Funded Debt 315-0 

Estimated Capital Liability of Terminable Annuities 19 3 

Unfunded Debt 7,497 4 



•608 


802 
BS7 
635 


27 4 
23-2 


3-9 
40 

7-3 


74S 

678 
4040 
5,899 
7.460 

7,859 


708 
4,064 
5,921 

7,-lSl 
7,879 
7,573* 


270 

24-6 
127-3 (1916-17) 
1917-18) 
27K (1918-19) 
S32-0 (1919-20) 
349-6 (1920-21) 


6 5 
3-2 
2-9 
28 
2-6 
2-6 



Leu Rocds tendered for Death Duties . 
Other Capital Liabilities : 
Telegraph Acts, 1892 to 1913 
Telephone Transfer Act, 1911 
Uganda Railway Acts, 1896 to 1902 
Public Offices (Acquisition of Site) Act, 1895 
Public Offices (Whitehall) Site Act, 1897 . 
Royal Niger Company Act, 1899 . 
Naval Works Acts, 1895 to 1905 
Mil itarr Works Act, 1897 to 1903 
Land Registry (New Buildings) Act, 1900 . 
Pacific Cable Act, 1901 .... 
Public Offices Site (Dublin) Act, 1903. 
Public Buildings Exi-enses Act, 1903 . 
Canard Agreement (Money) Act, 1904 
Post Office (London) Railway Act, 1913 

Housing Act, 1914 

Anglo-Persian Oil Co. Acts, 1914, 1919 



7,831-7 



12-S 
6-2 
17 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 

11 3 
5ti 
02 
lti 
01 
11 
1-0 
0-9 
!•••> 
1-8 



",828-8 



46-9 



Total Gross Liabilities 

Assets ; £ 

Suez Canal Shares, market value (March 31, 1920) 23 2 
Other Assets i 82-S 1 

Exchequer Balances at the Banks of England and Ireland 






£ 
l<v, 11 
9*4 



1 Excluding advances from votes of credit to Dominions, Allied Powers, he., and other 
war asset*. These assets were estimated to be at March 31, 1920 : loans owing by Allies, 
1,724 million; Dominions, 120 million; loans for relief, S million ; other vote of credit 
assets and surplns stores, 4c, 700 milliou ; mtal 2,552 million. In March, 1921 the 
Dominions owed 144 n.illions, and the Allies, 1,804 million. 



50 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



-UNITED KINGDOM 



The debt at November 
following : — 



30, 1920, included, among other items, the 



3* per cent. War Stock and Bonds (repayable 1925-28) 



H 

5 

4 

4 

4 

3, 5, 5$ & 6 per cent. Exchequer Bonds (repayable 1920-30) . 

4 4 5 ,, National War Bonds (repayable 1922-29) 

Treasury Bills 

War Sayings Certificates 



Funding Loan 
Victory Bonds 



1925-45) 
1929-47) 
1929-42) 
1960-90) 
1975) 



Million £ 

62-7 

12-8 

1,949-3 

67-2 

407-0 

357-7 

3150 

1,4410 

1,111-6 

277-9 



The total expenditure on account of debt in 1919-20 charged against the revenue 
was 336,648,0001. 

The net increase in the aggregate gross liabilities of the State in 1919-20 was 
397,556,7241. 

IV. Local Taxation..— Local Revenue. 



Receipts from 


England and 
Wales 

(1915-16) 


Scotland 
(1915-16) 


Ireland 
(1915-16) 


Water, Gas, 4 Electric Light Undertakings 
Tramways and Light Railways, 4c. . 
Government contributions .... 


£ 

75,851,000 
.25,851,000 
11,240,00a 
23,353,000 

23,207,000 


£ 

8,209,000 
5,266,000 
1,616,000 
3,037,000 
1,468,000 
2,705,000 


£ 

3,678,000 
1,160,000 
283,000 
1,515,000 
1,028,000 
1,307,000 


Total receipts .... 


168,452,000 


22,301,000 


8,971,000 



Local Expenditure. 



Expenditure by 


Eng.4Wales 
1913-14 


Scotland Ireland 
1915-16 1J15-16 


Town and Municipal Authorities for Police, 

Sanitary, and other Public Works, 4c. . 
Unions and Parishes for Poor Relief, 4c. 
County Authorities for Police, Lunatic Asylums, 

Rural District and Parish Councils, 4c. . 


£ 

112,904,000 
17,590,000 

22,813,000 

5,324,000 

10,777,000 


£ £ 

12,023,000 8,444,000 
1,527,000 1,391,000 

2,712,000 2 538,000 » 
13,0001 810,000 3 
5,962,000 657,000 


Total . . . ... 


169,408,000 


M,887,000 8,S35,000 



1 By Parish Councils only. 

a Irish Police and education are mainly provided for from Imperial funds. 

1 By Rural District Councils and Rural Sanitary Authorities. 



The estimated expenditure of the London County Council (exclusive of revenue- 
producing undertakings) for the year ending March 81, 19l'1, amounted to 20,040,29»1. 
Of this amount 11,786,608*. was to be raised by rates. The net debt of the Council at 
31 March, 1919 was 45,807,0001. 

At the end of the financial year 1915-16, the outstanding local debt of England and 
Wales amounted to 604,606,0001. J that of Scotland to 06,7 10, 0001.; .of Ireland to 
26.280,000*.; total, 657,614,0001. (including 49,948,0001. outstanding in respect of loans 
taken over or raised by the Metropolitan Water Board, and -.'7,110,0001. outstanding in 
raspect of loans accounted for by the Port of London Authority). The local debt of 
England and Wales outstanding in March 1918 was 550,520,0001. 



DEFENCE 51 

Defence. 

During the later years of the Great War important questions of naval 
and military policy were determined by the War Cabinet, which developed 
from an amalgamation of the functions of the Cabinet with those of the 
Committee of Imperial Defence. In 1920 the Committee of Imperial Defence 
was revived, and again became responsible, as it was before the war, for the 
co-ordination of naval, military, and air policy. Of this Committee the 
Prime Minister is ex-officio President, and he has power to call for the 
attendance at its meetings of any naval or military officeis, or of other 
persons, with administrative experience, whether they are in official positions 
or not. The usual members are the Secretaries of State for Foreign A 
for War and Air, the Colonies, India, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
the First Lord of the Admiralty, the First Sea Lord, the Chief of the 
Imperial General Staff, the Chief of the Air Staff, the Directors of the 
Intelligence Departments of the War Office and the Admiralty. It is 
probable that in view of the part played by the Dominions in the Great War, 
representatives of the Dominions will be members of the Committee, and 
will attend all meetings at which Imperial Defence in its wider aspect is 
discussed. 

I. A KMT. 

During 1920 great progress was made in the transition of the army from 
a war to peace basis, but the extended commitments of the British Army 
arising out of the war prevented the completion of the reduction of estab- 
lishments to the scale which prevailed in 1914. Garrisons have to be main- 
tained on the Rhine, in Palestine, in Mesopotamia, and in Constantinople, 
while a number of war-time sick and wounded, of men employed on salvage 
work in the various theatres of war, and in the re-interment of the dead in 
permanent cemeteries, swelled the establishments and increased the estimates. 
Actuallv the British Exchequer paid for approximately 550,000 men during 
1920-21, as compared with 186.400 in 1914-15. 130,000 of these men con- 
sisted of native, Indian, and Colonial troops, as compared with 8,700 in 
1914-15, the great majority of these coming from the Indian Army, and 
ig outside the confines of India. During 1920 a series of Arab risings 
on a considerable scale in Mesopotamia began in the month of June and con- 
tinued throughout the year. This necessitated a considerable reinforcement 
of the garrison of Mesopotamia, chiefly by Indian troops, and at the end of 
1920 there were more than 100,000 troops in that country, of whom 13,000 
were British. 

The land forces of the United Kingdom consist of the Regular Army and 
of the Territorial Army. The British troops of the Regular Army serve both 
at home and overseas and are commonly referred to as the British Army in 
contradistinction to the Indian Army or Native Army, and to the Local 
Forces in certain British Colonies and Dependencies, the personnel of which 
is native with a proportion of British officers. 

The Regular Army, whether at home or abroad, except India, is paid 
for by the Imperial Exchequer (although certain Dominions pay contri- 
butions towards its upkeep) ; India pays a contribution towards the cost 
of troops at home owing to these serving as a depdt for the regular troops in 
India. The Territorial Army serves only at home in peace time, but as the 
destruction of the German fleet and the supreme position of our Xavy in 
Home Waters has practically eliminated all risk of invasion, members of 
the Territorial Army are now asked to accept liability for service "overseas in 

l 2 



52 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — UNITED KINGDOM 

time of war, subject to the consent of Parliament. The rank and file for 
both Regular Army and Territorial Army are obtained by voluntary enlist- 
ment. 

After the Armistice of November 11, 1918, was concluded with Germany 
the War Office issued a scheme of extended service for soldiers then serving, 
by which men were invited to re-engage for 2, 3, or 4 years. As soon as 
sufficient men had been obtained by this means to reconstitute a certain 
number of regular formations for service overseas, the normal pre-war terms 
of service were reintroduced. By these terms service is for 12 years, with 
permission to extend to 21 years in certain circumstances. Of the 
original 12 years, from 3 to 9 are spent ' with the colours,' i.e. , on permanent 
service, and the remainder of the time in the Army Reserve ; the majority of 
the men serve for 7 years with the colours and 5 years in the Army Reserve, 
which is the rule for infantry other than the Foot Guards. Men enlist be- 
tween 18 and 25 years of age. 

The Peace establishment of the various formations has not yet been fixed, 
but the normal rule is that formations serving at home are on a low estab- 
lishment, while the establishment abroad is higher, and in India peace and 
war establishments are practically identical. On mobilisation for war 
the ranks are brought up to war establishment, after eliminating recruits and 
young soldiers by calling up men from the Reserve. 

For purposes of training and command the fighting troops are for the most 
part organised in divisions, which consist of 3 infantry brigades, divisional 
artillery and engineers, together with the necessary auxiliary services. The 
cavalry is organised in brigades. The infantry brigades are composed of 
4 battalions, the cavalry brigades of 3 regiments. The organisation of the 
Territorial Army is analogous to that of the Regular Army, and it consists ot 
14 divisions, composed of infantry, artillery, engineers, and auxiliary 
services, and of the mounted brigades, chiefly composed of yeomanry. 

For purposes of command the United Kingdom is divided up into seven 
'commands' and the London District. The commands are (1) Aldershot 
of very limited area, (2) Eastern, including the eastern and southern 
counties, (3) Irish, (4) Northern, including the northern midlands and 
north-eastern counties, (5) Scottish, (6) Southern, including the southern 
midlands and south-western counties, (7) "Western, including Wales, 
Lancashire and noith-weslern counties. These commands (except the 
Aldershot command) are divided uj> into Territorial Recruiting districts for 
the Regular Army. The Eastern, Northern, Scottish, Southern, ami 
Westeni commands and the London District each include from 1 to 4 
Territorial mounted brigades, and 2 or 3 Territorial divisions. There 
are two Regular divisions each in the Aldershot and the Irish com- 
mand, one Regular division in the Eastern and one in the Southern com- 
mand. At the head of each command is a general officer (styled the 
General-Officer Commanding-in-Chief). He is assisted by a general-officer of 
lower rank who is responsible for questions of administration apart from 
training and defence questions. 

The land forces are administered by an Army Council which is composed 
of the Secretary of State for War, who is its President ; the heads of 
the seven departments into which the War Office is primarily divided, 
namely, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, who is responsible 

for drawing np plans of attack and defence, for military training, for 
intelligence work, and lor education ; the Deputy Chief of the Imperial 
General Stall' who is the first assistant "I' the Chief and represents him in his 
absence on the Army Council ; tin Adjutant-General, who is responsible for 
recruiting, interior economy, discipline, and for the medical service ; the 



DEFENCE 0.3 

Quartermaster-General, who is responsible for equipment, supply, transport, 
and remounts ; the Master-General of the Ordnance, who is responsible for 
armament and works : the Surveyor-General of Supply who is responsible for 
contracts and the provisiou of stores in bulk ; the Parliamentary Under- 
Secretary of State, who is the Vice-President of the Council and is respon- 
sible for the Territorial Army ; the Finance Member, who is responsible for 
finance ; and the two permanent Secretaries of the War Office. The Terri- 
torial Army is to a large extent administered by Connty Associations oyer 
which the War Office merely maintains a general control as regards expen- 
diture. 

The principal military educational establishments are the Royal Military 
Academy, educating youths to be officers in the artillery and the engineers, 
the Royal Military College whence officers are obtained for cavalry and 
infantry, and the Staff College, which trains officers for the staff. The 
Officers' Training Corps in two divisions representing respectively the 
universities and public schools, is intended to provide officers for the Terri- 
torial Army. 

The gross estimated expenditure for the army for the year 1921-22 
amounts (March, 1921) to 118,915,000/., and" appropriations in aid 
amount to 12,600,000/., leaving a net expenditure of 106,315,000/. Owing 
to the increased pay, and to the increase in the price of food, clothing and 
equipment, the cost of the individual Regular soldier is approximately three 
times what it was in 1914. 

The total personnel serving with the forces on March 1, 1921, and 
charged to British votes was about 341,000, of whom 201,000 were British 
troops, 55,600 were men temporarily borne on the strength as consequence 
of the war, and >4,200 were Indian and Colonial troops. The garrison 
of the Rhine and of certain plebiscitary areas absorbed 15,000 men, 
of Constantinople, 9,300 ; Palestine, 18,000 ; Mesopotamia, 77,000. The 
strength of the home garrison was 140,500. The strength of the Territorial 
Army for the same date was 100,000 (a peace total of about 237,000 is being 
aimed at). This is not included in the previous figures. 



IT. Navy. 

The Navy has passed, and is still passing, through a very critical period. 
It has been reduced to a peace footing, and brought to a minimum of 
strength. The Navy has been deprived of a number of very powerful 
and of hundreds of other ships. In November, 1920, it was announced that 
1,231 vessels had been sold, realizing 10,024,000/., and 638 scraped, pro- 
ducing 3,464, 000Z. The pre- Dreadnoughts have gone from the list, except 
the Commonwealth (retained for training purposes), as also the Dreadnought 
herself, and the Indomitable and Inflexible. All the 12-ineh gun ships are 
to be removed from the list The personnel has been drastically cut down. 
The principal force in commission is the Atlantic Fleet. Th. Home Fleet 
was abolished. There is a small Battle Squadron in the Mediterranean. 
Vessels on distant stations have been reduced. 

No final or permanent policy has yet been adopted, tat the views of the 
Admiralty were set forth in a very important document in March, 1920 
(Cmd. 619). In De. .-ruber, 1920, the whole subject of future naval policy 
was submitted to the Committee of Imperial Defence. The present position 
is that the Fleet is to be maintained at a strength equal to that of any other 
Power. 



54 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



The Navy estimates for 1920-21 amounted to 84,372, ?00?. net, plus a 
supplementary estimate for 6,5O0,O00Z. in December, 1920, and for 1921-22 
they are 82,479,0002. net. (The pre-war expenditure (1913-14) was 
48,809,0002.) Four great ships are to be laid down, two soon and two later. 
There is to be no competitive shipbuilding. 

The British Navy is a permanent establishment, governed by statutes and 
orders. Its administration was formerly in the hands of a Lord High 
Admiral, but by the Act 2 Will, and Mary, c. 2, this office was vested in a 
Commission. With the exception of periods in which the office has been 
revived — in the person of the Earl of Pembroke in the reign of William III., 
of Prince George of Denmark (1702-8), and of the Duke of Clarence (May, 
1827-August, 1828)— it has continued to be held in commission by the 
Board of Admiralty. The First Lord of the Admiralty, a Cabinet Minister, 
is responsible for the Navy. 

The duties of the Admiralty are now grouped under the two headings of 
Operations and Maintenance. The First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval 
Staff, the Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff, and the Assistant Chief 
of the Naval Staff have charge and direction of the Operations 
Division. This Division is concerned with Naval policy and the 
general direction of operations, war operations in Home waters and 
elsewhere, strategy, tactics, the development and use of mateiial, in- 
cluding types of vessels and weapons, and with trade protection 
and anti-submarine considerations. The officers in charge and direction of 
the Maintenance Division are the Second Sea Lord and Chief of the 
Personnel, the Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy, the Fourth Sea 
Lord and Chief of Supplies and Transport, and the Civil Lord. The 
Parliamentary Secretary and the Permanent Secretary are concerned with 
Finance and Admiralty business. 

The number of officers, seamen and marines borne on January 1, 
1914, and the number provided for in the estimates for 1921-22, 
were : — 



- 


Borne 
Jan. 1, 1914 


Estimates 
1921-22 


Sea Service — 

Other Services (training, AJ-c.) — 
Recruiting Oltlcers and ratings .... 


1U,23« 
8,015 
18,042 

I 7,688 
1,016 


► 127,WK> 


Total of all ranks .... 


144,871 





The strength of the Navy at the date of the Armistice, November 11, 1918, 
was 415,000 (36.000 officers and 379, OOOmen), including the Mercantile Re- 
servo but excluding the Royal Nnval Division. The demobilization of officers 
and men proceeded rapidly. The total numbers serving (including t lie 
Mercantile Marine Reserves but not those who had been dispersed to 



DEFENCE 



55 



demobilization leave) were in the middle of November, 1919: officers, 15,000; 
men, 147,000 ; total, 162,000. 

Summary of the British Fleet. 

N.B. — The pre-Dreadnought battleships have been removed from the 
lists, as well as three of the early Dreadnoughts. All the other classes 
have been reduced. The class of armoured cruisers is now extinct. 







Complsted by end of 


Class. 












1910 


1920 


1921 


Dreadnoughts 




42 


42 


39 


Pre-Dreadnought battleship* 




SI 


8 


— 


Armoured Crnisers 




34 


— 


— 






89 


1 "° 


SO 


Destroyers .... 


about 


340 


I 


190 


First Class Torpedo boats . 


about 


96 


| > 


» 


Submarines .... 


about 


147 


1 


N 



1 Owing to the sweeping reductions which were in progress in these classes of vessels, 
it was impossible to gire any useful figures. Id the 19*21 column 24 powerful flotilla 
leaders are included in the total of 190 destroyers. 

There were 37 monitors in 1919, but all have been removed from the 
lee*) as fighting units, and only four have been retained for training and 
dep6t purposes. Two new classes of river gunboats have been added 
(640 and 98 tons), 12 of each class. 

In the following tables the ships are grouped in classes according to 
type. The dates of the Naval Estimates under which they were sanctioned 
are given. 



Battleships and Battle-Cruisers (Dreadnought Type). 

Note. — The eight battleships first named are to be transferred to the 
disposal list. 



> = 

Z *£ 



Name 



tl 


Armour 




m 

a 


2 = 






o 


2 


m 


m 

=3 



Main Armament i £.•£ 



*2 •-* 9 

*£ 5 

iix & 

— c e 
■ 



1906- fBellerophon 

Temeraire . 



17 "U 



Superb 



1907- I St. Vincent 
190$ \Collingwood 



Tons inches inches 

600 11 12 10 12in. ; 12 4in. . 



I I 



1 18,i 



} 19,250 9} II 10 12in. ; 12 4in. 



23,000 



Mjm 



n 



56 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

Dreadnoughts, — (continued. ) 





Name 


Org 

5 ' 


Armour 


Main Armament 


A 

3 
H 
o 

£ 
p. 
u 

o 
H 


hi 

« 

•V tL 'S- 

.2*9 
a — ~ 
woo £ 

S C o 

*" K 




> g 




■ 

O 

a 
O 

s 


a? 

i 






Tons 


inches 


inches 








Knot 


1908— 
1909 


| Neptune . 


19,900 


12 


12 


10 12in. ; 12 4m. . 


9 


25,000 


21 


1909— 
1910 


( Hercules . 
1 Colossus . 


| 20,000 


i, 


12 


10 12in. ; 12 4in. . 


o 


25,000 


21 




1 New Zealand 2 . 


18,800 


8 
8 


10 
10 


8 12in. ; 15 4in. . 
S 12in. ; 15 4in. 


2 
2 


44,000 
44,000 


25 




1 Australia 2 


1S.800 


25 




r Orion . 


) 
















Thunderer . 
Monarch . 


J-22,500 


12 


)1 


10 13 - 5in. ; 14 4in. . 


2 27,000 


21 


1909— 
1910 


Conqueror . 


J 
















Lion i . 
. Princess Royal 1 . 


} 26,350 


9 


10 


8 13-5in. ; 16 4in. . 


2 


70,000 


28 


1910- 
1911 


f King George V. 
{ Centurion . 
lAjaz . . . 

fBenbow 


J-23,000 


12 


10 


10 13-5in. ; 12 4in. . 


2 


-'7,000 


21 


1911— 


1 Binperorof India 
-I Iron Duke . 
1 Marlborough 
(.Tiger » 


125,000 
28,500 


12 
9 


10 
9 


10 13-5in. ; 12 6iu. . 


4 


29,000 


21 


1912 


8 13-5in. ; 12,Cin. . 


2 


85,000 


28 


/'Queen Elizabeth 
| Valiant . 


-27,500 














1912— 
1913 


- Warspite . 
Barham 

' M;i .. . 


13 


10 


8 15iu. : 12 Cin. 


4 


75,000 


25 



i Battle Crnlnn. 
' New Zealand aud Commonwealth ships. 



DEFENCE 
Dreadnoughts. — (continued. ) 



57 





Name 


9 g 
? H 

s 


Armour 


Main Armament 




■- 


1 
r 

i 

s 


E 
— »-» 


1 


C 
C 

O 


: * 
it's =• » 

- — - <- 2 

j- - = s 




. 


Tons 


inches inches 








Knots 


1913- 


/"Royal Sovereign 

Royal Oak 
-' Itaniillies . 
1 Reaolntion 
^Revenge 


-25,750 


13 


n 


8 liin. ; 14 Sin. . 


4 


40,000 


23 


ill 

• 


i Agincourt 
\ Erin . 


27,500 
23,000 



12 


9 

S 


14 12in. ; 20 6in. . 
10 135in. ; 16 6i;i. . 


•2 
4 


34,*00 

26,50-. 


It 

'11 


1914— 
1915 


/ Renown i . 
\ Repulse > . 
Hood i 


} 26,1.00 
♦1,200 


6 
12 


1.' 


6 15in. ; 17 4in. . 
8 liin. ; IS 5-5in. . 


•j 

4 


112,000 
144,000 


32 
31 



Zt^A* Cruisers. 



1908— 
1909 



Furious * 
Courageous 
Glorious . 



f Bristol 
Glasgow 
-% Gloucester. 
I Liverpool . 
I Newcastle . 



1909- 
1910 



("Weymouth, 
-t Yarmouth . 
I. Dartmouth 

Chatham . 
Nottingham 
Southampton 
Dublin 
1910- - Melbourne 3 
Sydney s . 
Brisbane ' 
Adelaide 3 . 
Encounter • 



1911 



19,100 






} 18,600 






|4,S00 




- 


j-,,,. 




■ 
M 

00 


i 






5,400 




m 

s 

"3 

00 


5,888 


3 


— 


J 







10 55in. ; 5 Sin. 
| 4 15in. ; 18 4in. 



I Cin. ; 10 4in. 



— - 8 6in. 



— £ 8 6in. 



— 11 Cin. ; 9 smaller 



13 


90,000 ' 


14 


90,000 . 


> 


22,000 


s 


22,000 


2 


25,000 


S 


12,500 



31 

315 



K 



«M 



1 Battle Cruis#ra. » Seaplane carrier. 3 Australian Navy. 



58 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

Light Cruisers. — (contiuued.) 



i-l 




V 


Armour 




o 


li 

CD 


■o 








Name 


1! 

5 " 


1 


■ 
9 

3 

(a* 


Main Armament 


II 


& — p. 

ofel 

n 


%4 

m 

■ 






Tons 


nches 


nches 








Knots 


1911— 
1912 


/ Birmingham 
\ Ijowestoft . 

rEffingham . 


J 5,440 
'- 9,750 




2 
IS 

CO 


6 6in. 


2 


25,000 


25 




1 Frobisher . 




2. 










War 


J Hawkins . . i 


3 


"* 


7 7'5in. ; 8 3in. 


6 


00,000 


30 




Raleigh 
\_ Vindictive . 


J 




2- 














to 












'Aurora 


s 














, 


Galatea 
















1912— ' 


Inconstant . 
















1913 


- Royalist 
Penelope . 
Phaeton 
k Undaunted . 

'Champion . 
Caroline 


- 3,500 


3 




3 6in. ; 4 4in. . 


4 


40,000 


28-5 


1913— 


Cordelia 
















1914 


Comus 
Cleopatra . 
Conquest . 
Calliope 
^Carysfort . 

Danae 

Dauntless . 
Dragon 
Daedalus 
Daring 


- 3,750 


3 


en 

2 


2 Gin. ; 8 4in. . 


4 


40,000 


28-5 


War 


- Despatch 


► 4,750 


3 


2 


6 Gin. ; 2 3in 


12 


40,000 


29 


Diomede . ; 






CO 












Dryad 


















Delhi 


















Dunedin 


















Durban 


> 
















Cardiff 


\ 
















Coventry 


















Curlew 


















Cairo 
Colombo 


I 4,190 


S 


- 


S ('.in. ; | Sin. 


4 


40,000 


29 




Capetown . 


















Calcutta 


















Ceres. 


















Carlisle 


. 















DEFENCE. 



59 



Light Cruisers. — (continued.) 



Armour f 



Main Armami-nt 



_ - * Z 



fCuragoa 
Caleaon 
Calypso 
Cassandra . 
I Caradoc 
j Concord 
I Centaur 

Cambrian . 
j Canterbury 
Constance . 
Castor 
: Chester 
Birkenhead 



{Enterprise 
Emerald . 



: 1 



Hermes > 
Eagle 1 
Argus 1 . 



Tons 
4,110 
3,750 

3,750 

3,185 
5,235 

7,550 

10,400 
26,200 
5,000 



ii ",e?- incliea 



kuoia 



— — 5 t'in. ; 2 Sin. 



— 5 6in. ; 2 Sin. 

— 4 Bin. ; 1 4ln. 
~ }• 10 5-5in. ; I 3in. 

— } 7Cin. ; 2 4in. AA | 

— 10 5-5in. ; 4 4i«. AA j ■ 40,000 



40,000 



■2 40,0*0 



40,000 



31,000 
tt.OOt 



— - 4 4in. 



w,m 



2S-5 



MS 



32 5 
H 
24 



1 .Seaplane carriers. The Eagle was built as the Almirante Cochrane, battleship, but 
was taken over in an early stage by the British Navy and completed for her present uae. 

There are also gunboats, store-ships, repair ships, mine-sweepers, fleet 
sweeping sloops and other auxiliaries. 

24 Flotilla leaders, 1,600-1,800 tons, 34-365 knots. 

The latest destroyers of which anv official description was given before the 
war were ot the L class, 1913-14 (965 tons). The S class, 850-1,090 tons ; 
V class, 1,275-1,300 tons ; W class, 1,275-1,350 tons. Total number, 166. 

The submarines are of manv successive classes. The following are the 
existing numbers : E 18 ; G 6 ; H 23 ; K 12 ; L 26 ; M 3 ; R 10 ; total, 98. 

Dominion Navitf. — Lord Jellicoe made a tour of the Dominions with 
the object of arriving at an understanding with the Governments on 
the naval defence of the Empire. His report presented to the Govern- 
ment of Australia emphasized the desirability of the Commonwealth be- 
coming self-contained in regard to shipbuilding and the manufacture of guns, 
mountings, explosives, and aircraft. He considered that the interests of the 
Empire were likely to demand within the next five years a Far Eastern Fleet 
comprising vessels of the Royal Navy, the East Indian Squadron, and the 
Australian, Canadian, and New Zealand Navies. This Fleet would consist 
of at least 8 modern battleships, 8 battle- cruisers, 10 light cruisers, 40 
destroyers, and 36 submarines. The total cost for maintenance was esti- 
mated at 19.750,000/. Australia's share would be 4,000,000/. rising to 
6,000,000/. The cost to New Zealand would rise from 375,000/. in 1920 to 
4,000,000/. in five years. (The organisation of the intended fleet is still [end 
of 1920] unsettled, and these figures are approximations). 



60 



THE BRITISH BMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



III. The Royal Air Force. 

In May, 1912, the Royal Flying Corps first came into existence. It was 
then divided into two wings, the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying 
Corps, administered by the Amdiralty and War Office respectively, while a 
joint Air Committee was formed, consisting of representatives of both 
services, to secure co-operation. The powers of this body were limited, and it 
failed to secure its object. A second Committee, formed in February, 1916, 
was equally unsuccessful. It was followed by an Air Board in May, 1916, and 
by a second Air Board in January, 1917. Both of these had inadequate powers. 
On January 2, 1918, an Air Ministry was formed, and the control of the 
Royal Air Force was vested in an Air Council analogous to the Army Council. 
The Air Minister was given the status of a Secretary of State and became 
President of the Council. In April, 1918, the naval and military wings were 
amalgamated, under the Ministry of the Air, as the Royal Air Force. From 
April, 1919, to April, 1921, the Secretaryship of State was held by a 
Minister who also filled another office, and the direct charge of the Air 
Ministry was placed in the hands of an Under-Secretary of State, who 
became Vice-President of the Air Council. In April, 1921, a separate 
Secretary of State for Air was appointed. 

The Air Council controls and issues regulations for civil aviation, which 
is in charge of a separate department of the Air Ministry ; that department 
is engaged in the organisation of air routes with the necessary landing 
grounds throughout the Empire. In March, 1921, the establishment of the 
Royal Air Force was "30, 880, and the estimated gross expenditure for 1921-22 
was 19,033,400Z., and' the net expenditure 18,411,000/. 

Production and Industry. 

I. Agriculture. 

General distribution of the surface in 1920 (Woods and Plantations in 
1913):— 



Divisions 


Total surface 

(excluding 

water) 


Woods and 

plantations 

(1913) 


Mountain 

and heath 

grazing land 

Acres 
2,732,000 
1,430,000 
9,134,000 3 

35,000 
2,000 


Permanent 
pasture 


Arable land 


England 
Wales . 
Scotland 
Ireland . 
Isle of Man . 
Channel Islands 


Acres 

32,886,000 

4,751,000 

19,070,000 

20,247,000 

141,000 

44,000 


Acres 
1,697,000 
187,0011 
852,000 1 
296.000 J 
1,400 
200 


Acres 

12,667,000 

1,820,000 

i,:: : >!i,l>00 

9,152,000 < 

17. 

10,000 


Acres 

11,181,000 

889,000 

3,380,000 

5,271,0004 

72,000 

21,000 


Total . 


76,639,000 


3,033,600 


13,333,000 


21,99.1,000 


•J<>,:64,000 



1 Area in 1914. 

- Corresponding figures uot available. 

•' Area In 1917. 

* Area in 1918. 



Distribution of the cultivated area, and the number of live stock in the 
United Kingdom : — 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



61 





1913 


1817 


1918 


1919 


1920 




(pre-war) 


1 








Cultivated area : 
Corn crops 1 . 










Acres 
8,211,641 


Acres 
9,110,941 


Acres 
10,950,985 


10,105,323 


9,379,614 


Green crops s . 


3,984,734 


4,014,857 


4,065,164 


3,894,590 


1 4,236,724 


Flax 3 . 


59,953 


110,221 


163,093 


115,039 


Hops 1 . 


35,676 


16,946 


15,666 


16,745 


21,002 


Small fruit 


100 094 5 


96,041* 


90,939 s 


84.837 s 


87.439 


Bare fallow 


396,472 


361,925 


414,124 


657,885 


573,962 


Clover and ma- 












ture grasses . 


6,643,146 


6,037,483 


5,520,796 


! 




Permanent pas- 








•31,452,000 


31,774,000 


ture 


27,309,188 

46.740,904 


26,583,378 


25,045,981 






Total 


46,336,792 


46,266,748 


46,326,000 


46,073,000 



1 Corn crops are wheat, barley or bere, oats, rye, brans, peas. 

- Green crops are mainly potatoes, turnips and swedes, mangold, cabbage, kohl-rabi, 
rape, vetches or tares. * Mainly in Ireland. 

■» All in England. Produce 1920, 279,000 cwt. s Including Irish orchards. 





1913 
(pre-war) ' 

Number 

1,874,264 

11,936,600 

27,629,206 

3,305,771 


1917 

Number 

1,879,547 

12,382,236 

27,867,244 

3,007,916 


1918 


1919 1920 


Live Stock ; 

Horses * 

Cattle 

Sheep 


Number 

1,916,347 

12,311,149 

27,062,681 


Number Number 

1,914,933 1,884,902 

12,491,427 11,770,274 

25,119.220 23,407,072 


Pigs 


2,809,215 


2.925,093 3113,314 



Horses for agriculture, mares kept for breeding, and unbroken horse*. 
Details of the principal crops are given in the following table for 
England and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland separately : — 







Barley 








'. oral] - 






— 


Wheat 


or Oats 
Bert 


Beans ' 
1 


Peas j 


Potatoes 1 


and 


Mangold 


Hay 






Acreage 


— Thousahd Acres. 








Knoland and 


1 


| 


| 














Wale* : 




















1913 1 


1,702 


1,559 


1.975 , 


259 


12S 


442 


1,053 


419 




1917 


1,918 . 


1,460 ' 


2,259 


211 


131 


508 




389 


6,476 


1918 


2,557 ' 


1,501 


2,780 


242 


12S 


634 


909 


400 | 


5,745 


1919 


2,1*1 


1,510 


2,564 


274 


132 


475 


M 


396 


5,672 


19-20 


1,875 


1,637 


2,266 


246 


129 


545 


988 


384 


6,069 


Scotland : 




















1913 1 


55 


198 


938 


6 


0-2 


149 


432 


1-8 




1917 


61 


159 


1,041 


6 


0-4 


148 


414 


2-4 


581 


1918 


79 


153 


1,244 


17 


0-4 


169 


397 


2-6 


538 


1919 


30 


.174 


1,111 


7 


04 


155 


427 


2 6 


54S 


1920 


54 


204 


1,032 


6 


0-4 


162 


425 


IS 


577 


Ireland : 




















1913 1 


34 


173 


1,049 


1-3 


02 


582 


tft 


" 


2,482 


1917 


124 


177 


1,464 


1-4 


0-3 


709 


293 


93 


2,533 


191S 


157 


1S5 


1,580 


1-S 


0-4 


702 


294 


98 


2.470 


1919 


70 


186 


1,442 


1-4 


0-3 


589 


273 


7". 


2,o20 


1920 


50 


207 


1,332 


1-4 


0-3 


584 


■- 1 77 


77 




V. Kingdom : 




















19131 


1,790 


1,930 


3,962 


266 


128 


1,173 


' 1.75S 


500 


9.S24 


1917 


2,103 


1,796 


4,764 


218 


132 


1,365 


1.679 


484 


9,590 


191S 


2,793 


1,839 


1 5,604 


251 


12S 


1,505 


i 1,601 


500 


S.753 


1919 


2.371 




5.117 


281 


132 


1,219 


1.683 


473 


8,734 


itao 


1,979 


2,018 


4.630 


253 


130 


1,291 


i;«rao 


4' 


9.164 








: 


Pre-Wai 


■ year. 











62 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



Barley 
Wheat! or Oats j Beans 



Peas 



Potatoes 



Turnips 

and 
Swedes 



Total Produce. 



England and 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 
Tons 


Wales : 


Quatrs. 


Quatrs. 


Quatrs. 


Quatrs. 


Quatrs. 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


1913 1 


6,642 


6,323 


9,378 


915 


422 


2,895 


12,794 


7,611 


9,052 


1917 


7,165 


5,535 


10,86.5 


436 


277 


3,841 


12,164 


8,482 


7,560 


1918 


10,530 


6,080 


14,839 


889 


439 


4,209 


12,018 


8,231 


6,786 


1919 


7,976 


5,474 


11,417 


855 


441 


2,733 


11,159 


6,294 


5,186 


1920 


0,669 


6 : 335 


10,746 


957 


444 


3,151 


14,193 


7,3u7 


8,211 


Scotland : 




















1918 1 


283 


;w[ 


4,502 


28 


6 


971 


7,330 


36 


947 


1917 


304 


705 


5,447 


30 


0-2 


1,110 


8,053 


53 


901 


1918 


402 


677 


6,457 


33 


03 


1,151 


5,514 


49 


818 


1919 


3S3 


764 


5,305 


33 


0-2 


832 


7,146 


43 


712 


1920 


200 


973 


5,157 


27 


0-3 


1,237 


7,692 


29 


942 


Ireland : 






1913 1 


162 


900 


6,780 


8 


0-9 


3,739 


5,189 


1,629 


5,396 


1917 


572 


945 


9,709 


8 


1-1 


4,153 


4,625 


1,834 


4,702 


191S 


711 
306 


1,003 
975 


10,400 
8,773 


9 


1-5 


3,863 
2,747 


5,303 


2,011 


4,728 


1919- 


4,487 


1,432 


4,810 


1920 


175 


903 


6,706 


— 




1,986 


4,107 


1,246 


5,547 


U. Kingdom : 










1913 1 


7,087 


8,204 


20,660 


954 


423 


7,605 


25,313 


11.276 


15,395 


1917 


8,041 


7,185 


26,021 


474 


27S 


8,604 


24,842 


10,369 


13,163 


1918 


11,643 


7,760 


31,196 


931 


441 


9,223 


22,835 


10,321 


12,332 


1919 


8,665 


7,213 


25,495 


8^81 


4421 


6,312 


22,70? 


7,769 


10,708 


1920 


7,104 


8,211 


22,609 


9841 


4441 


6,374 


25,992 


8,582 


14,700 



i Excluding Ireland. 



England and 
Wales : 
1913 1 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 

Scotland: 

1918 1 

1917 

1918 

1019 

1920 

Ireland : 

1913 1 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

U. Kingdom : 
1013 1 
1917 
1918 
1019 
1920 



Yield Per Acre 
Bushls. Bushls. Bushls Bushls. Bushls 



3123 

29-88 

32-9 

28-7 

285 



41-32 
39-94 
40 65 
38-5 
88-2 



38-0(1 

Kirs", 

30-2 

85-1 

27-9 



31-67 

30-58 

333 

29-2 

2>-7 



32 45 
3033 
32-4 
29 
31-0 



37-15 
35-44 
35 43 
35 2 
881 



44-43 

42.67 

48-4 

41-8 

34-9 



84-111 

32 00 

33 8 
30-9 
32- 1 



38-00 

38-48 

41-3 

35-6 

379 



38 40 

41-85 

41-53 

38-2 

40-0 



51-71 
58-06 
62-7 

4V7 
408 



41-72 
43-70 
44-6 
89 
39-1 



28-30 

17-16 

29-4 

25-0 

311 



37 37 
38-70 
36-55 
39 4 
37-6 



48-78 
47-41 
40-9 



28-60 
17 98 
-.9-7 
25-3 * 
31-2» 




1 Pre- War year. 



* Excluding Inland. 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



63 



For the quantities of cereals and live stock imported, see under Commerce. 

The live stock in Ireland in 1920 numbered: Horses, 624,300 ; mules 
mid jennets, 27,100; asses, 226,600; cattle, 5,023,000; sheep, 3,586,000; 
pigs, 982,000; goats, 245,000 ; poultry (1918), 24,424,000. 

The number of holdings in Great Britain (from 1 acre upwards) is given 
as follows for 1920 : — 



Size of Holdings, 1920 


England and Wales 


Scotland 


Great Britain 


1— 5 teres 
5— 60 „ 
SO— 300 „ 
Over 300 acres . 


80,737 
194,059 
129,703 

13,492 


17,471 

23,224 
2,525 


98,208 
226,741 
152,937 

10,017 


Total 


417,991 


75,902 


4'j3,S93 



The Small Holdings and Allotments Act, 1908, makes the County 
Councils and the Councils of County Boroughs responsible for the pro- 
vision of small holdings (each covering from one to 50 acres, or even 
more), and allotments (each up to five acres in area). Up to the end of 
1914 the total quantity of land acquired for small holdings by the various 
local authorities in England and Wales was 198,104 acres, let to 13,327 
individual tenants and 5 associations ; and the land acquired for allotments 
was 33,522 acres, let to 130,526 individual tenants and 52 associations. On 
the 1st May, 1918, there were estimated to be about 1,400,000 allotments in 
England and "Wales. Before the war there were about 500,000. 

Irxland. 



Number and Siie of Holdings in the year 1918 : — 






Size of Holdings 


Leinster 


Munster Ulster 


Connaught 


Ireland 


Not exceeding 1 acre . 


3S,soa 


33,403 33,895 


8,717 


:i; - 


Above 1 and not exceeding 5 acres 


12,752 


9,327 1 


8,302 


46,345 


., 5 ,. ii 10 H 


10,817 


7,983 


18,747 


64,527 


„ 10 ,, ,, 15 „ 


8,162 


6,870 | 24,819 


19,411 


59,262 


„ 15 ,, ,, 30 „ 


17,906 


20,072 48,496 


36,498 


122,972 


>, 30 ,, ,, 50 ,, 


13,224 


20,486 21,683 


14,5'.'4 


72,987 


„ 50 „ „ 100 „ 


13,132 


22,374 ' 15,540 


6,629 




„ 100 ,, ,, 200 „ 


6,929 


9,885 4,123 


2,338 


23,275 


„ 200 „ „ 500 ,, 


2,947 


2,897 1,145 


1,161 


8,150 


Above 500 acres .... 


657 


472 322 


517 


1,968 


Total Xo. of Holdings. 


124,835 


133,769 106,467 


116,914 


571,985 



The above figures are not comparable with those published for years prior to 1910. 
In many cases farms in Ireland extend into two or more townlands, and in former years 
that portion of a farm in each townland was enumerated as a separate holding. The total 
number of holdings published was therefore somewhat too large. A change was made in 
the method of enumeration in 1910, and the present figures are believed to be a very close 
approximation for the year 1918. 

Of the holdings in 1918, 372,815 were owned and 199,170 rented. The 
571,985 holdings in 1918 were in the hands of 561,807 separate occupiers. 

The Irish Land Acts are of two classes — The Fair Rent Acts, and the 
Land Purchase Acts. The Fair Kent Acts commenced with Mr. Gladstone's 
Land Law (Ireland) Act, 1881, which gave the Irish Tenant the '3 Fs '— 
Fair Rent, Free Sale and Fixity of Tenure. Under this Act, the great body 
of agricultural tenants had Fair Rents judicially determined. The rent is 
fixed by the Land Commission for terms of 15 years, and, on the expiration 
of each term, a new rent may be fixed for another term. Up to March 31, 



64 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

1920, the number of Fair Rents fixed under the Irish Land Acts for a First 
Statutory Term was 382,975, with an average reduction of 207 per cent, 
on previous rents ; for a Second Statutory Term, 144,094, with an average 
reduction of 19*3 per cent, on first term rents ; and for a Third Statutory 
Term, 6,032, with an average reduction of 9*1 percent, on second term rents. 

The Land Purchase Acts commenced with the ' Bright Clauses ' of the 
Act of 1870, but the system was greatly extended by the 'Ashbourne Act' 
of 1885, under which 9,992,5362. cash was advanced for Land Purchase. A 
new system was adopted under Mr. Balfour's Act of 1891, which created a 
special Land Stock for Land Purchase purposes. Under the Irish Land Act of 
1903 cash advances are made to enable tenants to purchase their holdings 
under the supervision of three Estates Commissioners, the money for advances 
being raised by the issue of Land Stock bearing interest at 2| per cent. The 
State is secured by a Guarantee Fund which consists of the various Funds 
voted by Parliament for Irish Local purposes. The Land Stock could not be 
issued except at a large discount, and the Land Act of 1909 provided that for 
future purchasers the money may be raised by the issue of a 3 per cent, stock, 
and in making advances the Treasury may give the vendor such stock instead 
of paying cash. Under this Act the Congested Districts Board was recon- 
stituted,' the area of its work extended and its income increased. Compulsory 
powers of purchase were also given to the Estates Commissioners and the 
Congested Districts Board. 

The total amount of the purchase money for which advances have been 
made under the Irish Land Purchase Acts, 1870 to 1909, up to March 31, 
1920, was 108,795,2582., of which 106,933,8392. was advanced, and 
1,861,4192. was lodged in cash by purchasers. In addition, 4,609,1312. 
was advanced to that date by the Land Commission to Rural District 
Councils, for the erection of labourers' cottages, under the Labourers 
(Ireland) Acts. 

In England and Wales, the Board of Agriculture make grants for, aud, 
to some extent, supervise vocational education and scientific research in 
agriculture. In 1916-17 these grants totalled 76,1772. (against 98,6462. 
in 1915-16), largely from the Development Fund (see below). The Board 
of Agriculture for Scotland dispenses certain grants for the development and 
improvement of agriculture, including agricultural education and research, 
in that country. In Ireland the Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Instruction provides itinerant lecturers who give instruction in agriculture, 
horticulture, bee-keeping, butter-making, poultry-keeping, &c. There arc 
3 agricultural stations where farm apprenticeships are provided, and nume- 
rous agricultural schools and colleges. There are also winter agricultural 
classes and schools of rural domestic economy. 

Under the Development and Road Improvement Funds Acts, 1909 and 
1910, there are eight "Development Commissioners," appointed to advise 
the Treasury in the administration of a national fund for the development 
of agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and analogous resources of the United 
Kingdom. The total sum guaranteed to the fund was 2,900,0002. : interest on 
investments, and other receipts, up to 31 March, 1920, made the total 
available funds, 3,541,0002. In 1920-21 a further 1,000,0002. was voted to 
the Fund. The grants and loans recommended to the Treasury by the Com- 
missioners down to 31 March, 1918 (which, however, have not all been 
sanctioned or expended), amounted to 2,794,0002., including 1,780,0002. for 
agriculture and rural industries ; 277,0002. for forestry ; 394,0002. for 
harbours ; 142,0002. for fisheries; 110,0002. foe inland navigation ; 80,0002. 
for rural transport. 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



65 



Forestry.— The woodland area of Great Britain in 1908 was 2,781,963 acrsa 
(Kiuland, 1,720,330 ; Wales, 186,723 ; and Scotland, 874,910). Included in 
these figures are 127,509 acres of plantations, i.e., land planted within the 
preceding 10 Tears (England, 72,008 ; Wales, 11,355 : and Scotland, 44,146). 

In Ireland in 1918, 289,944 acres were under woods and plantations. 
II. Fisheries. 

Quantity and value of fish of British taking landed in the United 
Kingdom (excluding salmon, except that figure* for England and Wales 
include sea-caught salmon and sea-trout) : — 



- 


1913 1 


1917 


1918 
Tons 

m,* - 

165,463 
31,838 

431,351 


1919 1 1920 2 


England and Wales . 

Ireland 


807.619 

382,994 
33.S20 


202.5S1 
J8.547 


51i.4 
40,33. 


U.K. (excluding shell-fUh) 


1,204,433 

£ 
IQyOaMM 

3,723.367 
»<M,625 

14,027,308 
(63 ■ ;C 


385,116 

M 
9,161,636 
3,645,015 
567,376 


854,»« 1 


\r.d and Wales . 
Scotland 


14,147,810 

5,991,«M 

880,197 


£ £ 
6,083,73* 6,619,983 


U.K. (excluding shellfish) . 
U.K. Shell-flsh 


13,364,027 

no,6f i 


21,019.100 


25,577,661 ,28,162,924 
691,067 734,783 



1 Pr«-War year. i ProTisional figures. 
Statistics for 1918 of fishing boats rc£ristered under Part IV of the Merchant 
Shipping Act, 1894 : — 



England and 

Wales . 
Scotland . 
It eland 
Isle of Man . 
Channel Islands 



Boats on Register on 
December 31, 191 -^ 



Sailing Steam Total 



Total 
bT*4 

Ton- 
nage 



6.867 

Mao 

4,443 

166 
281 



3,410 

2.678 

544 

89 

38 



9.777 

8,458 

4,987 

255 

319 



Boats 

employed 

at some 

time 

during 

year 



192,24 
115.523 
25.059 
1,839 



(a) 



Estimated number of 

men and boys employed 

in sea-fishing 



Bagala* 

flshennen 



(a) 



O-.ht.-s 



(a) 



Total, 1913 . 


17,037 


6,759 


23,796 


335,510 J 


— 


- 


— 


Total, 1913 * 


19.153 


4,288 


23,441 


- 4 , v" 




76 048 


23.482 



1 Pre-War year. (a) Cannot be stated for 1918. 

Imports and Exports of fish into and from the United Kingdom are given 
as follows. The imports represent fish of foreign taking or preparation, and 
are therefore not included in the table above giving fish of British taking 
landed in the United Kingdom : — 



Imports (fresh, eured or salted) 
Exports of United Kingdom 

produce (fresh, cured, salted) 
Ditto (herrings only) 
Re-exports (fish of foreign and 

colonial oriein) 



19201 




27.000 



18,000 20,000 



1 Provisional figures. 



66 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — UNITED KINGDOM 



III. Mining and Metals. 

General summary of the mineral production of the United Kingdom in 
1918 and 1919 :— 





1918 


191 


9 


Description of Mineral 




Value at the 




Value at the 




Quantity 


Mines and 
Quarries 


Quantity 


Mines and 
Quarries 




Tons 


£ 


Tons 


£ 


Alum shale .... 


5,231 


5S8 


4,848 


545 


Antimony ore '■ '" > 


1 


4 








Arsenical pyrites . 


477 


4,380 


75 


667 




2,349 


210,101 


2,527 


100,222 


Bariam (compounds) . 


66,360 


218,592 


60,087 


198,550 




9,589 


2,736 


9,221 


2,811 


Bog ore / 


603 


151 


3,045 


761 


Ctialk 


2,304,24S 


164,741 


2,629,406 


241,863 


Chert, flint, &c. . 


54,518 


13,233 


50,082 


15,348 


Chromite of iron . 


140 


100 


150 


150 


Clays and shale 


6,003,787 


1,696,127 


7,765,965 


2,358,522 


Coal 


227,748,654 


238,240,760 


229,779,517 


314,113,160 


Copper ore and precipitate . 


1,213 


17,109 


372 


10,978 


Fluorspar 


53.49S 


41,310 


36,860 


86,259 


Gtarel and mnl . 


2,022,567 


291,627 


2,048,427 


336,421 




17S.734 


108,516 


220,003 


138,265 


Inneous rocks 


3,961,524 


1,139,952 


4,387,703 


1,720,932 


Iron ora 


14,613,032 


7,106,656 


12,254,195 


7,428,366 


Iron pyrites . 


22,195 


20,398 


7,336 


7,807 


Lead ore 


14,784 


273,462 


13,868 


256,377 


Lignite .... 


150 


100 








Limestone (other than chalk) 


10,156,603 


1,992,705 
33,313 


9,537,495 
12,078 


2,431,627 


Manganese ore 


17,456 


29,111 


Natural Gas . . (cub. ft.) 


85,000 





90,000 





Ochre, ui.iber, Ac. 


9,480 


17,926 


10,547 


17,483 


Oil shale 


3,080,867 


1,52S,5S4 


2,763,875 


1,567,050 


Phosphate of lime. . 


3,372 


— 


— 


— 


Salt 


1,976,014 


1,647,997 


1,908,080 


2,079,011 


Sandstone .... 


1,553,151 


614,012 


1,699,853 


971,329 


Slate ... 


110,197 


429,583 


164,098 


844,394 


Soapstone . 


936 


1,268 


688 


1,011 


Sulphate of strontia 


1,014 


2,280 


1,872 


4,210 


Tin ore (dressed) . 


6,378 


1,115,926 


5,156 


678,823 


Tungsten ores 


302 


49,215 


166 


19,255 




9,025 


95,680 


6,933 


62,202 


Total « 


273,988.449 

Sr., (100 1 


257,079,792 


875,884,528 
90,000 1 


335,673,503 



1 Cubic feet of natural gas. 

The metals obtainable from the ores produced in 1919 were : — Copper, 144 
tons, value 14,176/. ; iron, 3,808,095 tons, 51,511,064?. ; lead, 10,277 tons, 
289,769/.; silver, 68,414 oz., 16,266/. ; tin, 3,272 tons, 842,485/. ; zinc, 2,486 
tons, 102,951/. ; total value, 52,776,711/. 

The total number of persons ordinarily employed at all mines under tin- 
Coal and Metalliferous Mines Regulation Acts during 1919 was 1,212,974. 
The number of mines at work was 3,438. 958,133 persons (males) worked 
underground, and 245,194 males and 9,647 females above ground. The 
number employed at quar ies under the Quarries Act was ;">7,<>7<i (excluding 
persons occasionally employed), of whom 3<i,879 (including 132 females) worked 
inside the quarries, and 20,197 (including 309 females) outside. The number 
of quarries at work was 5,135. 

1'rofessor H. S. Jevons has estimated the resources of British coal in 



MINING AND METALS 



67 



1915, within 4,000 feet of the surface, at 197,000 million tons. Coal raised 
in the United Kingdom, and coal, coke, and patent fuel exported (the 
figures in the following tables, for the war period, exclude coal exported 
from GoTernment stores, etc.) : — 









Bunker* for 

abipt in 

foreign trade' 


Tear 












Tons 


Value 


Tons 


Value 








S. 


Tons 


1013 


287,430,473 


M5,&85,ftM 


76,688,446 


53,659,660 


21,031.550 


1914 


265,664,393 


132,596,853 


61,830,485 


42,202,128 


.,•16 


1915 


253, 206,081 


157,830,670 


45,770,344 




13. >'.30,9«4 


lyl6 


256,348,351 


200,014,626 


ftt.lfi7.74fl 


MV*Tt»MM 


18,172 


1917 


248,499,240 


207,786.891 


37,800.701 


51,341,487 




1918 


227,7;- 


♦0,760 


31,173,915 


■,330 


..476 


1919 


229,779,517 


314,113,160 


3S.466.593 


'7,685 


12.021.212 


19M 


•-•29,29o,000 


— 


2S. 862, 895 


120,319.241 


13.923.180 



1 N r ot included in exports. Bunkers for ships in foreign and coastwise trade, and 
Admiralty shipments totalled 38} million tons in 1917 and 84 1 million tous in l'.*18. 

In the year 1919 the coal available for home consumption, after deduct- 
ing the amount used in operating the coal mines, is estimated to have l»een 
162, 000,000 tons, the principal uses being : — Railways, for lcomotiv.' j.ur- 
. 13,500,000 tons; gas works, 17,750,000 tons: electricity and water 
undertakings, 7,500,000 tons ; blast furnaces, 15,750,000 tons ; domestic 
(including coal supplied to miners), 42,500,000 tons ; all other purposes, 
65,000,000 tons. 

Exports of coal, 1920, from United Kingdom to countries named :— 



Countries 



France 
Italy . . 
8weden . 
Gibraltar. 
Denmark 
Egypt • 
Norway . 
Belginm . 
Algeria . 
Malta £ Gozo 



Weigh 

Tons 

11,691,000 

2,905,000 

1,372,000 

1,134.000 

1,040,000 

985,000 

801,000 

671,000 

511,000 

421,000 



Valna 



£ 
42,301.000 
11,759,000 
6,258,000 
5,570,000 
4,748,000 
4,505,000 
3,907,000 
1.974,000 
2,286,000 
1,607.000 



Countries 



Canaries . 
Portugal 
Spam . . 
Portujueie W 

Africa . 
Argentina 
HoDand . 
Brazil 
Uruguay 
Russia . 



Weight 



Value 



Ton* £ 

3S2.000 1,931,000 

301,000 1,287,000 

290,000 1,351,000 



281.000 
274,000 
239,00ft 
158,000 

117,000 
93,000 



1,395.000 
1,139,000 
924.00O 
727,000 
430,000 
410,000 



Export of coal, coke and manufactured fuel from the principal ports 
1919:— 



Ports 

Cardiff . . 
Tyne Ports 
Newport . 
8wansea 
Blyth . . 
Port Talbot 
Sunderland 
Methil . . 



Value 




Ports 

Glassow 

Hartlepool 

Hull . . 

Leith 

London 

Llanelly 

Burntisland 

Gran'-eraoutli 



Tons 


Value 




£ 


6S4,000 


1,729,900 


548,000 


1,553,000 


490,000 


1,301,0*0 


459,000 


l,618,0ft0 


3f>2,000 


1,060,000 


S8C,ftM 


667,000 


244,000 


889,000 


234,000 


791,000 



F 2 



68 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



Iron ore produced in and imported into the United Kingdom :- 

H *- 





Iron ore 


produced 


Iron ore 


imported 


Tear 




• 








~ v , ■'■ 






Weight 


Value 


weight 


Value 




Tods 


& 


Tons 


£ 


1913 


15,997,328 


4,543,558 


7,442,249 


7,045,883 


1914 


14,867,582 


3,921,683 


5,704,748 


5,154,769 


1915 


14,235,012 


4,587,651 


6,197,155 


7,176,731 


1916 


13,494,658 


5,545,072 


6,933,767 


11,775,431 


1917 


14,845,734 


6,429,620 


6,189,655 


12,040,206 


1918 


14,613,032 


7,106,656 


6,581,728 


13,441,225 


1919 


12,254,195 


7,428,366 


5,200,696 


11,271,244 


1920 


— 


— 


6,500,911 


16,547,528 



The exports of British iron ore are insignificant. 01 the ore imported 
in 1919, 3,526,794 tons, valued at 7,667,6182., came from Spain. Including 
627,527. tons of 'purple ore,' the net quantity of iron ore available for the 
furnaces of Great Britain in 1918 was 21,822,127 tons. 

Statistics of blast furnaces in operation : — 



Year 


Furnaces 
in Blast 


Ore Smelted 

! 


Pig-iron made 


Uoal& coke used 


Pi* iron 

Export oil 


1913 
1914 
1915 


338 
291 
289 


| Tons 
; 25,707,518 
22,470,749 
1 21,706,411 


Tons 

10,260,315 

8,923,773 

8,723,560 


Ton* 

21,223,607 

18,381,106 

(a) 


Tons 
1,128,412 
782,349 
612,848 


1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 


294 
318 

318 
280 


21,505,556 

22,901,714 

22,544,064 

1 19,044,272 


8,919,469 
9,338,104 
9,107,384 
7,417,401 


a] 
W 

(a) 

(a) 


918,158 
733,943 
482,161 
356,985 



(a) 1015 : Coal, 2,509,456 tons ; Coke, 9,740,743 tons ; 1916 : Coal, 2,612,543 tons , 
Coke, 10,300,888 tons; 1917: Coal, 2,S16,318 tons ; Coke. 10 901,731 tons: 1914: 0«1 
2,006,840 tons; Coke, 11,2S6,6S0 tons ; 1919: Coal, 2,309,587 tons ; Coko, 9,381.337 tons. 

The output in 1920 was :— Pig iron, 8,008,000 tons; steel ingots, 
9,057,000 tons. 

Various unmanufactured metals imported 



— 


1913 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 




(pre-war) 












Antimony ore and regu- 














lus . . Tons 


10,334 


27,203 


38,106 


24,784 


11,521 


6,547 


Copper ore and 


183,375 


76,060 


78,148 


44.792 








36,332 


30,914 


Copper . . „ 


HUMS 


182,517 


118,649 


143,883 


204,065 




Lead . . ,, 


204,136 


•J'.:./.i77 


158,373 


147,124 


207,932 


217,610 


Lead ore ,, 


IS, 453 


14,002 


11,143 


8,657 


1,502 




Pyrites of Iron and 














copper . ,, 


781,711 


903,407 






880,708 




■ise ore ,, 


601,177 


372,724 




331,264 






Tn. 


45.682 


38,8% 


33,646 


27.148 


12,51.7 




Tin ore . . ,, 


34,592 


44,748 


33,912 




32,880 




Zinc (crude) . ,, 


145,004 


74,522 


53,827 


76,105 


64,138 




Ww. ore . ,, 


64,670 


114,360 


78,825 


87,868 


92,787 




l'latmuiu Troyoz. 


42,640 


3,348 


1,964 


3,806 


1,223 


2,705 


Quicksilver . lbs. 


8,401,165 


3,043,434 


2,550,214 


2,173,484 


1,077,460 


2,841,803 



COMMERCE 



69 



IV. Textil* Industry. 

(The following information is furnished l>y Mr. Thomas R. Ellison ©f 
Liverpool). 

The progress made by each branch of the textile industry since 1829 
is shown in the subjoined statement of the weight of raw material use«l 
and the value of yarns and goods exported : — 



Annual 
Average : Periods 
of Three Tears 



Weight consumed in Millions 
of lbs. 




Value of Products exported (in 
Thousands of *"s) 



Cotton i Woollen Linen Total 



1829-1831 


84S "> 


149 


1859-1861 


1,023 


260 




1,618 


564 


■U 




G23 


i<ni-ms 




r>'i 


1914-1910 


1.864 


81 C 


1917-1919 


1.CSI 


835 




l,56o 


80S 



194 
112 

220 
190 



586 

1.49 



18.077 ; 

40,,-,.-,.. 



4,967 
16,041 



2,138 
6,119 



•5.1S2 
T9.0W 

lotjn 



The home production of wool in 1920 is estimated at 108 million lbs. ; 
and that of flax at 27 million lbs. Exports in 1920 were : piece goods, 
cotton, 4,492 million yards ; woollen, 280 million yards ; linen, 93 million 
yards. Yarn : cotton, 148 million lbs. ; woollen, 31 million lbs. ; and linen, 
7 million lbs. 

Commerce. 

The principal imports on which customs duties are levied are beer, 
chicory, cocoa, coffee, dried fruits, matches, motor spirit, spirits, sugar, tea. 
tobacco, and wine — spirits, sugar, tea, tobacco, and wine yielding the bulk 
of the entire levies. In 1919 the imports free of duty (exclusive of bullion 
and specie and diamonds) amounted to 1,331,634,807/., 84 - 9 per cent., and 
those subject to duty to 244,521,405/., 15'1 per cent, of the total imports. 

Value of the imports and exports of merchandise (excluding bullion and 
specie and foreign merchandise transhipped under bond) of the United 
Kingdom : — 



1913 

1914 > 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 2 



Total 
Imports 



768,734,739 

696,635,113 

851,893,350 

948,506,492 

1,064,164,678 

1,316,150,903 

1,626,156.212 

1,936,742.120 



Exports of 
British Produce 



525,253,595 
430,721,357 
384,868,448 
506,279,707 
527,079,746 
501,418,997 
798,638,362 
1,335,569,027 



Exports of 

Foreign and 

Colonial Produce 



109,566.731 
95,474,166 
99,062,181 
97,566,178 
69,677,461 
30,945,081 
164,746,315 
222,405,957 



Total Exports 



634,820,326 
526,195,523 
483,930,629 
603,845,885 
596.757,207 
532 364,073 
963,3- 
1,557,974.984 



1 Prom the outbreak of War in August. 1014. until the second half of 1917, certain goods 
belonging to the British and Allied Governments were excluded from the returns of 
imports and exports. From July. 1917, merchandise imported and exported in public 
ownership is included, except exports tor the use of H.M. forces on active service. In the 
six months July to December, 1917, such imports (included in the above table) amounted 
to about 107,000,000/., and British exports to P.oOO^OO'. In 191S such imports amounted 
to about 250,000,0001 , British exports to IS, 500, 000/., and re-exports to about 3.000, 

2 Provisional figures. 

The value of goods imported into the United Kingdom is generally taken to be 
that at the port and time of entry, including all incidental expenses (cost, insurance, and 
freight) up to the landing on the quay. For goods consigned for sale, the market value 



70 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



in this country is required and recorded in the returns. This is ascertained from 
the declaration made by the importers, and is checked by the expert knowledge 
available in the Customs Department, with the help of current price-lists and market 
reports. For exports, the value at the port of shipment (including the charges of 
delivering the goods on board) is taken. Imports are entered as from the country 
whence the goods were consigned to the United Kingdom, which may, or may not, be 
the country whence the goods were last shipped. Exports are credited to the country 
of ultimate destination as declared by the exporters. 

Imports by air in 1920 amounted to 677,O00J., and exports to 339,0002. The trade was 
mainly in clothes and furs. 

The estimated weight of imports is: — 54*5 million tons in 1913, and 
89 million in 1919 ; of British exports, 91 '4 million tons in 1913, and 46*1 
million in 1919 ; of re-exports, 1,750,000 tons in 1913. and 1,500,000 in 
1919. 

The total estimated value of the imports and exports of Ireland (including 
the trade with Great Britain) is given by the Irish Department of Agricul- 
ture and Technical Instruction, as follows : — 





1914 


1916 


1917 1 1918 


1919 


Imports- 
Farm produce, food and drink stuff's 

Manufactured goods 


Thous. £ 
26,971 
11,162 

35,862 


Thous. J 
39,050 
17,794 

47,073 


Thous. £ Thous. & 
41,419 1 34,429 
21,392 ! 21,689 
50,370 69,898 


Thous. £ 

55,245 
24,433 

79,03b 


Total Imports 


73,995 


104,517 


119,181 

71,801 
5,802 
50,702 


126,010 

78,254 

5,369 

69,308 


158,716 


Exports- 
Farm produce, food and drink stuffs 

Manufactured goods 


41,607 
4,274 
31,430 

77,311 


62,577 

4,588 

40,006 


98,709 
0.777 
75,540 


Total Exports . 


107,171 


133,8*5 152,931 


176,032 



Imports into Ireland from Great Britain, 1919, 132,374,000/. ; exports to 
Great Britain, 174,005,000/. 

Trade of the United Kingdom according to countries (figures for 1920 aie 
provisional) : — 

Exports of Merchandise consigned 
Value of Merchandise! to countries iu first column 

Consigned from | 

Countries in first 
Countries column British Produce. 



foreign Court triee : 
Europe and Coloniee — 
Kussia 
Sweden 
Norway 
Denmark (including Faroe 
Islands) 

Iceland and Greenland 

Danish W. India Island 
Germany 
Netherlands 

Java 

Dutch Possessions in the 
Indian Seas . 

Dutch West India Islands 

Dutch Guiana 



Thous. £ 

40,271 
14.213 
7,437 

23,831 

23 
80,411 
28,578 

2,086 

L828 

■ 42 

378 



1920 



1913 



Thous. £ Thous. £ 

34,183 18,103 
.',0,372 8,220 

23,851 6,147 



81,157 
514 

31,120 
89,292 

2B.700 

8,061 
I S3 

49 



5,792 
210 

59 

4(1,677 

15,42'.i 

5.701 

1,645 
50 
89 



1920 



Thous. £ 

11,898 

39,832 
33,387 

30,635 

1,023 

30 

21,723 

47,'.' l r . 
18,413 

4,901 
134 
136 



Foreign and 
Colonial Produce. 



1920 



Thous. £ Thous. £ 



9,591 

1,014 

518 

551 
30 

8 
19,888 

5,l»93 
46 

11 

2 

9 



4,842 
6,006 
1,942 



29,876 
14,401 

SO 

20 
8 
7 



COMMERCE 



71 



G* natriei 



Value of Merchandise 
i Consigned from 
Countries in first 
column 



1990 



Exports of Merchandise consigned 
to countries in first column 



British Produce 



1913 1920 



m .... 

Belgian Congo. 
France . . . ' 

Algeria .... 

French We.st Africa 

French Somaliland 

Madagascar 

French Indo-China(Coch- 
in China, Camboja. 
Annim, and Tonqnin) 

French Possessions in ' 
the Pacitic . 

French W. India Islands 
Switzerland 
Portugal 

Azores .... 

Madeira .... 

Portuguese West Africa . 

Portuguese East Africa . 

Portuguese Possessions 
iu India 
Spain 

Canary Islands 

Spanish Ports in North 
Africa .... 

Italy 

Austria-Hungary 

Greece .... 

Crete .... 
Bulgaria .... 

Serria 

Roumania .... 

Turkey, European 

Turkey, Asiatic . 

Africa— 

Tripoli .... 

Tunis 

Morocco .... 

Liberia .... 

Alia— 

Persia 

!•: \mm 

China (exclusive of Hong 
Kong, Macao and Wei- 
hai-Wei) .... 

Japan (including Formosa) 

Korea .... 

America — 

United States of Anieriia 
Philippine Islands and 

Guam . 
Porto Rico 
Hawaii 

Cuba . 

Hayti . 

Bt. Domingo 

Mexico 

Guatemala . 



Thoua. £ Toons, t Thou*. £ 
23,382 ' 45,025 
44 



40.363 
1,319 

na 
uo 

222 



317 

11.070 
3.017 
5« 
31 
171 
344 

274 

14,394 

1.MI 



u 

-.127 

7.70« 

2,202 

25 

41 



2,167 
1 165 
4,251 

50 
862 
408 

57 

430 
516 



4...T2 

4.3SS 

1 

141,055 

2,183 

1 

IS 

3,675 

116 

154 



725 

76,005 

3,937 

1,404 

188 

878 



119 

n.oos 

7,060 

172 

151 

2<>7 

2.SW 

120 

37,4«5 
4,509 j 

17.512 

2.623 

0.772 

144 

Ml 

10 

:-.2-> 
3,119 
9,040 

135 
2,384 
1,044 

631 

3,761 

7'.'5 



26,919 
29.871 



I MO 
289 
tt.90 

1.S41 

214 



159 
60 

4,212 

3,271 
49 

543 

1,720 



Thou>. 

49,126 

981 

136,032 

3,728 

3.504 

158 

294 



1,858 

36 

258 

12,041 

10,049 

424 

1,056 

3,304 



i. 1'iious. £ 



Foreign and 
Colonial Produce 



1913 



7.420 

16 

11, 949 

7 

64 

1 



14,845 43,542 
14.530 26,185 



290 



564,339 



5.2S5 

10 

104 

25,629 

104 

1)9 

13,406 

281 



983 
60 

134 
2,214 

167 

102 
2,233 

344 



150 

77,131 

1,205 
153 
35 

7,24«'. 
4*8 
440 

4,3i'7 



Thou->. £ 

19,493 

29 

39,820 

40 

210 

6 

1 



14 
31 

661 

56 
11 



214 


350 


* 


7.S52 


1",S24 ' 




1,671 


3,545 ( 




107 


240 


17 


14,610 


39,734 


1,012 


4.4bl 


s m 


1,900 


2,537 


I -J. 7 -2 


59 




60 


4 


472 


1,002 


90 


38 


611 


1 


1,947 




71 


2,415 


15,450 


137 


5,291 


18,861 


108 


137 


77 




476 


l.u-J 


19 


1,277 


4.3-1 


265 


90 


272 


11 


726 


2,209 


11 


1,352 


4,060 





165 

I " 

1 

30,159 



1 
11 

1,497 

1 
63 
IS 

1 

144 

17 

5,625 

l,69n 

510 

4 
52 
53 

:~* 
471 
621 

M 
81 
548 

H 

38 

36 



395 

1,912 



63,918 
46 



1 
7S6 

1 
4 
- 



14" 
6 

4 

15 



72 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 





Value of Merchandise 

Consigned from 

Countries in first 

column 


Exports of Merchandise eo 
to Countries in first eolu 


isigned 




mil 


Countries 


British 


produce 


Foreign and 
Colonial produce 






1913 


1920 


1913 


| 1920 


1913 


1920 




Honduras (not British) 


Thous. £ 
1 


Thous. £ 


Thous. £ 


Thous. £ 
330 


I'hous. £ 


Thous. £ 


12 


127 


4 


San Salvador 


110 


233 


328 


685 


5 


4 


Nicaragua . 




117 


101 


243 


438 


7 


18 


Costa Rica 






1,424 


1,069 


236 


5S5 


10 


14 


Colombia 






1,089 


2,647 


1,093 


6,184 


21 


60 


Panama 






52 


290 


457 


510 


46 


30 


Venezuela 






560 


982 


826 


3,368 


14 


06 


Ecuador 






468 


1,627 


415 


1,362 


10 


16 


Peru . 






3,178 


14,582 


1.48S 


4,718 


104 


102 


Chile . 






5,350 


12,981 


6,011 


0,G'.'4 


359 


223 


Brazil . 






10,008 


12,100 


12,465 


24,329 


556 


608 


Uruguay 






2,749 


7,065 


2,916 


5,933 


96 


141 


Bolivia 






2,260 


1.931 


360 


747 


16 


21 


Argentine Republic 




42,485 


128,039 


22,641 


42,S40 


796 


90S 


Paraguay . 




9 


2 


195 


IQ0 


2 


3 


Total (including those not 














specified above) . . 


577,219 


1,376,011 


329,942 


834, 0S6 


95,950 


106,940 


British Possessions (Including 














Protectorates) : 














In Europe : 














Channel Islands . 


1,984 


4,541 


1,351 


3,178 


251 


070 


Gibraltar .... 


27 


45 


*28 


6,523 


01 


154 


Malta and Gozo 


31 


86 


l,ll>5 


2,932 


102 


321 


Cyprus 


139 


378 


147 


592 


5 


27 


In Africa : 














West Africa 














Gambia .... 


54 


2,622 


236 


1,035 


13 


67 


Sierra Leone . 




243 


2,135 


758 


1,876 


72 


134 


Gold Coast 




986 


6,638 


1,877 


7,604 


268 


813 


Nigeria 


'■ 


3,891 


19,265 


4.734 


12,710 


277 


1,1143 


Ascension . 







— 


6 


28 


1 


1 


St. Helena . 


6 


36 


29 


21 


7 


4 


South Africa : 














Cape of Good Hope. 


9,381^ 


12,649 


10,812 


24,183 


953 


1,442 


Natal .... 


2,724 


0,333 


5,053 


11,805 


389 




Orange Free Stat* . 


— 


— 


567 


910 


36 


42 


Transvaal 


196 


214 


5,752 


12,261 


483 


649 


Basutoland 


' 


— 


21 


67 


1 


1 


Rhodesia. 


194 


1,039 


839 


1,411 


56 


67 


Bechuanaland Protector- 














ate .... 








12 


17 


— 


— 


Swaziland 


53 





1 


2 








liasl Africa : 














Zanzibar and Pemba 


175 


957 


106 


892 


5 


6 


East Africa Protectorate 


426 


4,244 


1,180 


2,804 




116 


Uganda Protectorate 


298 


653 


54 


205 


1 


8 


Nyasaland Protectorate . 


106 


804 


82 


255 


■_> 


$ 


Homaliland Protectorate . 




— 


4 


8 


— 


— 


Mirypt 

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 


| 21,896 


/ 69,336 
\ 2,455 


}9,806 


/ 48,662 
I 1.211 


| 158 




Mauritius b Dependencies 


293 


7,026 


536 


2,745 


43 


200 


Seychelles . 






80 


161 


24 


32 


'-' 


2 



1 Exclusive of the value of Diamonds from the Cape of Good Hope. The exports of 
these from the Cape to the United Kingdom (Cap* returns) in 1919 were valued at 11,535,8592 



COMMERCE 



73 



Countries 



Value of Bferchandise 

Consigned from 

Countries in first 

column 



Exports of Merchandise ooaslgned 
to Countries in first column. 



British produce 



Foreijrn and 
Colonial produce 



1920 



1913 



1920 



1913 



1920 



Thous. £ Thous. £ Thou*. £ 



In A»ia : 
Aden and Dependencies . 
Biitish India 
Straits Settlements and 

Dependencies, including 

Labuan 
Federated Malay States 
Ceylon and Dependencies 
Borneo (British): 

British North Borneo 

Sarawak . 
Hong Kong 

In AiL$trala*ia : 
Australia . . . . 
Territory of Papna . 
New Zealand 
Fiji Islands 

in America : 
Canada 
Newfoundland 6 Coast of 

Labrador 
Bermudas .... 
Bahamas . 

British West India Islands 
British Honduras 
British Guiana . 
Falkland Islands 
Deep Sea Fisheries . 



30" 
48,420 



3,574 

:,:•.>: 

94 

l 
675 

38,065 

15 

20,836 

3 

30,488 

974 

jj 

l"' 

2,116 

155 

648 

42S 
325 



Thous. £ Thous. £ Thous. £ 



890 
95,678 



17,'Ji" 

16,915 

548 

231 

2,506 

112,700 

V 

47,748 

21 



484 

70,273 



6,8)1 

1,339 
4,185 

64 

36 

4,354 

34,471 
18 

10,838 
124 



92,854 23,795 



4,43$ 


881 
103 




66 


14,666 
310 


2.339 

122 


1,591 
599 


750 
95 
1 



181,814 



18,581 

2,916 
6,347 

1M 

6'.' 

13.ni; 

62,486 

43 

26,601 

224 

1,010 

288 

-X 
5,'.'47 

176 
1,686 

2vo 
1 



31 
1,807 

169 
44 
131 

10 

200 

3,358 

1 
952 

4 

3,512 

115 

24 

10 
383 

21 
109 

22 



20 

.',700 



:;3j 

44 
209 



HI 

a 

l,34i» 

6,078 
84 
11 

ir 

in 

37 



Total, British Possessions 
(including those not 
specified above) . 191,516 


560,731 


193,312 


501,4*3 13,610 


. 25,466 


Grand Total . . 7(58,735 


1,1-36,742 


5 25, 2 54 


1,335,569 109,566 


222,406 



Gold and silver bullion and specie : — 





Gold 


Bilver 


Tear 










. 


Import* , 


Export* 


Import* 


Exports 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1913 


59,533,549 


46,087,359 


14,495,049 


16,054,679 


1914 


58,642,211 


30,599,050 


11,952,790 


10,889,075 


1915 


10,828,366 


39,218,113 


10,560,161 


7,360,576 


1916 


17,790,302 


38,448,912 


13,677,650 


10,741,342 


1919 1 


66,543,659 


14,599,091 


2,425,424 


2,745,590 


1920 


50,678,283 


92,565,137 


9,923,034 


11,493,266 



1 Last six months of the year only. 
Figures for 1917 and 1918 and the first half of 1919 axe not available. 



74 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — UNITED KINGDOM 

Imports and exports for 1913 and 1920 (latter year provisional) 



Import Values C.I. P. 


Total 
Imports 


Domestic 
Exports 


Foreign and 
Colonial 

Export* 


Export Values F.O.B. 




























1913 j 


1920 


1913 


1920 


1913 


1920 


I. Food, Drink, and Tobacco— 


1 
1,000£ 


1,000 £ 


1,000 £ 


1,000 £ 


1,000 £ 


1,000 £ 


Grain and Flour .... 


84,403 


231,713 


2,305 


2,779 


1,646 


5,594 


Feeding-Stuffs for Animals . 


4,870 


8,899 


2,170 


1,017 


7'.! 


624 


Meat 


56,421 


141,557 


1,196 


861 


2,107 


10,845 


Animals Living for Food 


305 


— 


43 


14 


23 


— 


Other Food & Drink, Non-dutiable 


82,434 


174,759 


| 24,786 


37,092 


f 5,890 


11,871 


,, ,, ,, Dutiable 


58,683 


174,708 


\ 6,253 


15,120 




8,033 


35,677 


3,376 


9,130 


265 


2,145 


Total, Class I. 


205,149 


707,373 


33,876 


50,893 


16,256 


46,099 


II. Bate Materials, etc.— 














Mining, Ac, I'roduets : Coal . 


6 


27 


50,727 


99,627 


— 


— 


,, . „ ,, : Other 


3,114 


9,694 


869 


2,405 


312 


1,005 


Iron Ore and Scrap .... 


7,454 


20,800 


419 


"630 


9 




Non-Ferrous Ores and Scrap . 


12,073 


17,712 


168 


2,204 


601 


534 


Wood and Timber .... 


33.7S9 


82,165 


341 


1,012 


833 


1,603 


Raw Cotton and Cotton Waste 


70,571 


256,765 


— 


3,099 


9,143 


33.6S7 


Wool, and Woollen Rags 


37,730 


93,957 


4,623 


8,787 


13,574 


35,386 


Silk, Raw, Knubs and Noils . 


1,296 


4,071 


120 


94 


102 


188 


Other Textile Materials . 


18,455 


32,727 


314 


635 


5,177 


5,118 


Oil Seeds, Oils, Fats, Gums, &c. . 


29,418 


82,225 


2,872 


13,598 


5,439 


10,596 


Hides and Skins, Undressed . 


15,067 


31,977 


1,886 


4,032 


8,411 


15,606 


Paper-making Materials . 


5,816 


33,278 


958 


2,517 


298 


107 


linbber . . . 


21,895 


26,769 


— 


521 


14,948 


14,098 


Miscellaneous 


12,749 


19,334 


2,876 


6,495 


4,852 


4,970 


Total, Class II. 


269,939 


711,501 


66,173 


145,656 


63,699 


122,987 


III. Manufactured Article* — 














Coke and Manufactured Fuel 


31 


11 


2,932 


20,692 


3 





Earthenware, Glass, &c. 


5,408 


11,118 


7,427 


18,324 


229 


887 


Iron and Steel Manufactures . 


15.S90 


29,006 


55,351 


128,048 


889 


80S 


Non-Ferrous Metals & Manufactures 


29,601 


39,222 


12,036 


25,868 


8,252 


8,168 


Cutlery, Hard ware, Implements, 4c. 


6,699 


10,606 


7,129 


13,611 


1,522 


2,166 


Electrical Goods and Apparatus . 


1,587 
7,267 


1.S26 
19,961 


5,386 
33,602 


11,604 
6S.45S 


239 
1,306 


150 




1,721 


Manufactures of Wood and Timber 


3,583 


8.631 


2,042 


2.S-36 


589 


S07 


Cotton Yarns and Manufactures . 


9,208 


9,826 


126.467 


401,682 


1,898 


2,333 


Woollen, Worsted Yarns <fe Manuf. 


10,020 


17,702 


35,710 


184,060 


1,225 


8,668 


Silk and Silk Manufactures . 


!\US 


36.916 


2,158 


5,198 


1,768 


6,940 


Manuf. : Other Textile Materials . 


9,813 


23,118 


16,070 


45,037 


8,498 


4.529 




11,173 


15,088 


20,973 


48,888 


1,497 


2,190 


Chemicals, Drugs, Dyes, it Colours 


13,336 


35,315 


19,533 


40,730 


1,411 


5,356 


Oils, Fats, Resins, Manufactures . 


13,798 


77,001 


4,444 


13,616 


448 


6,486 


Leather and Manufactures 


11,630 


20,515 


5,279 


11,673 


8,189 


8,981 


I'.ipii and Cardboard 


7,083 


30,252 


3,679 


12,818 


277 


505 


Vehicles (inc. Ships 3c Aircraft) 


5,629 


27,233 


24,508 


60,106 


695 




Rubber Manufactures 


3,016 


7,103 


3,088 


11,641 




' 560 


Miscellaneous Articles . 


19,948 


B4»48i 


26,006 


49,070 


2,902 ' 4,041 


Total, Class 111. . 


201,039 
489 


454,823 


418,820 


1,120,732 


29,505 


, 53,241 


IV. Animal* not for Food 


402 


2,230 


4,818 


106 . 79 


V. Parrel Pout .... 


'.Ml" 


2,643 


"J. 


i::.f,( 


— 


I - 


Total 


768,736 


1,9SG,742 


j 525,25-: 


1,335,56V 


109,660 


222,406 



COMMERCE 



75 



The subjoined tables exhibit the value of the great articles of commerce 
imported, and home produce exported, during Qve years (see footnote (') 
to table on p. 69) :— 

The Principal Articles of Import. 



Principal Articles Imported 



Food, Drink, and Tobacco— 

Wheat 

Wheatines.1 and Dour 

Maize 

Bailey 

Oats 

Kice 

Hops 

Bacon 

Beef (fresh, salted, etc.) . 
Mutton (fresh, salted, etc.) 

Hams 

Lard 

Fish 

Butt«r 

Margarine 

CfcMM 

Vegetables, raw . . . . 

yolk, etc 

Fruit- (fresh, dried and preserved) 
Sugar (reflned and unrefined) . 



1913 
(Pre-war) 

£ 
18,840 

6,3is 
13,770 

■ 

11,112 

4,8$; 

24,084 
3,9 IS 
7,03.. 

10,900 

4,073 
$.033 



I and Cocoa Preparn 
Cotlee. raw and roasted 
Spirits .... 

Wine 

Tobacco 

Haw Materials — 

Iron ore 7.046 

Wood and timber . 33,789 

Cotton, raw 70,571 

Wool, sheep or lambs' . 34,226 

Jute 9,247 



Flax 

Hemp 

Petroleum (including Motor Spirit). 
Rubber . ... 

Hides, raw , 

Cotton seed 

Flax or Linseed .... 
Xuts and Kernels (not fruit) . 
Tin ore and concentrates . 

Pulp of wood 

Manufactures— 
Iron and steel and manufactures 

thereof 

Copper (regulus, wrought, manu 

factures, Ac.) 
Tin (blocks, ingots, bars, and slabs) 
Lead (pig and sheet) . 
Zinc, crude and manufactures 
Yarns and textile fabrics 
Leather: undressed . 

,, dressed, varnished, &.<•. 
Motor cars ar.d parts thereof . 



4,771 
4,850 
10,867 
20,524 

5,848 
4,049 
7,195 

■:,ic: 

3,309 
4,618 



15.S90 

10,311 
9 252 

3J1S 
3.9S0 



1917 

J nous. 

£ 

84,507 

18,470 

fO^SM 

8,907 

11,558 

7,575 

38 

41,409 

35,349 

10,736 

7,301 

8,942 

9,083 

7,778 
IM62 
5,501 

0,527 

12,200 

30,710 

14,709 

4,641 

1,918 

2,870 

2,403 

3,924 

12.040 

25,646 

110,591 

49,505 

4,362 

12,515 

8,893 

38,887 

23,852 

11,757 

4,002 

5,438 

12,905 

4,711 

9,520 



10,783 

21,341 
6.19S 
4,508 
4,554 



1918 



1919 



See previous table 

0,(527 

7,411 0.S21 



rhmu. 

* 

58,093 

35,6x3 
13.G79 

11,529 
9,432 

90,382 
&9.M9 

9,565 
13,029 
21,004 

19,770 
1,563 

15tMM 
7,003 

18,09s* 

34,411 

3,428 

713 

3,022 

:.2.'.o 

18,944 

13,441 
29,157 
150,285 

36,339 
9,088 
3,906 
14,072 
63,934 
12,115 
11,926 
6,470 
8,158 
12,869 
5,144 
12.7S3 



9,708 

26,490 
4,056 
8,823 
3,600 

6,901 

2.S24 
5,301 



Thoua. 

£ 
68,493 

13,799 

2,98! 

-',374 

52,053 
19,509 
16,000 
18,073 

15,170 

• 
15,763 
55,000* 
53,998 
33,051 
11,595 
1,909 

18,167 
41,654 

11,271 
72,300 
190,771 
96.S89 
13,631 

2.777 

8,796 
36,296 
24,347 
13,664 

9,774 
20.P63 
20.659 

4,008 
15.394 



11,613 

14.217 
5,953 
7,036 
4,415 

19,299 
18,064 



19201 

. MM, 

£ 

146,845 

21,240 

27,371 

14,459 

0.184 

50.307 

23,07-. 

12,777 

24,034 

13,771 
17,887 
61,6002 

4,960 
13,148 

35,077 

10,548 
82,165 
254,074 
S8.441 
13,100 

11,392 
96,999 

11,237 

4,995 
29,530 



29,006 

14,400 
8,597 
6,139 
5,870 

7.750 
11,959 
29,400 



Provisional figures. 



* Estimated. 



76 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

The Principal Articles of Export. 



Principal Articles Exported 



United Kingdom Produce- 
Fish. 

Beer and Ale 

Spirits 

Tobacco 

Coal 

Iron and Steel and Manufactures- 
Pig Iron 

Tinned plates and sheets 
Qalvauised sheets . 



Total Iron, &c, including items not 
specified 



Cotton yarn 

,, piece goods . 
Other cotton manufactures 
Woollen and worsted yarn 
Woollen tissues . 
Worsted tissues 
Linen piece goods 

Motor Cars, cycles, tyres, and parts 
Ships and Boats (new), complete 

Foreign and Colonial Produce — 
Food and drink .... 
Cotton, raw .... 
Wool (including woollen rags) 
Hides and Skins . 

Rubber 

Tin 



1913 

(Pre-War) 

Thous.£ 
7,503 
2,135 
4,188 
3,376 
50,727 

4,824 

7,215 

10,02(5 



55,351 



15,000 
97,776 
13,685 
5,460 
14,467 
6,186 
5,969 
5,894 
11,027 

15,991 
9,143 

13,574 
8,411 

14,837 
6,147 



1917 



191S 



Thous. £ 
1,047 
1,420 
4,600 
3,298 
46,548 

6,772 

5,380 

560 



44,828 



16,695 
112,810 

15,6S7 
5,170 

29,421 
7,439 
6,003 
4,152 
1,087 

7,202 
7,683 
3,600 
3,793 
16,521 
4,006 



Thous. £ 

983 

630 

3,520 

8,487 

48,026 

4,924 
7,569 

267 



36,843 



21.389 

138,516 

19,808 

6,051 
22,711 
7,757 
6,394 
4,331 
1,047 

3,978 
24 
2,410 
2,034 
4,530 
1,205 



1919 



19201 



Thous.£ 
4,690 
1,535 
4,474 
5,167 
83,214 

4,828 
11,079 
0.019 



64,424 



33,90S 
179,073 
25,864 
11,951 
60,392 
11,815 
7,806 
6,176 
2,328 

41,905 
11,410 
23,642 
12,300 
13,988 
2,654 



Thous. £ 
7,125 
2,982 
10,049 
9,130 
99,627 

10,009 
18,954 
19.121 



128,943 



47,825 

315,733 
88,125 

14,727 
75,207 
26,685 
14,938 
17,232 
26,576 

43,953 
33,173 
35,53ti 
15,606 
13,861 
4,119 



1 Provisional figures. 



The principal articles of food and drink, and tobacco, imported and 
retained for consumption in the United Kingdom in 1913 (the year before 
the war) and 1917 to 1919, are given as follows : — 





Articles 


1913 
(Pre-War) 


1917 


1918 


1919 


Wheat . . Thous. Cwts. 


105,434 


91,352 


57,889 


71,362 


Wheat meal, and flour . ,, ,, 


11,732 • 


18.8M 


26,211 


17.65C 


Maize , ,, 


48,308 


24,997 


14.4S3 




Barley 






ii ,i 


22,427 


9,134 


5,025 


16,639 


Oats . 






,i 


18,132 


12,597 


10,976 


0,709 


Rice . 






ii 


6,167 


6,297 


7,574 


1,484 


Butter 






ii ii 


4,083 


1,800 


1,577 


1,559 


Margarine 






ii n 


1.510 


1,794 


801 


459 


Cheese 






n ii 


2,232 


2,928 


2,349 


2,no 


Eggs • 






Million 


2,568 


590 


319 




Coffee 






Thous. cwts. 


251 


404 


4 2 7 


302 


Cocoa, raw 








464 


825 


1,124 


1,184 


Preparations of cocoa, Ac. ,, Cwts. 


235 


94 


25 


ISO 


Tea ,, Lbs. 


305,490 




310,687 




Beef (fresh & refrigerated)' ,, Cwts. 




i;. iiST 


7,536 




Mutton ,, ,, 1 ,, ,, 




1,564 


2,0S4 


4,068 


Bacoa and hams . . ,, ,, 


5,574 




11,932 


6,027 


Other meat . . . ,, ,, 


2,856 


3,116 


3,444 


4,471 


Potatoes , ,, 


9,845 




1,016 


m 


Apples ....,, „ j 


3,121 


807 


410 


2,967 



I Including estimated produce of meat from live aniiualu imported for slaughter. 



COMMERCE 



77 



Articles 



Oranges . . . Thou-. 

Bananas bunclx 

Currants, dried . 

Railing 

Sugar (raw and refined) 

Wine , Galls. 

Spirits (British and 

foreign) . Thous. Prf. 

Beer (home-made) Thous. Stand. Brls. 
Thous. lbs. , 



(Pre-War) 

5,540 
6,564 

1.244 

life 

33.626 

11,565 

31,734 



2,801 

374 

334 

21.548 

7,099 

18,560 
16,13» 
10 ibC 



1918 



3,640 

729 

281 

18S 

l-,007 

11,317 

K153 

108JM 



5,190 
4,884 
2,036 
1,083 

29.19:: 
19,17* 

21,7K 

21.TU 



Iu 1920 the United Kingdom imported about 30,000,000 cwt. of wheat 
from other parts of the Empire and about 79,000,000 cwt. from foreign 
countries. The great wheat sources were : — 



United States 
Argentina 
Australia 
Canada 



-2,000 cwt. 
30,907,000 „ 
19,966,000 „ 
10,189,000 „ 



Wheat flour imported 1920, 11,970,000 cwt., of which 5,837,000 came 

from the United States, 2,319,000 from Canada, and 1,481,000 from Australia. 

Quantity of the principal food imports, tobacco, spirits (British and 

foreign) and beer (British) retained for home consumption per head of 

population : — 



Articles 


1911 


ltl2 


1913 


1914 


1919 


Bacon and hams . 


lbs. 


14-04 


1330 


13 66 


14-18 


21-9 


Beef 1 . 




21-1-2 


20 27 


22 12 


19-98 


156 


Mutton l 




13 21 
7 25 


12-35 


1303 


1243 


9 9 


Other meat . 


6-55 


6 99 


8 39 


12-1 


Butter . 


,, 


10-30 


9 56 


9-68 


9 46 


3-8 


Cheese . 


,, 


567 


551 


5 47 


578 


51 


Eggs . 


no. 


49-99 


4992 


5617 


46-30 


14-7 


Wheat . 


lbs. 


241 -40 


268-07 


258 32 


250-89 


173-1 


Flour . 




24-57 


24-73 


2874 


23-91 


429 


Potatoes 




7 94 


14-11 


22 90 


8 05 


24 


Sugar (equivalent of 














refined) 


,, 


80-17 


7941 


83 10 


7980 


— 


Tea 




647 


6 49 


6 68 


6-89 


8-4 


Rice, rice meal, and 














flour . 


1301 


I486 


15-11 


14 58 


— 


Tobacco 




2-05 


2 05 


210 


219 


315 


Spirits . . proof 


pall. 


68 


0-67 


70 


69 


47 


Beer 


gall. 


27-20 


26-83 


27 50 


27 60 


16 9 



1 Including estimated produce of meat from live animals imported for slaughter. 

The total value of goods transhipped under bond was : 1915, 10,532,835/ : 
1916, 10,148,357/.; 1917, 11,621,849*; 1918, 10,874,547/.; 1919, 15,783,234/. 
These amounts are not included above in the accounts of imports and 
exports.) 



78 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



Shipping and Navigation. 

Vessels registered as belonging to the United Kingdom (including the 
Isle of Man and Channel Islands) at the end of each year 



At end 


Sailing Vessels 


Steam Vessels 


Total 


of year 


No. 


Net Tons 


No. Net Tons 


No. 


Net Tons 


1913 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 


8,336 
8,019 
7,669 
7,186 
6,857 


846,504 
776,761 
714,830 
625,428 
603,905 


12,602 '11,273,387 
12,771 jll, 650,349 
12,405 jll, 036,788 
11,534 9,606,671 
11,334 9,497,040 


20,938 
20,790 
20,074 
18,720 
18,191 


12,119,891 
12,427,110 
11,751,618 
10,232,099 
10,100,945 











The total mimber of vessels on the registers at ports in the British 
Empire (including the United Kingdom) in 1918 was 36,395, of 12,295,671 
tons net (sailing, 18,071 vessels, tonnage, 1,496,271; steam, 18,324 vessels, 
tonnage, 10,799,400). 

Vessels built in the United Kingdom (including vessels built for 
foreigners) : — 





Other than War Vessels 


War Vessels 


Year 


Sailing 


Steam 


Total 


For British For 
Royal Navy Foreigners 




No. 


Net 
Tons 


No. 


Net 
Tons 


No. 


Net. 
Tons 


Tons Dis- 
placement 


Gross 
Tons 


1913 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 


33S 
158 
115 
59 

11 


30,382 

12,942 

14,334 

7,229 

5,663 


909 
394 
385 
348 
313 


1,170,107 
397,212 
409,568 
764,598 
820,829 


1,247 
552 
500 
407 
324 


1.200,489 
410,154 
423,892 
771,827 

826,492 


193,785 
(a) 
(a) 
(«) 
(«) 


55,024 
18 



(a) Cannot be stated. 

The output of merchant shipbuilding in gross tons was: in 1915, 
650,919; 1916,541,552; 1917,1,163,474; 1918,1,342,396; 1919, 1,620,442; 
1920, 2,055,624. 

The total loss of United Kingdom merchant shipping from the outbreak 
of war in August, 1914, to the end of October, 1918, was 9,031,828 gross 
tons. New construction in that period amounted to 4,342,296 gross torjs, 
purchases abroad, to 530,000 gross tons, and enemy tonnage captured, to 
716,520, making a net loss of 3,443,012 gross tons. 

Total shipping of the United Kingdom engaged in the home and foreign 
trade or in fishing 





Sailing Vessels 


Steam Vessels 


Total 

Tonnage 

(Net) 




Number 

3,886 
3,198 
2,877 

Cannot 


T-(Nct) ; ^- 

569,088 17,783 
506,801 ' 16,106 
431,191 14,0'.'l 

be stated. 


Number 


Tons (Net) 


Persons 

employed 


1912 
1913 
1014 
1915 | 
10 } 
1918 1 


9.672 
B,T91 

9,609 


11,146,100 
11,462,690 
11,783,846 


209,023 
275,891 
281,558 


11,714,198 
11,959,491 
12,214,540 



SHIPPING AND NAVIGATION 



79 



Of the 295,652 men employed in 1914, 212,640 were British, 31,396 were- 
foreigners, and 61,616 were Lascars. 

British shipping engaged in the home trade {i.e. the United Kingdom 
or ports between the Elbe and Brest) and foreign trade, 1914 (fignres for a 
later year cannot be given) : — 



Railing Vessels 



Steam Vessels 



Trade 


Number "[^ 


Persons 
employed 


Number 


Tons Persons 
(Net) employed 


Home i . 


2,-371 167,772 


10,084 

324 

6,786 


5,268 

360 

3,981 


391 58,5?8 


Partly foreign. 
Foreign . 


31 6,957 
175 2J6.465 


10,485,324 210,672 


Total . 


2,S77 431,194 


14,094 


9.609 


11,7S3,346 281,558 



1 Including fishing. 

Total net tonnage of sailing and steam vessels (foreign trade), and tonnag 
with cargoes only, entered and cleared at ports of the United Kiugdom : — 



Year 




Entered 






Cleared 






Total 






British 


Foreign 


Total 


British 


Foreign 


Total 


British 


Foreign 


ToUl 




l.OOOtns. 


l.OOOtns. 


l.OOOtns. 


l.OOOtns. 


l.OOOtns. 


l.OOOtns. 


l.OOOtns. 


l.OOOtns. 


l.OOOtns. 


1913 


40,603 


35,546 


82,149 


4<%647 


36,014 


82,661 


93,250 


71,560 


164,810 


19141 


40,357 


30,769 


71,126 


3S.303 


30,660 


88,961 


78,660 


61,429 


1« 089 


19151 


28,551 


24,800 


68,354 


26,263 


24.S79 


51,142 


54,814 


49.6S4 


164 196 


19101 


25,900 


23,793 


49,693 


22,621 


23,465 


46,086 


4S.521 






19171 


23,089 


11,046 


34,135 


20,542 


10, w 


31,411 


43,631 


21.915 


$3,561 


191S1 


23,714 


9,551 


33,265 


20,357 


S.824 


29,181 


44,071 


1S.375 


62,446 




32.292 


16,772 


H 


r ith ear 


goes on I 
27,719 


67,820 


72,393 


44,491 




1913 


49,064 


40,101 




19141 


2S,929 


14,132 


43,061 


32,516 


23,453 


55,968 


61,445 


87,585 


•tuns 


19151 


22,86* 


10,862 


33,724 


20,380 


19,149 


39.629 


43,242 


30,011 


73.253 


19161 


20,217 


9,842 


30,059 


17,752 


17,844 


35,596 


37,969 




65,665 


19171 


18,795 


4,434 


23,229 


16,9X7 


9,149 


26,076 


35,722 


13.5S3 


49,305 


191S1 


19,819 


3,414 


23,233 


14,965 


7.772 


22,737 


34,784 


11,186 


45,970 


191 91 


22,0SO 


7,491 


29,571 


21,963 


12,599 f 


34,562 


44,043 


£0,090 


64.133 


19201 


■J5.:3i 


". . v 


:■■■ : U 


23.409 


13,151 ' 


-...• ■ 




24,168 


73,166 



i Figures for 1914 and later years exclude vessels employed by the Government in 
connection with the war. On the other hand, the figures for these years are increased to 
an unknown extent in consequence of the re-measurement of certain steam vessels on the 
coming into full force, at the commencement of 1914, of the provisions of the Merchant 
Shipping Act 1907. 

Of the foreign tonnage (18,375,000 tons) entered and cleared at British 
ports in 1918. 
Norway . . had 
France . . ,, 
Sweden . . „ 
Denmark . . ,, 
U.S. America ,, 

The total net tonnage of vessels that arrived and departed at ports, 
with cargoes and in ballast, excluding those coastwise, 1918 : — 
Liverpool (includ- Glasgow . . . 3,576,000 Manchester (in- 

ing Birkenhead) 13,671,000 Hull 3,140,000 eluding Runcorn) 1,597,000 

London . . ; 9,582,000 Swansea . . . 2,8-46.000 Middlesbrough . 1,379,000 

Cardin" .... 7,735,000 Newport .... 2,476,000 Folkestone . . 1,196,000 

Tyne Ports . . 5,743,000 ; Plymouth . . l,v.'S6,0O0 Sunderland . . 1,101,000 



5,683,000 


Belgium . 


. had 


630,000 ; Russia . . . bad 


239.000 


3.S59.OO0 


Spain . . 


• ii 


597,000 Italy , 


120,000 


2,293.000 


Holland . 


ii 


528,000 i Other foreign 




1,833,000 


Greece . . 


ii 


427,000 ' countries . , . 


444,000 


1,418,000 


Japan . . 


• ii 


mtjtM 





THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



Bristol. . . . 1,001,000 1 Grimsby (including 
Port Talbot . . 964,000 Immingham) . 

Southampton . 985,000 j Greenock and Port 

Blyth .... 836,000 1 Glasgow. . . 

Leith .... 748,000 iMethil .... 



665,000 



(122,000 
590,000 



Falmouth (includ- 
ing Truro) . . 572,000 
Hartlepool . . 459,000 
Belfast .... 316,000 



Vessels arrived coastwise with cargoes and in ballast 1918, 28,057,130 
net tons ; departed, 27,079,256 net tons. 

Internal Communications. 

I. Railways and Tramways. 
The length of track open for traffic at the end of 1919 was 23,725 miles. 
Further statistics for the United Kingdom :— 



Tear 



1913 
1919 



Length 
of lines 
open at 
end of 
year 



Total Cap- 
ital paid 
up(includ- 
ing nom- 
inal addi- 
tions ) at 
end of year 



Number of 
Passengers 
conveyed 
(excluding 
season- 
ticket 
holders) 



20,246 
20,290 



Million 
£ 



1,302-8 
1.2S0-2 



Millions 



1,199-2 
1,522-4 



Weight of 
goods and 
mineral 
traffic 
origina- 
ting 



Gross re- i 
ceipts in-i 

eluding ' Working 
miseellan- Expenses 

eous re- 

ceipts j 



Pro- 
portion 
of 
Net working 
Receipts expendi- 
ture to 
gross 
receipts 



Million Thousand Thousand 'Thousand Per 
tons jB ' £ I £ I Cent. 



Great Britain. 



364-4 
304-9 



134,549 
230,627 



84,315 
179,450 



50,234 
51,177 



1913 
1919 



1913 
1919 



3,416 
3,435 



23,661 
23,725 



39-4 
45 5 



1,342-2 
1,325-7 



30-1 
29 3 



1,229-4 
1,551-7 1 



5-6 
6-0 



4,902 
9,501 



United Kingdom. 

I 370-0 I 139,451 
I 310-9 I 240,128 



3,005 
7,608 



87,320 
187,058 



1,897 

1 893 



52,131 
53,070 



1 Excluding 233 million passengers carried ' free ' on behalf of the Government. The 
equivalent number of annual tickets representing season ticket holders in 1919 was 923,000. 

The figures for years prior to 1913, owing to changes in the method of 
compilation, are not comparable with the figures for 1913, neither are the 
financial figures for 1913 comparable with those for 1919, for the following 
reasons, namely, there are certain small variations in the list of undertakings 
included in 1919 as compared with 1913 ; 1919 capital figures have been 
adjusted in respect of duplication ; and the 1919 gross receipts and working 
expenses include the figures of non-working companies. Since August, 191 -1, 
most of the railways have been controlled by the Government, and in 
consequence it is not possible to give complete statistics for the years 1914- 
1918 inclusive. Control is to cease in August, 1921. 

Tramways. — In 1918-19 there were in the United Kingdom 2,720 miles 
of tramways and light railways open for public traffic, of which 2,647 miles 
were operated by electric traction. Of the total mileage 1,705 miles were 
worked by local authorities, and 1,015 miles by companies. The totil 
number of passengers carried has risen from 3,426,473,192 in 1SH3 11 to 
4,557,640,078 in 1918-19, an increase of 33 per cent. 

II. — Canals and Navigations. 
The total length of canals in the United Kingdom in 1905 was 4,673 
miles, of which 3,641 miles were in England and Wales, 184 in Scotland, 
and 848 in Ireland. 



INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS 



81 



In January, 1920, there were 1,234 miles of waterway in England, and 
304 miles iu Ireland, under the Canal Control Committee — a Committee 
appointed by the Government to manage the principal canals as from 
March 1, 1917. In additioD, the Railway Executive Committee controlled 
1,145 miles, whilst the River Thames above Teddington, and the Caledonian 
and Crinan Canals in Scotland, totalling 196 miles, were also under Govern- 
ment control. The total tonnages passing on these waterways were : — Under 
Canal Control Committee, 1918, 27,599,000 tons; 1920, 19,110,000 tons ; 
railway-owned canals, 1918, 5,968,000 tons; 1920, 8,531,000 tons; 
other waterways, 1913, 490,000 tons; 1920, 386,000 tons; total, 1913, 
34,057,000 tons ; 1920, 23,027,000 tons. 

The Manchester Ship Canal, opened in 1894, is 35$ miles in length and 38 ft. in deptb. 
The bottom width of the canal is not less than 120 ft. except for | mile near Latchford, 
where it is 90 ft. The maximum width of the locks i» 65 ft., with the exception of the 
entrance lock, which is 80 feet wide. The canal is in direct communication with all tte 
principal railway systems and barge canals of the Kingdom. The total pad-up capital 
of the Company is 17,033,189/. The gross revenue of the canal in 1920, includ 
Bridgewater department and the railways, amounted to -2,448,8481., and the net revenue, 
including miscellaneous receipts, to 820,93-2/. The traffic receipts in 1920 amounted to 
1,461,9092. The merchandise traffic paying toll in 1920 amounted to 4,387, 3*8 tons. 

III.— Post, Telegraphs, and Telephones. 

Post-offices in the United Kingdom, March, 1915, 24,509, besides 50,285 
road and pillar letter-boxes; employed by the Post Office, March, 1921, 
234.008 persons (172,428 males, and 61,580 females); of these 21,601 
(9,593 females) were temporary officers. 

Letters, Post-cards, kc, delivered in 1919-20 : — 



BnglM I 

A Wales 



Scotland ' Ireland 



United 
Kingdom 

wit-si 



Millions . Millions Millions Millions 



Post-cards . 
Printed Papers 
Newspapers 
Parcels. 
Telegrams . 



3,335 
50i> 
958 
155 
120 



338 
54 

116 
'29 
15 
10 



bi 



8t«H 



26 588 

54 . 1,128 

88 807 

10 145 

T 94 



Total for 
Unite' 1 I 
domin 1913-14 



Millions 
8,478 

1,172 
■2«17 
187 



The number and value of money orders issued in 1919-20 were : — Inland 
orders, 15,427,000, amount 103,519,000/.; foreign and colonial, 2,875,000, 
amount 15,739,000*.; total, 18,302,000, amount 124,253,000/. These figures 
include telegraph orders, the number of which, issued inland, in 1919-20 
was 1,197,000 to the amount of 6,799,000/., while those issued to or from 
foreign and colonial countries numbered 40,700 to the amount of 603,000/. 

Postal orders issued in the United Kingdom : — 



Tear 

ended 

March 31 



1914 
1916 
1917 



Number 



152,340,000 
132,626,000 
124,890,000 



Value 



Tear 

ended 

March 31 



£ 
53,106,OOU 
36,195,000 
85.080,000 



1918 
1919 
1920 



Number 



Value 



X 
126,476,000 37,042,000 
110,547,000 36,147,000 
106.617,000 37,435,000 



82 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



The telegraphs were transferred to the State on February 5, 1870 ; on 
March 31, 1920, mileage used for telegraph purposes was 272,845. The 
total mileage of Post Office wires, Telegraph, Telephone, and spare wires, 
was 3,738,933 miles. Of this total, 1,036,510 miles were aerial, 2,683,204 
underground, and 19,219 submarine. 

The total number of telegraph offices (including those at railway stations which 
transact public business) open on March 31, 1920, was 13,967. In 1909-10 the Post Office 
acquired from the Marconi Company and Lloyd's their wireless telegraphy stations on the 
coast of the United Kingdom, except certain long-distance Marconi stations. The Post 
Office has since provided additional stations (long-distance and others). On March 31, 
1921, there were 12 Post Office wireless stations in operation and 5 under construction, 
and a number of " standby" stations exist for emergency purposes. The Marconi 
Company are working certain stations under licence. 

On March 31, 1920, the trunk telephone service had 1,163 exchanges open for business; 
there were 6,829 circuits containing 441,406 miles of wire ; the number of calls during 
the year 1919-20 was 53,796,000. The London local exchange system had 81 exchanges, 
1,172,872 miles of working wire, and 304,931 telephones. The provincial local exchange 
system had 3,158 exchanges, 1,632,696 miles of working wire, and 582,590 telephones. 
The approximate number of originated effective calls in 1919-20 was S48 millions, lor 
private wires the rentals amounted to 246,4301. in 1919-20. 

The receipts and expenditure of the Post Office : — 





1913-14 


1917-18 


191S-19 


1919-201 


Total postal receipts . 
Expenditure 


£ 

21,935,326 
15,264,076 


£ 

29,507,138 
22,135,539 


£ 
34,867,776 
25,975,194 


£ 
35, 278,310 
30,571,456 


Net postal revenue .... 

Total telegraph receipts 
Expenditure 


6,671,250 

3,126,281 
4,207,133 


7,371,599 

5,916,321 
6,297,451 


8,892,582 

6,274,174 

6,732,474 


4, 706, £54 

5,796,934 
8,027,604 


Net telegraph deficit 

Total telephone receipts 
Total telephone expenditure . 


-1,0S0,852 

6,627,663 
5,S86,536 


-381,130 

10,424,686 
10,515,606 1 


- 458,300 

10,780,540 
11,819,215 


- 2,230,670 

9,326,494 
10,7'.' 


Net telephone deficit or revenue . 
Net revenue 


741,127 
6,331,525 


- 90,9:20 
0,S99,549 


-1,038,675 
7,395,607 


- 1,466,086 
1,010,098 



1 Final figures not available. Figures furnished are approximate. 

Money and Credit. 

Value of money issued from the Royal Mint and of imports and export* 
of British gold and silver coin : — 



Tear 



Gold 

Money 
issued 



1913 27, 

1915 21, 

1916 - 1, 

1917 1, 
1918 
1919 
19:20 



£ 
638,789 
301,000 
554,000! 
014,000 

nil 

nil 

nil 



Silver Bronze 

Money Money 
issued issued 

£ £ 

1,934,354 314,625 
7,598,923 248,415 
8,192,381 452,800 
4,137,032 548,365 
8,885,325 418,845 
3,876,175 586,590 
r., 1:55,515 599,780 



British Gold Coin British Silver Coin 

Imported j Exported Imported Ex] 



£ £ 

11,946,74419,741, 360 



2,453,331 
518,081 
l 
l 

876,288 s 



32,199,580 
18, 87'-', 2212 



2,572,180* 



£ 

438,400 
409,486 
527,301 



128,021- 
133,400 



£ 

691,860 
350,180 
740,265 






1 Information not available. 

a Six months ended Deceiubn , l-'l' 1 



MONET AND CREDIT 



83 



There is no State bank, but the Bank of England, the Bank of Scotland, 
and the Bank of Ireland have royal charters, and the first and the last lend 
money to the Government. Statistics of the Bank of England for the end 
of December : — 





Issue Department 


Banking Department 


Year 


il'nM '.Securities 


Gold 


Capital 


Deposits 


Note* in 


Coin in 




Coin ami 


and 


and Securities 


the ■ Re- 


the ' Re- 






Bullion 
£1,000 


' Rest " 
£1,000 


Post Bills 


serve' 


serve ' 




£1,000 \ £1,000 


£1,000 £1,000 


£1,000 £1,000 


1913 


50,500 18,450 


32,050 


17,790 


51,510 47,130 


21,130 1,050 


1916 


71.290 18,450 


52,840 


17,860 


178,860 163,650 


31,610 1,470 


1917 


75.5S0 18,450 


57,100 


17,850 


166,270 153,190 


29,640 1,210 


1918 


97,000' 18,450 


78,550 


: 17,800 


172,670 163,240 


26,690 550 


1919 108,748 18,450 


90,298 


17,825 


199,862 199,246 


17,398 1,043 


1920 144,934 18,450 


i2<;.4>; 


:7,-'J2 


189,865 193,892 


12.083 1,783 



Bank clearings, 1919, 28,415,000,000/. ; 1920, 39,019,000,000/. 
Post Office Savi7igs Bank.— Statistics for 1918 and 1913. 











United 


United 


— 


England 
and Wales > 


Scotland 


Ireland 


Kingdom ' 
1918 


Kingdom 1 
1913 


Accounts open at end 


of 






















Active . 


10,671,907 


613,604 


542,050 


11. > 29,631 


},1* 


Dormant - 


3,747,9"4 


208,900 


211,920 


4,168,724 


4,017,659 


Amount — 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1 


Received 


. 73,193,336 


.,-■..407 


3,034,125 


79.4.-. 


51,165,624 


Interest Credited . 


4,652,951 


208,718 




5,134,034 


4.?" 


Paid 


4^,348,244 


2,273.057 


2,432,397 


53,255,698 


50,397,407 


Due to Depositors 


at 










end of year 


213,020,763 


- 


12,030,758 


234,633,323 


187,248,167 



1 Including Islands in the British Seas. 
II., which hare been dormant five years or more. 



- Accounts with balances of less than 



The total amount credited to depositors at March 31, 1919, was ap- 
proximately 257,000,000/., and 1920, 264,000,000/. 

The receipts and payments include purchases and sales of Government Stock for 
depositors, and the interest includes dividends on stock credited to depositors' accounts, 
but the amount on deposit is exclusive of such stock held for depositors. The latter 
amounted to 1S5,6S2,S301. at the end of 1918 (against 26,575.9371. in 1913). 

Trustee Savings Bank. — The number of depositors in these banks in 1920 
was about 2,266,000, and the amounts due to them were : in the 
General or Government Departments, 75,0S6,000Z. Cash, and 27,245,000/. 
(face value) Stock ; in the Special Investment Departments, i.e., money 
invested otherwise than with the National Debt Commissioners, 16,185,000/. 
Cash, and 44,745/. (face value) Stock ; total Cash, 91,271,000/. ; total face 
value of Stock, 27,289,745/. In 1913, the number of depositors was 
1,912,820 ; the total Cash due to depositors, 68,548,000/., and the face 
value of Stock, 2,795,000/. 

c 2 



84 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

The sovereign weighs 123 '274 grains, or 7*9881 grammes, "916 (or eleven- 
twelfths) fine, and consequently it contains 113 001 grains or 7 3224 grammes 
of fine gold. The shilling weighs 87'27 grains or 5 6552 grammes, and down 
to 1920 was '925 (or thirty-seven -fortieths) fine, thus containing 80727 grains 
or 5 '231 grammes of fine silver, but under the Coinage Act,- 1920, the fineness 
has been reduced to ^500 (one half). Bronze coins consist of a mixture of 
copper, tin, and zinc. The penny weighs 145*83 grains, or 9 '45 grammes. 
The standard of value is gold. Silver is legal tender up to 40 shillings ; 
bronze up to 12d. , but farthings only up to 6d. Bank of England notes are 
legal tender in England and Wales, except at the Bank itself (3 and 4 Will. 
4, cap. 98). The 12. and 10s. Treasury Notes issued since the outbreak of 
the War are also legal tender. The note circulation at March 31, 1920, 
was ; currency notes, 335,372,0002. ; Bank of England notes, 105,271, 0002.; 
total, 440,643,0002. The amount of currency in June, 1914, is estimated 
at 128,000,0002. in circulation, and 75,000,0002. in banks ; total, 
203,000,0002. In December, 1919, the amount is estimated at 393,000,0002 
in circulation, and 191,000,0002. in banks ; total, 584,000,0002. The silver 
circulation at the end of 1920 was estimated at about 60,000,0002. 

Standard units are : of length the standard yard, of weight the. standard 
pound of 7,000 grains (the pound troy having 5,760 grains), of capacity the 
standard gallon containing 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at 62° F., 
the barometer at 30 inches. On these units all other legal weights and 
measures are based. 

ISLE OF MAN. 1 

The Isle of Man is administered in accordance with its own laws by the 
Court of Tynwald, consisting of the Governor, appointed by the Crown ; the 
Legislative Council, composed chiefly of ecclesiastical and judicial dignitaries 
appointed by the Crown, numbering 9 members, including the Governor ; 
and the House of Keys, a representative assembly of 24 members chosen 
on a property qualification for 7 years by the 6 'sheadings' or local sub- 
divisions, and the 4 municipalities. Women have the franchise as well as 
men. Number of voters 1915, 16,138. The island is not bound by Acts of 
the Imperial Parliament unless specially mentioned in them. 

Lieut. -Governor. — Major-General Sir W. Fry, K.C.V.O., C. B. 

The principal towns are Douglas (population in 1911, 21,192), Ramsey 
(4,247), Peel (2,605), Castletown (1,817). Births (1919), 679 ; deaths, S47. 
in 1915 there were inspected 46 elementary schools, 41 being board schools. 
The enrolled pupils numbered 7,213, and the average attendance 6,447. 
The expenditure of school boards and of primary schools for the 
1914-15, amounted to 30,7042. There were, in 1915, 1 secondary 
(295 registered pupils), 14 supplementary classes (271 registered pupils), ami 
15 evening classes (571 registered pupils). Th» expenditure of higher edm 
boards in 1914-15 was 9,9792. On December 31, 1915, 931 persons received 
poor-relief (103 indoor and 828 outdoor). In 1915 the police force numbered 
90 ; in the year there were 455 persons oom I 

Revenue is derived mostly from Customs. In 1919-20 the revenue 
amounted to 293,3032.; and expenditure to 120,5082., of which 10,0002. 
was paid to the Imperial Kxchoqucr as contribution from the Customs 
revenue. Public debt (1920) 127,5272. 

The priueipal agricultural produce of tho island consists of oats, 
barley, turnips and potatoes, and grassos. The total area of the island. 
1 Area ami population, see p. -4. 



CHANNEL ISLANDS 85 

excluding water, is 140,936 acres : the total area of arable land in 1920 
acres and of permanent grass, 17,070 acres. The total acreage 
umh-r corn crops in 1920 was 23.3S7 acres, including 22,777 under oats, 
332 under wheat, and 630 under barley or bere. There were also 7,434 acres 
under turnips and swedes, 2,500 under potatoes, and 35,811 under clover, 
sainfoin and grasses under rotation. The number of agricultural holdings 
in 1920 above 1 acre in size was 1,567. The live stock in 1920 consisted of 
6,326 horses ; 21,143 cattle ; 74,086 sheep ; and 3,368 pigs. The chief 
mineral products in 1919 were clay, 1,650 tons ; gravel and sand, 160 tons ; 
igneous rocks, 12,891 tons ; lead ore, 129 tons ; limestone, 1,989 tons ; slate, 
4o7 tons ; zinc ore, 7*7 ton*; brine salt, 3,324 tons. Persona emplo;. ■- 
mining numbered 273. In 191 S there were belonging to the Isle of Mr 
fishing boats of an aggregate tonnage of 1,839 net tons. 

The registered shipping (1918) comprised 28 sailing vessels (1,250 net 
tons) and 41 steamers (4,S56 net tons) ; total tonnage 6,106 net tons. The 
tonnage of vessels arrived at ports of the island in 1918 was 220,074 net 
tons (217,362 tons coastwise), and departed 217,223 net tons, (216,060 
tons coastwise). The railways have a length of 464; miles, and there are 
25 miles of electric railways. 

CHANNEL ISLANDS. 1 

The Channel Islands are administered according to their own laws and 
customs. Jersey has a separate legal existence ; it is administered by a 
Lieutenant-Governor appointed by the Crown, and a Bailiff also appointed by 
the Crown. The Bailiff presides in the States, which consist of 12 Jurats 
elected by the ratepayers for life, 12 rectors of parishes, 12 constables or 
mayors of parishes, and 17 deputies ; the constables and deputies being elected 
for 3 years. The Lieutenant-Governor has a veto on legislation. He may 
address the States but not vote. The 2 Crown officers may speak and vote. 
The qualification for a vote is the possession of a minimum value of 80?. real 
or 1201. personal property. The Royal Court consists of a tribunal of first 
instance and an appeal court. Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark are under one 
Lieutenant-Governor, but Guernsey and Alderney have government of their 
own, and Sark is a dependency of Guernsey and under its jurisdiction. 
The States for deliberation and legislation consist of a Bailiff, 12 Jurats, 10 
rectors, 2 Crown officers, 15 delegates of parishes, and 18 deputies for parishes 
elected by the ratepayers. The sheriff and jurats are chosen by indirect 
election. On May 10, 1905, a law was passed for the Island of Guernsey 
requiring the approval of the Lieut. -Governor and of the Royal Court of 
the Island previously to the acquisition, or leasing, or occupation of 
immovable property by aliens or alien companies, registration and liability 
to local rates, ic, being also provided for. The Channel Islands are not 
bound by Acts of the Imperial Parliament unless specially named in them. 

Births, 1919: Jersey, 661 ; Guernsey, &c, 683. Deaths: Jersey, 691 : 
Guernsey, ic, 649. 

Lieutenant-Governor of Jersey.— Major-General W Douglas Smith, 

C.B. Appointed October, 1920. 

Lieutenant-Governor of Guernsey, 1-c. — Major-General Sir J. E. Capper, 
K.C.B. Appointed June, 1920. 

Finance.— Jersey, (1920): revenue, 133,723?.; expenditure, 126,6257. : 
public debt (1920), 544,286/. Guernsey, &c. (1919) : estimated revenue, 
86,350?. ; estimated expenditure, 73,555?! Public debt (1919), 364,039?. 
1 Are* and population, see p. J4. 



86 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 



The total area, and the acreage under crops and grass and the numbers 
of live stock in 1920 were : — 



- 


Jersey 


Guernsey, <tc. 


Total 




acres 


acres 


acres 




28,717 


15,750 


44,467 


Area under — 










719 


218 


937 




1,639 


819 


2,458 


Other corn crops .... 


251 


245 


496 




7,807 


898 


8,705 


Clover, sainfoin, and grasses under 










4,033 


966 


4.999 


Total arable land 


16,073 


5,172 


21,245 


Total permanent grass 


3,524 


6,281 


9,S05 


' 


number 


number 


Dumber 




2,136 


1,601 


3,737 


Cattle 


10,523 


6,254 


16,777 




79 


414 


493 


Pigs 


4,344 


3,041 


7,385 



1 The area of Jersey includes water, that of Guernsey, efcc, excludes water. 

Agricultural holdings above 1 acre in size numbered 1,856 in Jersey, 
and 1,174 in Guernsey, &c in 1920. 

The imports from the Channel Islands into the United Kingdom in 1919 
amounted to 4,022,868/., of which potatoes accounted for 1,326,529/. ; 
tomatoes, 1,919,820?. ; grapes, 199,962?. ; and fresh flowers, 50,230/. The 
exports from the United Kingdom to the Islands in 1919 were valued at 
3,125,220/. Imports, 1920, 4,541,000/. ; exports, 4,147,000/. 

The registered shipping on December 31, 1918, comprised 40 sailing 
vessels of 2,764 net tons, and 13 steam vessels of 536 net tons ; total ton- 
nage, 3,300 net tons. On the same date there were on the register 319 
fishing boats of 840 net tons (Guernsey, 113 boats of 413 tons ; Jersey, 206 
boats of 427 tons). V»ssels in foreign trade, 1918, arrived, 175 of 30,998 net 
Ions ; departed, 215 of 40,111 net tons. 

Books of Reference concerning Great Britain and Ireland. 
1. Official Publications. 

The annual and other publications of the vavious Public Departments, ami the 
Reports, 4c, of lioyal Commissions and Parliamentary Committees. 

2. Non-Official Publications. 
United Kikodom and Enui.and. 

Adams (G II ), An outline sketch of English Constitutional History. London, 1913. 

Alexander (G. Glover), The Administration of Justice iu Criminal Matters (in England 
ami Wales). London, L91& 

Annual Register. A Review of Public Events. London. 

Anson Sir W. R.), Law and Custom of the Constitution. Vol. I., 4th ed., vol. II, 3rd. ed. 
London, 1907-9. 

Ashley (P.), Local and Central Government. A Comparative Study of England, France, 
1'russia, and the United States. London, 1900. 

Ashley (W. J.) (Editor), British Industries. • London, 1902. 

Asehrett (P. K.), The English Poor Law System Past and Present. [Bug. Trans., 
2nd ed. London, 1902.] 

Atton (Henry) and Holland (Henry Hurst), The King's Custom!. London, 1908-1910. 

Baddeley's Thorough Guide Series. London. 

Baedeker s. Great Britain.— London and its Environs. 

Bagehot (W .), The English Constitution. London, 1913.— Lombard Street : a Description 
of the Money Market London, 1913. 

Bonn (Moritz J), Orundfagen der englisehen Volltswirt^chaft. Munich, 1914. 

Booth (C), Life and Labour of the People in London. London, 1902-8. 



BOOKS Or REFERENCE 87 

Boutmy (E. G.), Le Developpenient tie la Constitution et de la SociiM politique en 
Angleterre. Paris, 1897.— Essai d'une Psychologic politique du Peuple Anglais au XIXS 
siecle. Paris, 1901.— The English People. Trans, from the French. London, 1904 
Bra'tey (T. A.). The Naval Animal. Portsmouth. 

Cannon (E.), History of Local Rates in England. 2nd edition. London, 191?. 
Catholic Directory- Annual. London. 
Cazamian(L.), Modern England. London, 1911. 

Cecil (Lord R.) and Clayton (H. J.), Our National Church. London, 1913. 
Chapman (8. J.), The Lancashire Cotton Industry. London, 1904. 
Ckukolm (G. G.), Europe. Vol. II. In Stanford's Compendium of Geography and 
Travel. London, 1903. 

Clevcland-Stevem (E), English Railway?. London, 1915. 

Clove$ (W. L.), Markham (SirC), Mohan (A. T.), and others, History of th« Royal 
Navy. 7 vols. London. 

CollUr (Price). England and the English. London, 1912. 

Coulerain (Pierre de). The Unknown Isle (Translated by A. Lal'ard). London. 1912. 
Courtney (L.). The Working Constitution of the United Kingdom. London, 1901. 
CunniiHrAain(W.),TheGrowthofEngIish History and Commerce. 4th Ed. London, 1904. 
Davenport (E. H.», Parliament and the Taxpayer. London, 1919. 
Decamps (Pane), La Formation de l'Anelais moderne. Paris, 1914. 
Deckert (E.), Das Britische Weltreich. Frankfurt, 1916. 

Dicey (A. V.), Introduction to the 8ttidy of the Law of the Constitution. 8th e<L 
London, 1915.— Lectures on Law and Public Opinion in England. London, 1914. 

Dickinson (G. L.), The Development of Parliament during the Nineteenth Century. 
London, 1895. 

Dilke (Sir Charles), The British Empire. London, 1899. 
Donald (R), i'lie Municipal Year Book. Annnal. Lonion. 
Dougla$- Irvine (H.), The History of London. London, 1912. 

Dovell (Stephen). A History of Taxation, and Taxes in England. 4yo1b. London, 1888. 
Durell (Col. A. J. U), The Principles and Practice of the System of Control ov<-r 
Parliamentary Grants. London, 1017. 

Kaerton (H. E.), A Short History of British Colonial Policy. London, 1 ^97. — Federation 
and Unions within the British Empire. Oxford, 1911.— British Foreign Policy in Euro)*. 
London, 1917. 

-h and Empire Digest (Laws of the Empire.) Vol. I. London, 1919. 
; Fuk ( H K), English Public Finance from the Revolution of 1688. New York, 1950. 
. (.R.), Local Taxation in England. London, 1902. 
Fortesene (Hon. J. W.), History of the British Army. 10 vols. London, 1910-20. 
Free Church Tear-Book and Official Report. Annual. London. 

Freeman (E. A.), The Growth of the English Constitution from the Earliest Times. New 
ed. London, 1873. 

C.omme 'L.\ London, 1014. 

Qreen (J. R.), History of the English People. 4 vols. London. 1877-80. The Making of 
England. Newed. London, 1897. 

Gretton(R. H.), A Modern History of the English People. London, 1912 -The Kind's 
Government. London, 1913.— The English Middle Class. London, 1 
Gric«(J.W), The Re-ourees of the Empire. London. 19T7. 

Orou (C), The Gild Merchant: a Contribution to British Municipal History. "vols. 
London, 1890. 

Haggard (H. R.), Rural England. 2 vols. London, 1902. 
Hall (H. Duncan), The British Commonwealth of Nations. London, 1920. 
ffaIl(W. E.), A Treatise on the Foreign Powers and Jurisdiction of the British Crown. 
Oxford, 1894. 

Hatbach (W.), History of the English Agricultural Labourer. [Translated from the 
German.] London, 1908. 

Hatsall (A.), History of British Foreign Policy. London. 1912. 

Hatschek (Dr. J.), Enjrlisches Staatsreebt niit P.eriicksichtigung der fur Scbottland und 
Irland geltenden Stmderheiten. 2 vols. 1905. 

HerUUt (Sir E.), Treaties of Commerce and Navigation, Ac, between Great Britain and 
Foreign Countries. London. 

Higg$ (H.), The Financial System of the United Kingdom. London, 1914. 
Hull (E.), The Coal-Oelds of Great Britain: their History, Structure, and Resources. 
London, 1905. 

Humphreys (A. L ). A Handbook to Countv Bibliography. London, 1917. 
Hunt (W.) and Poole (R. L.), Political History of England. 12 vols Completed 1907. 
London. 

Surd (A.), The Defence of the British Empire. London, 1917. 

Hutchint (B. L.) and Harriton (B. A.), History of Factory Legislation. London, 1902. 
Hyamton (A. M.), History of the Jews in England. London, 1907. 
Ilbert (Sir C. P.), Legislative Methods and Forms. Oxford, 1901— Parliament, its 
History, Constitution, and Practice. London. 19n. 



88 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM 

Imperial Britain. An Illustrated Record of Industrial Achievement during the War 
1914-18. London, 1921. 

Innes (A. D.), A History of England and the British Empire. 4 vols. London, 1914. 
Ja<:/cman( W.T.),The Development of Transportation in Modern England. Cam bridge, 1916. 
James (W.), The Naval History of Great Britain. 6 vols. London,1886. 
Jane (P. T.), Fighting Ships. Naval Annual. London [In English, French, German 
and Italian.]— The British Battle Fleet. London, 1914. 

Jenks(E.), Parliamentary England : Evolution of the Cabinet System. London, 1903. 
—The Government of the British Empire (end of 1917). London, 1918. 

Jevons (H. Stanley), The British Coal Trade. London, 1915. 

Jewish Historical Society, Transactions of. London, 1895, &c. — Russo-Jewish Com- 
mittee, Statistics of Jewish Population in London, 1873-93. London, 1894. — Jewish 
Year Book. London. 

Johnstone (3.), British Fisheries. London, 1905. 

Jones (R. J. C), The British Merchant Service [History]. London, 1898. 

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society of London. Periodically. London. 

Keith (A. B.), Responsible Government in the Dominions. Oxford, 1912.— Selected 
speeches and documents on British Colonial Policy, 1763-1917. London, 1918. 

Kirkaldy (A. W.), British Shipping; Its History, Organisation, and Importance. 
London, 1914. 

Lambert (R. C), Parliamentary History of Conscription in Great Britain. 1917. 

Land, The, The Report of the Land Enquiry Committee. London 1913. 

Lavell (C. F.), and Payne (C. E.), Imperial England. London, 1919. 

Lawson (W. R.), British Railways. London, 1913. 

Lean's Royal Navy List. Quarterly. London. 

Lecky (H. 8.), The King's Ships. London, 1913. 

Leeky(W. E. H.), History of England in the 18th Century. 8vols. Loudon, 1887-1895. 

Lee (W. L. M.), History of the Police in England. London, 1901. 

Low (Sidney), The Governance of England. New Edition. London, 1914. 

Lowell (A. L.), The Government of England. 2 vols. London and New York. New 
Edition, 1912. 

Lueat(C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies [a series of volumes, with 
Introduction on the Origin and Growth of the English Colonies and of their System of 
Government, by H. E. Egfirton]. London. 

MaeCarthy (J.), History of our own Times, 1873-97. 5 vols. London, 1879-97. 

Maekinder (H. J.). Britainand the British Seas. London, 1902. 

Mahan (Capt. A. T.), The Influence of Sea-Power upon History. London, 1890. 

Mallet (B.), British Budgets, 1887-88 to 1912-13. London, 1913. 

Masterman(C. M.), The Condition of England. London, 1912 (New Edition.) 

Marshall (A.), National Industries and International Trade. London, 1904. 

Mathieson (W. L.), England in Transition, 1789-lb32. London, 1920. 

Maxwell (Sir H ) A Century of Empire. 1801-1900. London, 1909-1912. 

May (Thomas Erskine), Constitutional History of England. 2 vols. London, 1861-63. 
Treatise on the Law, Privileges, Proceedings, and Usage of Parliament. New Edition. 
3 vols., London, 1912. 

McVey (F. L), The Financial History of Great Britain, 1914-1918. 1919. 

Af onkswell (Lord), The Railways of Great Britain. London, 1913. 

Mothersole (J.), The Isles of Scilly. 2nd edition. 1914. 

Muirhead (F.), The Blue Guides : (1) England, 2 (London). London, 1920. 

Murray's Handbooks for Travellers. English Handbooks. 30 vols. London. 

NieholU(HiT G.), History of the English Poor Law. New Edition. 3 vols. London, 1899. 

Official Year-Book of the Church of England. Annual. London. 

Overton (J. H.), The Church in England. 2 vols. London, 1S97. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. I. The British Isles and Mediterranean 
Territories. London, 1914, 

Page (W.), (Editor), Victoria History of the Counties of England. London. — Commerce 
and Industry (1815 to 1914). London, 1919. 

Pasquet (D.), Londres et lcs Ouvriers des Londres. 1914. 

Payne(J£. J.), Colonies and Colonial Federations. In English Citizen Series. Loudon, l'.Ki.S. 

Perri»{Q. IL), The Industrial History of Modern England. London, 1914. 

Pollard (A. K), The Evolution of Parliament. London, 1920. 

Porter (G. K.), Progress of the Nation. [New Edition by V. W. Hirst ] London. 1912. 

Quennell (C\ H. B.), A history of everyday things in "England. Part I, 1068-1*99. 
London, 1918. 

Iledlich(3.), Local Government in England. [Trans, by F. W. Hirst.] London, 1903. 

Rogers (J. E. Thorold), Industrial and Commercial History of England. London, 1 BOS, 
Six Centuries of Work and Wages. Loudon, 1890.— History of Agriculture and Prices. 
Oxr..r<i. 1908. 

Ross's Parliamentary Record. Annual. London. 

Salmon (E.) and Womfold (J.), The British Dominion* Yew Book. London, 1917. 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 89 

Seeley (Sir J. R.). The Expansion of England. London. 1833.— The Growth of British 
Policy. 2 rols. London, 1896. 

Seignobo$ (C), Histoire politique de 1' Europe contemporaine. Paris, 1897. [Eng. 
Trans. 2 rols. London. 1900.] 

Slater (G.), The Making of Modern England. London, 1913. 

Sw«rr (W.). Economic Annals of the Nineteenth Century. VoL I , 1801-20; YoL II., 
1821-30. London. 

Smith (A. D.), The Development of Rates of Postage. London, 1918. 

Smith (Goldwin), The United Kingdom; a Political History. London, 1809. 

Speyer (H.). La Constitution Juridique de 1' Empire Colonial Brtannique. Paris, 1900. 

Stephen (L.), and J>«(S.), (Editors), Dictionary of National Biography. London. 

Stephen(Sir J. F.), History of the Criminal Law of England. 3 rols. London, 1383. 

Stubbt (Professor). A Constitutional History of England, In its Origin and Development. 
London. 1877. 

TasieeU-Langmead (T. P.), English Constitutional History. 6th. ed. London, 1905. 

Temple (C. I..). Native races and their rulers. Cape Town and London, 1918. 

Thomat <A. A.), The Education Act, 1918. Londm, 1919. 

Todd (Al). On Parliamentary Government in England. 2 vols. London, 1887-89. 

Torre™ (W. M.), History of Cabinets. 2 vols. London, 1894. 

Toui(T. P.), Chapters on the Administrative History of Medieval England. 2 voU 
Manchester and London, 1920. 

Train (H. D.), Social England. 6 vols. London, 1893-189*. 

Turner (B. B. j. Chronicles of the Bank of England. London, 1697. 

Wallaee(t). D.), The Government of England : National, Local, Imperial. London, 1918. 

Warren (H.). The Story of the Bank of England. London, 1902. 

If*. E. A. Education Year Book. London, 1918. 

Webb (S. and B.), History of Trade Unionism. [Contains Bibliography.] New edition. 
London, 1913.— English Local Government from the Revolution to the Municipal Corpora- 
tions Act. London, 190S. 

WUioughby (W. K. * W. W.), and Lind*a\ (3. Me. C). The Syatema of Financial 
administration of Great Britain. New York, 1918. 

Wright (R. S.)and Hobhoute (H), Outline of Local Government and Local Taxation in 
England and Wales. 4th td. London. 1914. 

Scotland. 
Baddeley (J. B.). Thorough Guide Series : Scotland. 4 part*. London. 
Brown (P. Humei. History of Scotland to the Present Time. New Edition. Cambridge 
University Press, 1911.— Surveys of Scottish History. Glasgow, 1920. 
Burton (J. H.) History of Scotland. NeweJ. Edinburgh, 1897. 
Craik (Sir H.), A Century of Scottish History. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1901. 
Goodrich- Freer (A.), Outer Isles. London, 1902. 

Henderton (T. P.), and Watt (F), Scotland To-Day. 2nd. ed London, 1903. 
Hill (N.), The Story of the Scottish Church from the Earliest Times. Glasgow, 1919. 
Ker (W. P.), Local Government in Scotland. London, 1904. 
Kermaek(Y>'. R.), Historical Geography of Scotland. London, 1913. 
Kerr (A. W.), History of Banking in Scotland. 2d. ed. London, 1902. 
A'err (J.), Scottish Education. Cambridge, 1910. 
Lang (A.). A Short History of Scotland. London, 1912. 
Maekay ( JEneas), (Editor), County Histories of Scotland. Edinburgh. 
Mack te(R. LA Scotland from the' Earliest Times to the Death of 8cott London, 1916. 
Maekinnon (J.), Social and Industrial Historv of Scotland (to the Union). London, l»2o 
MaemiUan (T).). A Short History of the Scottish People. London, 1911. 
MaePherion(J), History of the Churrh of Scotland. Paisley, 1901. 
Morrison (G. N ). Education Authorities' Handbook. 1919. 
Murray't Handbooks for Travellers. Scotland. 8th ed. London 
Rait (R. 8.), Scotland. London, 1911. 

Scottish Banks and Bankers. By Moneta. Edinburgh. 1504. 
Skene (W. F.), The Highlanders of Scotland. Stirling, 1902. 
Strong, History of Secondary Education in Scotland. Oxford, 1909. 
Terry (C. S.), A History of Scotland to 1843. London, 1920. 
Wright (A.), HistoryofEducationandoftheold Parish Schools of Scotland. Edinburgh, 

Irklaxd. 
Baddeley (J. B.), Thorough Guide Series : Ireland. 2 parts. London. 
Barter (E ), Ireland in the last Fiftv Years (1S66-1918). 2nd ed. London 1919 
Blaeam (A. de). Towards the Republic. Dublin. 1918. 
Boyle (J. F.), The Irish Rebellion of 1916. London, 1917. 
Brown (S. J.i, A Guide to Books on Ireland. Dublin, 1^20. 
Chart (D. A.), Economic History of Ireland. Dublin, 1920. 
Childert (E.), The Framework of Horn* Rule. London, 1912. 



90 THE BRITISH EMPIRE; — UNITED KINGDOM 

Commission of Inquiry into the Resources and Industries in Ireland. Report and 
Minutes of Evidence. Dublin, 1920. 

Cooke (J.), Handbook for Travellers in Ireland. 6th ed. London, 1902. 

D'Alton(JE. A.), History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. London ,1910. 

Duffy (Sir C. Gavan), Young Ireland : A Fragment of Irish History (1840-45). London, 
1896. 

Dunlop (R.), Ireland under the Commonwealth. Manchester, 1913. 

Falkiner (C. L.), Studies in Irish History and Biography. London, 1902. 

Flood (J. M.), Ireland : its Saints and Scholars. Dublin and London, 1918. 

Froude (J. A.), The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century. London. 

Gannon (J. P.), A Review of Irish History in Relation to the Social Development of 
Ireland. London, 1900. 

Good{3. W.), Ulsterand Ireland. Dublin, 1919. 

Green (Mrs. A. Stopford), The Making of Ireland and its Undoing 1200-1600. London, 
1909.— Irish Nationality. London, 1911. 

Gwynn (S.), The Pair Hills of Ireland. London, 1906.— The Famous Cities of Ireland. 
Dublin, 1915.— Last Years of John Redmond. 1919. 

Hamilton (Lord E.), Elizabethan Ulster. London, 1919. 

Henry (B. M.), The Evolution of Sinn Fein. Dublin, 1920. 

Hogan (J.), Ireland in the European System. London, 1920. 

Ireland, Industrial and Agricultural. Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Instruction for Ireland. 1902. 

Johnson (C), The Isle of the Shamrock. London, 1901. 

Joyce (P. W.), Social History of Ancient Ireland. 2 vols. (2nd edition). London, 1914. 

Lecky (W. E. H.), History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century. London, 1892.— The 
Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland. London, 1903. 

McCarthy (M. J. F.), Five Years in Ireland. London, 1901. — Priests and People in 
Ireland. Dublin, 1902. — Gallowglass or Life in the Land of the Priests. London, 1904.— 
The Irish Revolution. London, 1912. 

MacDonagh^l.), The Home Rule Movement. Dublin, 1920. 

MacNeill (E.), Phases of Irish History (to the fifteenth century). Dublin, 1919. 

MacNeill (J. G. Swift), The Constitutional and Parliamentary History of Ireland till 
the Union. Dublin, 1918. 

Morris (M. O'C), Hibemia Hodierna, London, 1S98.— Ireland, 1798-1898. London, 1898. 

Morris (W. O'C), Ireland, 1494-1905. Revised ed. Cambridge, 1910. 

Murray's Handbooks for Travellers. Ireland. 8th ed. London, 1912. 

Murray (Alice E.), History of the Commercial and Financial Relations between 
England and Ireland. London, 1907. 

O'Brien (G.), The Economic History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, Dublin, 
1918. — The Economic History of Ireland in the Seventeenth Century. Dublin, 1919. 

O'Brien (R. B.), The Life of Charles Stewart Parnell, 1846-1891. 2 vols. London 1898. 
—A Hundred Years of Irish History. London, 1911.— Studies in Irish History (1649-1775). 
Dublin, 1904. 

O'Brien (W.), Recollections. London, 1905. 

O'Brien (W. P.), Local Government in Ireland. London.— The Great Famine in 
Ireland and a Retrospect, 1845-95. London, 1896. 

O'Connell (J. J.), The Irish Wars. Dublin, 1920. 

O'Connor (Mrs. T. P.), Herself— Ireland, 1918. 

O'Donnell (F. H.), The Ruin of Education in Irclaudand the Irish Fauar. Loudon, 1902. 
A History of the Irish Parliamentary Party, 2 vols. 1910. 

O'Hegarty (P. S.). The Indestructible Nation: A Survey of Irish History from the 
English Invasion. Dublin, 191S. — oinn Fein. Dublin, 191S. 

Olden (T.), The Church in Ireland. London, 1892. 

Paul-DuboisiL.), Contemporary Ireland. [From the French.] Dublin, 1908. 

Pirn (H. M ), Unconquerable Ulster. Belfast, 1919. 

Plunk-elt (Sir H.), Ireland in the New Century. London, 1005. 

Riordan (E. J.), Modern Irish Trade and Industry. London, 1921. 

Hussell(T. W.), Ireland and the Empire, 1800-1900. London, 1901. 

Jiyan (W. P.), The Irish Labour Movement. London. 1919. 

Scltiniller (M. 0.), En Iriande [Letters to the Tempt). Paris, 1904. 

Smith (Goldwin), Irish History and the Irish Question. London, 1906. 

Smith-Gordon (L.) and Staples (L. C), Rural Reconstruction in Ireland. London, 1918. 

Smith (R. J.), Ireland's Renaissance. Dublin, 1904. 

Stevenson (B. E.), The Charm of Ireland. Loudon, 1910. 

Trigniz (L.), L Iriande dans la Crise onirerselte, Paris, 1918. 

Turner (K. it.), Ireland and England. New v.>rk, 1919. 

Wells (W. B.) and Marlowe (N.), A History of the Irish Rebelliou of 1916. Dublin, 
1916.— The Irish Convention and Sinn Fein. Dublin, 1918. 

Wilton (P.), The Beginnings of Modern Ireland. 1912. 

Wixta. 

BadJtley (J. B,), '1 borough Guide Series : Wales. 3 p«rts. London. 



INDIA, THE DOMINIONS. XTC. 01 

Baring-Gould (S.), A Book of North Wales. London, 1 90S. —A Book of South Wales. 
London, 1905. 

Btttoic (G.), Wild Wale*: it* People, Language, and Scenery. New ed. London, 1901. 

Bradley (A. G.), In the March and Borderland of Walea. London, 1905. 

Bund ( J. W. W.), The Celtic Church of Wales. London, 1897. 

Edxards(0. M.), Wales. [In Story of the Nations Series.] London, 1901.— A Short 
History of Wales. London, 1 . 

John (B. T.), Wales : its Politics and Economics. Cardiff, 1919. 

.Vurro» , » Handbooks for Travellers. North Wales, 5th ed.— South Wales. 4th ed. London. 

Rhye (J.) and Jonee (D. Brynmor), The Welsh People. London, 1900. 

Stone (G.\ Wales. Her Origins, Straggles, and Later History, Institutions, and 
Manners. London, 1915. 

William* (W. L.), The Making of Modern Wales. London, 1919. 
Isli or Mas asd ths Chawsel Islands. 

Isle of Man Annual Financial Statement. Douglas. 

Statistical Abstract for the Isle of Man. Annual. Douglas. 

Black $ Gnide to the Isle of Man.— Guide to the Channel Islands, llthed. London, 1902 

Boland (H.), Les lies de la Manche. Paris, 1904. 

Brown" t Guide to the Isle of Man. Douglas. 

Caine (T. H. Hall), The Little Manx Island. London, 1891. 

Decennial Census Beports. London. 

MaeCulloeh (Sir E). Guernsey Folk Lore. London, 1903. 

ilahe de la Bourdonnai$(Co\xat A.), Voyage dans l'Isle de Man. Paris, 1894. 

Moore (A. W.), Sodor and Man. [Diocesan History.] London, 189S.— History of the 
Isle of Man. 2 vols. London. 

Beportof the Depart mental Committee on the Constitution, *c, of the Isle of Man. 
(Cd. 5950.) London, 1911. 

Walpole (Srencer), The Land of Home fiule. London, 189S. 

H'imbutk (H. B.) and Carey (Edith F.), The Channel Islands (painted and described). 
London, 1904. 

INDIA, THE DOMINIONS. COLONIES. PROTECTORATES. 
AND DEPENDENCIES OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

In the following pages the various sections of the British Empire 
outside the United Kingdom are arranged in alphabetical order under 
the divisions of the world to which they belong: — 1. Europe; 2 Asia; 
3. Africa ; 4. America ; 5. Australasia and Oceania. 

The term ' Dominion ' is used officially as a convenient abbreviation of 
the complete designation 'self-governing Dominion.' Tlie Dominions are 
Australia. Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South Africa. The 
term ' Colony ' is an abbreviation of the official designation 4 Colony not 
possessing responsible Government,' and includes all such Colonies whether 
or not they possess an elective Legislature, but does not include Protectorates 
or Protected States. The term 'Crown Colonies' is jtroperly applicable only 
to tho-e Colonies in which the Crown retains control of legislation. 

Under the recent Peace Treaties certain ex-German and ex-Turkish terri- 
tories have been added to the Empire, to be administered under mandates up- 
proved by the Leayue of Nations. These territories include Samoa, New Guinea, 
Mesopotamia, Palestine, and parts of the former Geiinan Colonies in Africa. 

The Colonial Office is divided into four branches, the first of which, 
called the Dominions Department, deals with business connected with the 
self-governing colonies, and is linked with the secretariat of the Imperial 
Conference. The Second Department, called the Crown Colonies Depart- 
ment, deals with the administrative and political work ot the Crown Colonies 
and Protectorates. The Third or General Department, which is also a Legal 
Department, deals with matters common to all Crown Colonies such as 
currency, banking, p>osts and telegraphs, education, &c. Connected with 
this department are standing committees to deal with promotion, railways 
and finance, concessions, and pensions. The fourth Department was 
established in March, 1921. to deal with the "Middle East" (Palestine, 
Mesopotamia, and probably Aden, and also questions of policy in other Arab 
^reas within the British sphere of influence). 



92 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — GIBRALTAR 

EUROPE. 



GIBRALTAR. 

Governor.— General Sir Horace L. Smith-Dorrien, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.. 
D.S.O., salary, 4,500/. and 500/. allowance. Appointed June 22, 1918. 
Colonial Secretary. — Major C. W. J. Orr, C.M.G. 

The Rock of Gibraltar is a Crown colony, situated in 36 3 6' N. latitude 
and 5° 21' W. longitude, in the Province of Andalusia, in Spain, commanding 
the entrance to the Mediterranean. The Governor, who is also Commander- 
in-Chief, exercises all the functions of government and legislation. Area, 
1| square mile; greatest elevation, 1,396 feet. Population, including port 
and harbour (census 1911), civil, 19,586 (9,228 males, and 10,358 females) ; 
military, 5,340 (4,476 males, and 864 females) ; naval, 441; total, 25,367 
(14,145 males, and 11,222 females). Estimated fixed civil population, 
January 1, 1920, 16,040 (7,791 males, and 8,249 females). In addition 
there were at that date about 1,733 aliens. The settled population are 
mostly descendants of Spanish and Italian settlers. Civil population 
births (1919), 398 ; marriages, 185 ; deaths, 3.18. Average births per 1,000 
of fixed civil population, 24 '81 ; deaths, 19 '82. Religion of fixed popula- 
tion mostly Roman Catholic ; one Protestant cathedral and four Roman 
Catholic churches ; annual subsidy to each communion, 500/. Several 
private English schools; Government aided elementary schools, 16 (12 
Roman Catholic). Pupils, 2,603 in 1918-19. Government grant, 4,387/. 
One magistrate's court and a supreme court. In 1919 there were 10 con- 
victions of serious crime (2 of which occurred on the high seas), and 1,888 
summary convictions. 



- 


1913 
(pre-war) 


1915 

£ 
95,544 
142,119 


1916 

£ 
100,611 
119,570 


1917 


1918' 


1919 


Revenue 
Expenditure 


£ 

104,634 
82,077 


£ 

125,876 
119,636 


£ 
158,694 
133,387 


£ 
239,397 
136,432 



Chief sources of revenue/1919 : — Customs, 100,595Z. ;post office, 15,316/. ; 
rents of Crown property, 11,595/.; fees and re-imbursements in aid, 3S,454/. ; 
port dues and wharfage, 41,152/.; interest on investments, 26,946/.; licences 
and internal revenues, 5,000/. Chief branches of expenditure, 1919 : — 
Establishments, 95,101/.; public works, 15,402/.; pensions, 3,360/. 
ecclesiastical grants, 1,000/. Contribution by Home Government, nil. 
1'ublic debt, nil. Total net assets, 296.455/. Industries unimportant. 
The trade of the port is chiefly transit trade, and the supply of coal to 
ships. There are import duties on malt liquors, wine, spirits, and tobacco, 
and on these articles the duties are low. 

Government savings-bank, with 5,219 depositors! had 87,246 pesetas 
and 261,712/. deposits at the end of 1919. 

Gibraltar is a naval base and position of great strategic importance, which 
is now largely increased in strength and stability. There is :i deep harbour 
of 260 acres, which suffices foi all the wants of the Mediterranean 
The merchant vessels registered at the port were (1919) 48 steamers of 1. '."'it; 
Ions net and 6 sailing vessels of 1 ,328 tons ; total, 54 vessels of 5,650 tons, 
Vessels entered, 1919, 6,833 ; tonnage, 13,737,959 ; cleared, 5,982 ; tonnage, 
16,030,961. Three miles of internal telegraph under military and about 



MALTA 93 

one mile under the Eastern Telegraph Companv. Postal communication 
daily with England. Letters and post-cards in 1919, 2,223,249 ; 
newspapers and book packets, 471,016. There is cable communication 
with the Continent, Tangier, the Mediterranean Eastern ports, and 
England, via Eastern Telegraph Company's lines. 

A regular carriage service connects Gibraltar with Linea. a neighbouring 
town, and a road connects Linea with the Tillage of Campamento. 

The legal currency is that of Great Britain ; but Spanish money continues 
to circulate freely. Since the outbreak of the great war there are also currency 
notes issued by the local Government. 

Books of Reference. 

Colonial Report. Annual. London. 

Oam ng Admiralty Work* at Gibraltar. (Cd. 645]. London, 1901. 

Gibraltar I' .nasi. Gibraltar. 

Gilbari (G. J.). Popular History of Gibraltar. Gibraltar, 1881. 

L«k<u(C. I . Geography of the British Colonies. 3nd«d. Vol.1- Oxford, 

Maemilla* (A.), (Editor), Malta and Gibraltar : Historical and Descriptive, *e. 

London. lSli 

Oxford Surrey of British Empire. VoL I. London, 1914. 



MALTA. 

Governor and Commander- in- Chief. — Field Marshal Lord Plainer 
G.C.B., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O. ; appointed 1919. Salary, 3,000/. 

Lieut.-Governor and Chief Secretary to Government. — W. C. F. Robertson, 
C.M.G. 

Malta was blockaded by the British Fleet, aided by the Maltese, from 
1798 to 1800, and was finally annexed to the British Crown by the Treaty of 
Paris in 1814. It is one of the most important ports of call in the world, 
and is the base and resort for repair and refitment of the British fleet in 
iiterranean. Its harbour, as a naval station, is too small for the fleet. 
A breakwater was constructed in 1909. 

ta Constitution Letters Patent, 1921, there is an elected 
iture to control purely local affaire, consisting of a Senate (partly 
nominated) of 17 members, aad a Legislative Assembly of 82 members. Elec- 
tions are on a proportional representation basis. There is a responsible 
ministry consisting of not more than seven members. Certain ' reserved ' 
matters, including control of naval, military and air forces, Imperial 
interests, external trade, coinage, immigration, treaties, and relations with 
foreign States, are dealt with by the Governor, assisted by a nominated 
Executive Council, consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor, a legal ad i 
and an otfioer of the navy, army, and air force. 

a the official language of the Colony, Maltese being allowed in 
•mentary schools, and Italian the official language of record in the Law 

Malta is 17 miles long ; area, 914, square miles; and the neighbouring 
island, Gozo, 26 square miles ; total area (with Comino), 118 square miles. 
Population, according to Census taken on April 2, 1911, 228,534. Civil 
population on April 2, 1911, 211,864; estimated civil population on April 1, 
-24.859. Births, 1919-20, 6,7S7 ; deaths, 4,586 ; number of marriages, 
2,038. Chief town and port, Valletta. 

Education— 102 public schools, with 22,222 pupils on the rolls at the be- 
ginning of the scholastic year, 1919-20 ; a university with 6 faculties and 



94 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE ; — MALTA 



221 students ; a lyceum with 807 students; 2 secondary schools, one for 
boys with 54 pupils, and one for girls with 186 pupils ; and 7 technical 
manual schools. Expenditure on elementary education, 1919-20, 33,3102.: 
secondary, 4,9852.; university, 6,5902. There are 63 unaided private schools 
with 4,580 pupils. 

In 1919-20, 3,977 persons were committed to prison; 164 persons were 
convicted of serious crime and 18,592 summarily. Police numbered 510 
officers and men on March 31, 1920. 

The revenue and expenditure in 5 years were : — 



_ 1913-14 
j (pre-war) 


1916-17 


1917-18 i 1918-19 1919-20 


£ 

Revenue . . 423,108 
Expenditure . 402,521 


£ 
460,165 
462,469 


£ £ £ 
470,976 615,225 650,489 
484,726 601,033 632,233 



Chief source of revenue : Customs (332,605Z. in 1919-20). Contribution 
from Home Government, nil. Chief branches of expenditure, 1919-20: — 
Establishments, 408.7502. ; interest and burthens, 29,4612. ; pensions, 
26,5812,; public works, 85,9982. Public debt, 79,0812. Savings bank (1920) 
had 8,216 depositors, and deposits, 786,9802. 

Chief products : potatoes, oranges, lemons, mandarines, onions, cumin 
seed and corn. Area cultivated (1919-20), 42,860 acres in about 11,100 
holdings, of 3 "9 acres per holding, on leases of 4 to 8 years. Cotton 
is grown (630 acres in 1919-20 ; production, 137,160 lb.). Manufactures: 
lace, cottons, filigree, and cigarettes. Chief industry, farming ; in 1919-20, 
horses, mules and asses numbered 6,393 ; horned cattle, 3,183 ; sheep, 
17,853 ; goats, 17,144. The fishing industry occupied 940 boats, and about 
3,500 persons (1919-20). 

There are specific import duties on beer, spirits, spirit varnishes, wine, 
tobacco, sugar, wheat, flour, living cattle, pigs and sheep, horses and 
mules, fresh, frozen, and preserved meat, oils, petroleum, potatoes, biscuits, 
and vinegar. ' Ad valorem ' duties of from 5 per cent, to 20 per cent, are 
levied on certain other imports. 



- 


1913-14 
(pre-war). 


1916-17 


1917-18 


1918-19 


1919-20 


Imports i . 

Exports! . 


2,589,272 
1,154,363 


£ 

3,338,492 
591,103 


£ 

2,874,420 
610,212 


£ 

2,863,020 

779,925 


£ 

4,261,745 
918,925 



1 Including bullion and specie. 

Transhipment trade is excluded. Principal imports, 1919-20 : wheat, 
308,6202. ; flour, 339,9352. ; sugar, 154,3602. ; edible oils, 148,2432. ; 
tobacco, 153,8512. ; cotton goods, 165,1412. ; wines, 180,0172. ; petroleum, 
168,2822. ; cattle foods, 295,0052. ; coal, 410,1532. 

Of the total imports in 1919-20,2,292, 8092. came from the United Kingdom, 
664,4952. from British possessions ; and 1,304,441/. from foreign countries. 

Vessels entered (1919-20), 1,519 of 1,893,850 tons; cleared, 1,514 of 
1,680,602 tons. Of the total entered, 498 vessels of 1,292,888 tons were 
British. Belonging to the port of Valletta on January 1, 1920, were 12 
sailing vessels of 854 tons, and 29 steamers, of 2,331 tons; total, 41 vessels 
of 3,185 tons 

Railway, 8 miles of metre gauge (belonging to and worked by the lornl 
government); telephones, 785 miles of wire. The PoBt-offlce traffic in 1918 20 
was: Inland letters and postcards, 2,615,685; newspapers, &c, 662,836; 
foreign correspondence, received, letters, 1,758,689 ; postcards, 140,421 ; 



ADEN, PERIM, SOKOTRA, ETC. 95 

newspaper?, &c, 1,077,344; dispatched, letters, 2,559,027: postcards, 
146,989; newspapers, 309,135 ; parcels, received 61,103 ; dispatched 12,002. 
British coins and Government currency notes are the legal tender. The 
amount of British Treasury currency notes in circulation on March 31, 1920, 
was roughly estimated at 880,000/.,' but the amount of British gold, silver, 
and bronze coins in circulation on that date cannot be ascertained. The notes 
of the Anglo-Maltese Bank and the Banco di Malta are in circulation : but 
as the Banks are not under statutory control and do not publish balance 
sheets the amount of the note circulation is not known. 

Books of Reference 

Colonial Report. Annual. London. 

Correspondence Relating to the Political Condition of Malta, 1890, [Cd. 715], \P0\ 
[Cd. ISM), 1903 [Cd. 2023], 1904, and [Cd. 5217].— Correspond- ard to 

1'rotestant U es at the Theatre Royal, Malta, [Cd. 3024. 3t«9], 1906, [Cd. 

Also Despatch from Secretary of State on tit* sam« subject. London, 190*. 

Ballou (M. M.), The Story of Malta. Boston, 1 - 

LucatiC. P. J.Historical Geography of the British Colonies. Snded. Vol. I. London, 19<W>. 

Matmilla* (A.), (Editor), Malta and Gibraltar : HUtorical and DeacriptiTe, Ac- 
London, 1915. 

Oxford Surrey of British Empire. Vol. I. London, 1914. 

Page(G. A.), Guide to the Laws aDd Regulations of Malta. Malta, 1SP0. 

Report of theRoral Commission on the Finances, Economic Position, and the Judicial 
Procednra of Malta, 1912. [Cd. «090.] 

Blue Book. Annual Gorernment Printing Office. Malta. 

ASIA. 
ADEN, PERIM, SOKOTRA, AND KURIA MORIA ISLANDS- 

Aden is a volcanic peninsula on the Arabian coast, about 100 miles east of 
Bab-el-Mandeb. It forms an important coaling-station on the highway to the 
and is strongly fortified. The settlement includes Little Aden, a 
peninsula very similar to Aden itself, and the settlement and town of Shaikh 
Othman on the mainland, with the villages of Imad, Hiswa, and Bir Jabir. 

In April, 1905, after demarcation of the frontier, Ottoman and British 
Commissioners signed an agreement which determines the boundary of the 
hinterland from Sheikh Murad on the Red Sea to Bana river, and thence 
north east to the great Desert. By the Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1914, 
the boundary was prolonged through the desert to a point on the coast 
opposite Bahrein in the Persian Gulf. The settlement also includes the 
island of Perim at the entrance to the Red Sea, and is subject to the Bombay 
Government. The Government is administered by a Political Resident (who 
is also General Officer commanding the troops) with four assistants. The 
India Office has hitherto exercised internal administrative control (through 
the Government of India) ; the Foreign Office has been responsible for 
political questions, and the War Office for military questions, but it is under 
consideration (March, 1921) to transfer Aden to the Colonial Office. 

Political Resident and General Offixer Commanding. — Major-General 
T. E. Scott, C.B., CLE., D.S.O. 

First Assistant Rmdcnt,— Major C. 0. J. Barrett, CLE. 

The only Government revenue is from duties on liquor, opium, and salt, 
and from income tax, court fees aud judicial fines ; local taxes go to the 
Aden Settlement Fund. There is a Port Trust. The gross revenue of the 
settlement in 1919-20 was 1,694, 121Z. 

Area 75 square miles ; including the Protectorate, about 9,000 square miles ; 
of Perim, 5 square miles. Population of Aden and Perim in 1911, 46,165 
(31,290 males and 14,875 females), against 43,974 in 1901. Imports (1919-20), 



96 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — BAHREIN ISLANDS 

by sea, 6,580,474*.; by land, 295,495*. ; treasure (sea and land), 248,106*. ; 
total imports, 7,124,078*. (total, 1918-19, 5,470,743/.) Chief imports: 
Cotton, piece goods, grain, hides and skins, tobacco, coal, coffee, sugar, 
fruits, vegetables, and other provisions. Exports, by sea, 6,292,691*.; by 
land, 125,451*. ; treasure (sea and land), 98,862*. : total exports, 6,517,004*. 
(total, 1918-19, 4,573,916*.) Chief exports: Coffee, gums, hides and 
skins, cotton goods, tobacco, grain and pulse, provisions, sugar. These 
statistics are exclusive of government stores and treasure. In 1919-20, 1,066 
merchant vessels of 2,736,839 tons (net) entered the port of Aden, of which 
642 were British ; in the same year 883 country (local) craft of 36,569 tons 
entered. At Perim 430 vessels entered, of which 101 were Government 
vessels. Aden itself produces little, its chief industries being the manu- 
facture of salt and cigarettes. The trade is largely a transhipment one, 
and is divided into foreign, Indian, and inland. There is a branch of the 
National Bank of India, Limited, and there is also one firm of private 
bankers. 

A railway was begun in 1915, for military purposes, from Aden to Lahej, 
25 miles, and has now been extended a few miles beyond that oasis. The 
guage is one metre. 

The island of Sokotra off the coast of Africa is under British protection, and 
the Xuria Mnria islands, off the coast of Arabia, are attached to Aden. Aiea 
of former, 1,382 square miles. Population about 12,000, mostly pastoral and 
migratory inland, fishing on the coast. Religion, at one time Christian, Moham- 
medan since the end of the 17th century. The island came under British pro- 
tection in 1876, by treaty with the Sultan. Chief products, dates and various 
gums ; sheep, cattle, and goats are plentiful ; butter is exported. The Kuria 
Muria Islands, five in number, were ceded by the Sultan of Muskat for the 
purpose of landing the Red Sea cable. 

References. — Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series. London. 

Return : India (Aden), Part I., containing Report on Aden Harbour by Aden Commis- 
sion appointed in 1901, and Figures of recent Trade in Aden (163). London, 1906. 

Bent (J. Th.), Sokotra. In ' XlXth Century' Magazine for June, 1897. 

Bent (J. Th. and Mrs.), Southern Arabia. London, 1900. 

Bury (G. W.), Land of Uz. 

Forbes (H. O.), The Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri. Liverpool, 190S. 

Jacob (H. F.). Perfumes of Araby. London, 1915. 

Kossmat (F.), Geologic der Inseln Sokotra, Semha, ic. Vienna, 1902. 

Lucas (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. 2nd. ed. Vol. I. London, 
1906. 

BAHREIN ISLANDS. 

Group of islands in the Persian Gulf, 20 miles off the coast of El Hasa, 
in Arabia. Bahrein, the largest, is 27 miles long by 10 wide ; Muharrak, 
to the north-east of Bahrein, 4 miles long, £ mile wide. Other islands 
are, to the east, Sitra, 3 miles long and 1 mile broad, half its area being 
fertile ; Nabi Saleh, about 2 miles in circumference, very fertile ; Jezeyra, 
a small islet with a date plantation ; to the west are three rocky and 
uninhabited islets, Um Nahsan, Jidi, and Raka. The regular population 
of the islands is put at about 110,000. Manama, the capital and 
commercial centre, extends 3 miles along the shore and has 35,000 
inhabitants. Muharrak on the island of that name has about 20,000 
inhabitants. Other towns are Budaiya on Bahrein Island and lladd 
on Muharrak Island. There are about 100 villages in the islands. 
There are thousands of tombs in the shape of conical mounds situated in tho 
interior of the islands. They vary considerably in size, some of them being 
as much as 100 yards in diameter, and 40 feet in height, entaili»g vast labour 
of construction. Inside are regular masonry burial chambers. No certainty 



BAHREIN ISLANDS 97 

as to their origin yet exists owing to want of inscriptions, bat they are 
undoubtedly extremely ancient. 

The ruling family, Al Khalifa, and most of the townsmen are Mohamme- 
dans of the Sunni (Maliki) sect. The town population consists of Arabs 
who hare come from Nejd within the last 200 years, and negroes. The 
agricultural population and the Bahrein pearl divers are mostly of the 
Shiah sect. There is a large Persian (mostly Shiah) community, and a 
number of Indian (mostly Hindu) merchants and tradesmen lire in 
Manama. The present chief of Bahrein is Sheikh Sir Isa bin Ali Al 
Khalifah, K.C. I.E., C.S.I. His uncle, Mahomed, was deposed by the 
British in 1867, and Sheikh Ali, his father, installed in his place. In 
1869 Ali was killed, and Sheikh Isa succeeded to power. 

The great industry is the pearl fishery, in which over 1,000 boats, of 
from 8 to 60 nicn each, from Bahrein alone, are engaged. The Bahrein 
Islands also produce dates, and a remarkably fine breed of white 
donkeys. Sail cloth is manufactured extensively, and also reed mats. 
In 1919-20, imports amounted to 1,414,428/. ; exports, 946,844/. There 
are 5 per cent, ad valorem import duties. The importation of arms and 
ammunition is subject to the consent of the British Government. 

The chief imports in 1919-20 were: specie, 5.824/. ; pearls, 26,464/. ; 
rice, 405,989/. ; coffee, 92,842/. ; ghee, 67,007/. ; sugar, 32,692/. ; tea. 
20,332/. ; piece goods, 337,039/. The chief exports were : pearls, 298,800/. ; 
riro, 261,051/.; coffee, 22,649/.; tea, 9,247/.; sugar, 11,100/.; dates, 
15,333/. Owing to its situation, harbour, and good service of steamers, 
the port is largely used as a place of transhipment for mainland goods. 

In 1919-20 there entered the port of Bahrein 55 British ships of 109,078 
tons, and 1 American ship of 3,171 tons. The greater part of the trade of 
Najd and Hasa passes through Bahrein, where transhipment between 
steamers and dhows takes place. 

There is a British Post office which is worked as an Indian Inland office 
with the exception of insurance. Letter rates between Great Britain and 
Bahrein are the same as between Great Britain and India. There is a 
wireless station. 

The principal coins in use are Indian rupees, Austrian (Maria Theresa) 
dollars worth from 41<y\ to 48rf., and Turkish lire wortli from 20». 
to 20s. 5d. according to the rate of exchange. The rupee is the coin 
in general use. The Persian double kran, value about Is. Id. is also used. 
The measure employed is the dhiraa of 18 j inches. The weights are : 
the miscal shirazi of 72 grains; the miscal bar of 720 grains ; the rubaa 
of 4 114 lbs. avoir. ; the mann of 57*6 lbs. avoir. ; and the rafaa of 576 lbs. 
avoir. 

The political relations between the Government of India and the Chief of 
Bahrein are conducted through the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf 
and a Political Agent, who tries all cases in which British or Foreign 
subjects are concerned. 

Acting Political Kesidcnt, Persian Gulf.— Lieut. -Col. A. P. Trevor, 
C.S.I. CLE. 

Political Agent at Bahrein.— Major H. R. P. Dickson, CLE. 
Foreign Office Reports. Annual series. London. 

Bent (J. Th.), The Bahrein Islands in the Persian Gulf. Proc. R. G. 8oc 
xii. 1. London. 1S90. 

PaVjrare (\V. G.), Central and Eastern Arabia, 1365. 

Zvewier(S. M.), Arabia : The Cradle of Islam. Edinburgh and London, 1900. 



98 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — BORNEO (BRITISH) 



BORNEO (BRITISH). 

British North Borneo. — Governor. — A. C. Pearson, C.M.G. 

British North Borneo occupies the northern part of the island of Borneo. 
The interior is mountainous, Mount Kina Balu being 13,455 feet high. 

Area, about 31,106 square miles, with a coast-line of over 900 miles. 
Population (1911 census) 208,183, consisting mainly of Mohamedan 
settlers on the coast and aboriginal tribes inland. The Europeans 
numbered 355; Chinese, 26,002; Malays, 1,612; East Indians, 5,511; 
Sulus, 5,700. The number of natives cannot be more than approximately 
estimated, but is placed at about 170,000. The most numerous are 
the Dusuns, about 88,000 ; the Muruts, 25,300 ; and the Bajaus, 22,600. Chief 
towns, Sandakan (population 8,256), on the east coast, and Jesselton, on the 
west coast. 

The territory is under the jurisdiction of the British North Borneo 
Company, being held under grants from the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu 
(Royal Charter in 1881). The territory is administered by a Governor 
(appointed with the approval of the Secretary of State) in Borneo, and a 
Court of Directors in London, appointed under the Charter. On May 12, 
1888, the British Government proclaimed a formal protectorate over the 
State of North Borneo. In 1898 certain border lands were acquired from 
the Sultan of Brunei, and more recently certain inland territories have been 
occupied. For administrative purposes the whole country is divided into 
live Fesidencies, which are sub-divided into Districts. In December, 1904, 
an area of about 200 sauare miles was transferred to Sarawak in exchange 
for rights over coal mines on Brunei Bay. 

There are Protestant and Catholic missions. The laws are based on the 
Indian Penal, Criminal, and Civil Procedure Codes, and local Ordinances. 
There is an Imam's Court for Mohamedan law. Native and Indian con- 
stabulary, 800 men under European officers. 



Revenue 
Expenditure 
Imports i 
Exports J 



WIS 

(pre-war) 



£ 

210,197 
259,494 
(534,538 
863,115 



£ 

234,413 
254,088 
522,649 
865,561 



£ 

249,587 

170,045 

500,933 

1,014,142 



£ 

280,480 

170.6S5 

624. 4S7 

1,076,073 



1918 

£ 

803,063 

191,895 

761. 35S 

1,019,094 



£ 

334,184 

230,317 

925,235 

1,453,990 



1 Including treasure. 

The revenue includes sums realised by land sales, and the expenditure 
includes sums spent on capital account. 

Sources of revenue : Opium, birds' nests, court fees, stamp duties, 
licences, import and export duties, royalties, land sales, &c. No public debt 

Most of the trade is carried on through Singapore and Hong Kong with 
Great Britain and the colonies. The chief products are timber, sago, rice, 
coconuts, gums, coffee, many fruits, nutmegs, cinnamon, pepper, gambier, 
gutta-percha, rubber, camphor, rattans, tapioca, sweet potatoes, and tobacco, 
which is being planted on a large scale. Coal, iron, gold, and mineral oil have 
been found. The exports comprise the products mentioned, with birds' 
nests, seed pearls, b6che.-de-mer, &c. Exports of leaf tobacco in 1916 were 
177,235*. ; 1917, 172,603*. ; 1918, 42,140*.; 1919, 222,261*. Exports of Estate 
rubber in 1916, valued at 504,839* ; 1917, 634,564*. ; 1918, 670,236*.; 1919, 
781,603*. ; of timber, which is the greatest natural resource of the country, 1916, 



SARAWAK 99 

90,410/.; 1917, 43,795/. ; 1918, 41,702/.; 1919, 127,045/. Shipping 1916 : 
entered 192.619 tons, cleared 195,074 tons : 1917, entered 228,227 tons, 
cleared 227,163 tons ; 1918, entered 273,262 tons, cleared 273,523 tons: 
1919, entered 326,885 tons, cleared 327,973 tons. 

A railway, 127 miles, runs from Jesselton on Gaya Bay to Melalap in the 
Interior, with a branch from Beaufort to Weston on Brunei Bay. Borneo is 
now connected by cable with the outer world. There is a telegraph line from 
Menumbuk. where the cable reaches land, to Jesselton via Beaufort At the 
latter station a branch line leads to Tenom in the Interior. Communication 
between Jesselton and Sandakan. Kudat and Tawau is maintained by wireless 
telegraphy. A land line extends from Sandakan to Lahad Datu. TYlephone 
exchanges are operated at Sandakan and Jesselton, while an elaborate system 
of telephone lines maintains communication between smaller stations and 
bigger Government centres. 

At Jesselton and Sandakan there are agencies of the Hongkong and 
Shanghai Bank, the Chinese Commercial Bank, and the Bank of Taiwan. 

The Government issues its own copper coinage (cents and half-cents) ; 
nickel coinage of 1, 2^ and 5 cents; also notes of one, five, ten, and twenty-five 
dollars, and of 25 and 50 cents. Accounts are kept in dollar currency. 

Brunei. — In 1888 the neighbouring territories on tht north-west coast of 
Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak, were placed under British protection. On 
January 2, 1906, by treaty, the Sultan of Brunei handed over the general 
administration of his State to a British Resident. The Sultan, Sir Mohamed 
Jemalulalam, K.C.M.G., l>om in 1889, succeeded his father in May, 1906. 
He receives an allowance of 1,400/. a year from State funds, and his two 
principal ministers 700/. a year each. Area about 4,000 square miles, and 
population estimated at 32,000. The chief town, Brunei (pop. 10,000), is 
built over the water on the Brunei river. There is a vernacular school at 
Brunei, with about 80 boys at the end of 1918 ; a Chinese school with about 
SO boys ; and other schools have been started in the out-distriits. Receipts, 
1919, 18,900/. : (Customs, 6,200/., monopolies, 3,800/., licences, 1,700/. ; 
land revenue, 2,400/., cession monies. 2,100/.1 and expenditure, 16.200Z. 
Public debt, Dec. 31. 1919, 54,470/. 

Imports 1919, 70,000/. (mainly rice, 37,100/., tobacco, 6,500/., piece 
goods, 14,700/., sugar, 5,000/., kerosene oil, 3,500/.); exports, 132,000/. 
(cutch, 3f>,600 cwt., 35,000/., coal, 17,363 tons, 35,000/., rubber, 28,400/., 
jolntong, 11,500/., sago, 9,400/.). The post office dealt with 22,789 
article in 1919. 

Distance from Labuan about 43 miles. Communication by steam 
launches reguiurly maiutain-d. 

British Resident.— G. E. Cator. 

Offieer-in-Charge. — E. Roberts. 

Sarawak: Area about 42,000 square miles, coastline 400 miles, many nveis 
navigable. The government of part of the present territory was obtained in 
1842 by Sir James Brooke from the Sultan of Brunei. Various a> cessions were 
made between 1861 and 1890. Under an agreement of 1888 Sarawak is 
recognised as an independent State under the protection of Gieat Britain. 
The Rajah, H.H. Charles Vyner Brooke, son of the late Rajah, born 
Sept. 26, 1S74, succeeded May 17, 1917. Population estimated at 
about 600,000, Malays, Dyaks, Kayans, Kenyans, and Muruts, with 
Chinese and other settlers. The chief towns are the capital, Kuching, 
about 23 miles inland, on the Sarawak River, and Sibn, 60 miles up 
the Rejang River, which is navigable by large steamers. At Kuching 

H 2 



100 THE BRITISH UMPIRE: — SARAWAK 

are Church of England and Catholic missions with schools. The revenue 
is derived chiefly from Customs, the opium, gambling, arrack and pawn 
farms, exemption tax payable by Malays, and from Dyak and Kayan revenue. 
There are import duties on tobacco, salt, kerosene oil, wines, and spirits ; 
export- duties on sago, ganibier, pepper, all jungle produce, dried fish, kc. 
The revenue in 1917 was 198,950/. ; expenditure, 158,6371. ; 1918, revenue, 
224,229?. ; expenditure, 169,830?. ; 1919, revenue, 295,311/. ; expenditure, 
200,888. Public debt, nil. Coal exists in large quantities, as well as 
gold, silver, diamonds, antimony, and quicksilver. A considerable oil 
field is being developed at Miri. Foreign trade: 1918, imports, 1,156,019?. ; 
exports, 1,346,356?.; 1919 : imports, 2,364,208?.; exports, 2,795,095?. 
The chief exports (1919) included sago flour, 495,807?. ; pepper, 217,824?. ; 
gold, 94,278?. ; plantation rubber, 430,377?. ; gutta jelutong, 249,622?. ; 
guttapercha, 24,367?. ; cutch, 52,506?. ; birds' nests, 9,365?. ; liquid fuel, 
115,836?. (in 1918). The trade is mostly with Singapore. Shipping entered 
and cleared in the foreign trade, 1918, 266,211 tons; 1919, 309,488 tons. 
There are military and police forces, consisting of about 700 men, principally 
Dyaks and Malays, under British army officers. Round Kuching are about 
45 miles of roads, besides bridle paths. There are 23 post offices. The 
Government offices have a telephone system extending over Kuchiug and 
Upper Sarawak, and there is communication by wireless with Singapore, 
&e. There are also wireless stations at Sadong, Sibu, Miri, and Goebilt. 
Distance from London, 8,700 miles; transit, 25 to 30 days. Telegrams 
are sent by wireless from Singapore. 

Straits Settlements currency, 1 dollar = 2s. id. 

British Agent for Sarawak and British North Borneo, and High 
Commissioner for Brunei. — Sir L. N. Guillemard, K.C.B. (Governor of 

the Straits Settlements). 

Government Agency and Advisory Council in England. — B. Brooke, H. V. 
Deshon, C. H. W. Johnson, and Dr. Chas. Hose, Millbank House, West- 
minster, London. 

Books of Reference concerning Borneo, &c. 

British North Borneo Herald [fortnightly newspaper], Saudakan. 

Annual Reports on the State of Brunei. 

Baring-Gould (S.) and Uampfylde (C. A.), History of Sarawak (1839-190S). U 
1009. 

Beeeari (O.), Wanderings in the Great Forests of Borneo. London, 1904. 

Cator (D.). Everyday life among the Head-Hunters. London, 1905. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London. 

Codrington (B. 1L), The Melanesians, their Anthropology and Folklore. London 

Furnen (W. IL),The Home Life of Borneo Head-Hunters. London, 1902. 

Guillemard (F. H. H.), and Keane(A. 1L), Australasia. Vol. 11. London. New ML 1908. 

Haddon (Alfred C). Head-Hunters, Black, White, and Brown. London. 1901. 

Hose (C), In the Heart of Borneo, ' Geographical Journal,' vol. xvi., p. 39.— The Tngan 
Tribes of Borneo. London 1912. 

Ireland (A..) The Far-Hastern Tropics. London,. 

Low (Sir n.), Residence in Sarawak London 

IMmholtt (C), Through Central Borneo (LH3-7). London, !■:<•:}. 

Nieuvenhuit (A. VV.). Quor duroh Borneo. 2 parts. Leiden, 1901-07. 

Posewitt (Th.), Borneo: its Geology ami Mineral EUsoureeB. [Translation.] London, 1891 

Ranee of Sarawak, My Lite in Sarawak. London, LOIS, 

Roth (II. Ling) The Natives of Sarawak and British Not th Borneo. 2 vols. Loud. 

St. John (Sir 9.). Life of Sir Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak. London, 1879.— 
Rajah Brooke. London, 1899. 

Shclford (R. W. C), A Naturalist in Borneo. London, 1917. 



CEYLON 101 

CEYLON. 
Constitution and Government, 4c. 

Ceylon, the ancient Taprobane (Tamraparnn, the island of " dusky 
leaves'"), is an island in the Indian Ocean, off the southern extremity of 
Hindustan, lying between 5° 55' and 9° 504' N. lat., and 79° 42' and 81 rf 53' 
E. long. ; its extreme length from north to south, i.e., from Point Palmyra 
to Doudra Head, is 271 miles ; its greatest width 139 miles, from Colombo on 
the west coast to Sangemankande on the east. Its area is 25,431 square 
miles, or about equal to Holland ami Belgium. 

The climate ot Ceylon, for a tropical country, is comparatively healthy ; 
the heat in the plains, which is nearly the same throughout the year, is much 
less oppressive than in Hindustan. Along the coast the annual mean tem- 
perature is about 81° Fahr., at Kandy, 1.665 feet above sea level, it is 76° 
Fahr. At Colombo the average monthly temperature varies from a mean 
minimum of 71* Fahr. in January and February, to a mean maximum of 90° 
Fahr. in March and April. The highest temperatures are experienced in the 
district to tne north of the hills, and to the north-east, but it is only in a very 
few days in the year that a temperature of 100° Fahr. or over is experienced. 
The average annual rainfall varies from 40 to 50 inches in the dry zones to 
the north-west and south-east of the island, to above 200 inches at certain 
places on the south-west slopes of the hills. The rainy season extends from 
April to June and from September to November, but there is hardly a 
month without some rain, and the result is the luxuriant vegetation for 
which this island is famous. 

The authentic history of Ceylon begins in the fifth century B.C., when 
an invasion of Hindus from Northern India established the Sinhales 
dynasty. As a result of many generations of warfare the northern districts 
were occupied by Tamils from South India, and the population of these 
districts is almost wholly Tamil, and mainly Hinda in religion. Buddhism 
was introduced from India in the third century B.C., and is still the 
religion of the majority of the inhabitants, especially in the southern part 
of the island. 

In 1505 the Portuguese formed settlements on the west and south, 
which were taken from them about the middle of the next century by 
the Dutch. In 1795-96 the British Government annexed the foreign 
settlements to the Presidency of Madras ; in 1801 Ceylon was erected 
into a separate colony. In 1315, the districts of the interior, which had 
maintained their independence under the Kings of Kandy, were acquired by 
Great Britain as the result of a rebellion against the king, and the whole 
island was thus itnited under British rule. 

According to the terms of the Constitution established in 1833, modi- 
fied on various occisions, and now emb<xlied in the Letters Patent of 
1910, the administration is in the hands of a Governor, aided by an 
Executive Council of seven members — viz., the Officer commanding the 
Troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Controller of 
Revenue, the Colonial Treasurer, the Government Agent of the Western 
Province, and one member nominated by the Governor, and a Legislative 
Council of 21 members, including the Executive Council, four other office- 
holders, and ten unofficial members, six nominated by the Governor and four 
elected, representing the different races and classes in the community. It is 
proposed (1920) to raise the number of the Legislative Council to 37 members, 
exclusive of the Governor, who will preside. There will be 14 official and 23 
unofficial members of the latter ; 16 at first, and ultimately 19, will be elected 



102 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — CEYLON 



(11 on a territorial basis, 2 to represent the Europeans, 1 the Burgher Com- 
munity, 1 the Chamber of Commerce, 1 the Low Country Products Associa- 
tion, 2 the Kandyan and 1 the Indian Communities). One member will be 
nominated to represent the Mohammedan Community. Three unofficial 
members will be appointed to the Executive Council. 

Governor. — Brigadier-General Sir William Henry Manning, G.C.M.G., 
K.B.E., C.B. (appointed April 30, 1918). Salary 5,500/., and 1,500Z. 
allowance. 

Colonial Secretary. — Sir Graeme Thomson, K.C.B. 

For purposes of general administration, the island is divided into nine 
provinces, presided over by Government Agents, with assistants and subor- 
dinate headmen. There are three municipalities and twenty-one local boards 
mainly for sanitary purposes. 

Area and Population. 

The population for 1911 shows an increase of 15 '15 per cent, on the 
population of 1901. The estimated population at the end of 1919 was 
4,757,596, exclusive of the military and shipping. The following are the 
statistics of the census of 1911. 



1 


Area : 


Population, 1911 


Provinces 


English j 




Per sq. ' 
mile 1 




sqr. miles 


Total 


Western 


1,432 


1,062,176 


742 


Central 


2,279 


392,941 


172 


Northern 


3,519 


369.449 


110 


Southern 


2,146J 


619,331 


289 


Eastern 


3,8481 


183,317 


48 1 


North 








Western 


3,016 


419,110 


139 


North 








Central 


4,068 


86,276 


21 j 



Provinces 



i Area : 
j English 
I sqr. miles 



Uva .... 

Sabaragamuwa 

Total . . 

I Population on 

Tea Estates . 

Military and 

Shipping . . 

Grand total . 



3.271J 
1,901 



Population, 1911 
Total 



144,735 
315,548 



3,592,883 

513,467 

4,017 



— 4,110,367 



Persq. 

mile 



44 

167 



Total number of Europeans (including military, shipping, and estates) 
8,524. 

The race distribution of the population at the census of 1911 and as 
estimated in 1919 was as follows : — 









Population 1911 






Estimated 


(including the 






Population 1919 


militarx, shipping 
and estates) 


Europeans 




7,349 


8,524 ' 


Burghers 


, , 


29,336 


26,673 


Sinhalese 




2,989,380 


2,715,686 


Tamils .... 




1,424,649 


1,060,167 


" Moors " (non-Malay Mohammedans) . 


276,631 


267,054 


Malays .... 




14,105 


12,992 


Veddahs (aborigines) "\ 
Others J 


• 


16,146 


19,271 


All races . 


i.r;.;.; • 


4,110,867 



i This includes 533 military and 399 shipping. 
Of the 4,106,350 persons (exclusive of the military and the shipping) 
at the census of 1911, the occupation of 2,681,622 or 641 per cent, (of 



RELIGION AND INSTRUCTION — JUSTICE, CRIME, ETC. 103 

whom 1,096,301 were earners and 1,535,321 dependents) was returned as 
agriculture ; 442,011 or 107 percent. (191,130 earners, 250,881 dependents) 
industrial occupation ; 323,568 or 7 9 per cent. (136,259 earners, 187,309 
dependents) trade. 

The population on estates, mainly consisting of immigrant Tamils from 
Southern India, numbered, at the census of 1911, 513,467, and formed 12*5 
per cent, of the total population. 

Marriages registered, 1919, 18.870 1 ; births registered, 161,405 (82,464 
miles and 78,941 females) ; deaths registered, 168,323. 

The urban population is about 14 per cent, of the total population. The 
principal towns and their population (exclusive of the military, shipping, 
and estates), according tothecensus of 1911, are :— Colombo, 211,274 ; Galle, 
39,960 ; Jaffna, 40,441 ; Kandy, 29,451. 

Religion and Instruction. 

The principal religious creeds were in 1919 — Buddhists, 2,S66,560; 
Hindus, 1,087,063 ; Mohammedans, 328,613 ; Christians, 474,060. 

Buddhism in Ceylon (unlike that in Tibet, China, and Japan) is, in its 
philosophy, materialistic and atheistic, and in popular usage has a large ad- 
mixture of the doctrines and practices of popular Hinduism and of the 
aboriginal wild tribes. 

Education is under a separate Government department with a Director, 
an assistant Director, an office assistant, and a staff of Inspectors. 

The number of vernacular schools in 1919 was : Government schools, 
884 (attendance, 97,819 boys and 32,570 girls); Aided schools, 1,855 
(attendance. 129,027 boys and 78,649 girls); Unaided schools, 1,363 
(28,649 .-hildren). There were also 265 English and Anglo- vernacular schools, 
attended by 36,376 boys and 10,512 girls. 

The total sum spent by Government on vernacular education during 
1918-19 was 96.153Z. 

Education is free in vernacular schools, fees are charged in English 
schools. The Royal College and the Government Training College with the 
English school attached to it are Government iu-<titutions. The other 
English schools are grant-in-aid schools. The total grants to English schools in 
1918-19 amounted to 30.345J. The Government also gives two scholarships 
of 2501. a year, each tenable for three years, with outfit allowances of 501. 
each and free passages, to enable the best two students of each year to 
complete their course of education in England, and other scholarships are 
given locally. The Cambridge school certificate examinations, and examina- 
tions of the London University up to and including the final bachelors 
degree in arts, science and law, are held annually in Ceylon by arrangement. 
Technical education is given in the "Technical Schools" (429 students in 
1919). There are 84 industrial schools. 

Justice, Crime, and Pauperism. 

The law is Roman-Dutch, modified by colonial ordinances. Kandyan 
Law is to a certain extent in force in the Kamlyan Provinces, and special 
systems of personal law are recognised for the Mohammedan community, 
and for the Tamils of the Jaffna District. The criminal law has been codified 
on the principle of the Indian Penal Code. There are a Supreme Court, 
police courts and courts of requests, and district courts, intermediate 
between the latter and the Supreme Court. Village councils deal with 
petty offences. In 1919 the number of cases instituted in the police courts 

1 This is exclusive of Mohammedan marriages, which correspond to a rate of 5'0 per 
1,000 of the Mobarnmedan population : marriages in this community are seldom registered. 



104 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — CEYLON 



and municipal magistrates' courts was 83,816. The number of "true " 
cases of cognisable crime was 11,062, and the convictions, 5,227. 14,770 con- 
victed persons were sent to prison. Police force, December 31, 1919, 2,884 
of all ranks. 

There is no poor law, though a few old persons receive a charitable allow- 
ance from the Government varying from Es. 1 to Rs. 12 - 50each per mensem. 

Finance. 

15 rupees = £1. 



- 


Revenue Expenditure 




Revenue 

£ 
4,465,45S 
4,262,242 
4,671,396 


Expenditure 


1912-131 
1914-152 
1915-162 


£ £ 

3,411,502 3,178,062 
3,436,365 3,571,868 
4,400,867 3,740,301 


1916-17 2 
1917-18 2 
1918-19 2 


£ 

4,289,044 
4,329,030 
4,722,JU'2 



1 12 months ended June 30. 1913. 



» 12 months ended September 30. 



The- principal sources of revenue in 1918-19: customs, 1,246,98GZ. ; 
port and harbour dues, 186.869Z. ; salt, 107,273Z. ; arrack, rum and toddy 
licences, 657,049Z. ; stamps, 435,479Z. ; Government railway receipts, 
1,081,219Z. ; and land sales, 38.389Z. 

The principal items of expenditure in 1918-19 : Military expenditure, 
222,373Z. ; pensions and retired allowances, 123.404Z. ; interest and sinking 
fund on loans, 360,853Z. ; post and telegraph, 183.092Z. ; railway depart- 
ment, 620.608Z. ; medical department, 296,147Z. ; education, 189.504Z. ; 
on public works (annually recurrent), 287,003Z. ; on public works (extra- 
ordinary), 195,907Z. ; railway department (extraordinary works), 131,425?. : 
war contribution to the British Government, 173,486Z. 

The net public debt on September 30, 1919, was 5,006,000Z., incurred 
entirely for public works, such as the construction of railways, harbour 
works, waterworks, etc. 

Defence. 

The harbour of Colombo, on the west, is protected. 

In normal times Ceylon pays three-fourths of the cost of the Imperial 
garrison. At present the defence of the Colony is almost entirely in the 
hands of local troops. Compulsory service for Europeans was introduced in 
1917. 

Production and Industry. 

The area of the colony is 16,212,000 acres, of which it is estimated 
that about 3,000,000 acres are under cultivation, and about 1,000,000 acres 
pasture land. The approximate areas under the principal products in 1919 
were : paddy, 710,000 acres ; other grain, 160,000 acres ; cacao, 31,000 acres ; 
cinnamon, 35,000 acres; tea, 450,000 acres; coconuts, 1,012,000 acres: 
rubber, 309,000 acres. In 1919, the exports of tea were 208 million lbs., of 
which 140 million lbs. were sent to the United Kingdom. The exports of 
desiccated coconuts were 676,000 cwts., copra, 1,737,000 cwts., and coconut- 
oil, 683,000 cwts. In the same year, 100,393,000 lbs. of rubber were exported, 
of which 82,974,000 lbs. went to the United Kingdom, 66,405,000 lbs. to 
America. In 1918, 11,112 acres of crowu land were sold ami settled. Live 
stock (1919), 3,600 horses, 1,599,000 horned cattle, 68,000 sheep, 59,000 
pigs, and 180,000 goats. Thore is a Government Dairy, possessing over 



COMMERCE — SHIPPING AND COMMUNICATIONS 105 

200 head of cattle, imported from Scinde. Plumbago mines working at 
end of 1919, 50. The exports of plumbago in 1919 were 128,000 cwt. 
Other minerals, such as gold, thorium, and monazite, exist, but, except 
the last-named, so far hare not been found in quantities of commercial 
importance. There are some hundreds of small gem quarries, from which 
sapphires, rubies, moonstones, catseyes, and other gems are obtained. 
Native manufactures, which are at present of very minor importance, 
are weaving, basket work, tortoise-shell boxes, kc, earthenwares, 
jewellery, metal work, lacquer work, carving, kc Manufactures on 
any large scale are confined to the products of agriculture, such as the 
production of coconut oil. In 1919 there were 1,266 registered factories, 
including 1,033 tea and rubber factories, 115 coconut fibre, oil, kc, 
factories, 44 engineering and sawmills, 22 aerated water, ice, kc, factories. 

Commerce. 



Years 


Import* 1 


Export* 1 


Tears 

1918 ' 

1919 i 


I m ports 1 

£ 
12,343,081 
11.S49.112 
21,106,060 


BxporU 1 


1913 
1915 

1916 


13,309,SS« 
1 1,229.735 
14,6«3,72« 


£ 
15,657,570 
18,2*5,145 
19,836.077 


£ 
20,452.997 
14.20S.922 
31.91S.041 



1 Including bullion and specie. 

The values of imports and exports are declared, and represent the wholesale valnes at 
the place of import or export. Declarations are subject to scrutiny and penalty. The 
Chamber of Commerce, as representing the trade of the island, assists by supplying the 
value on which a rated duty is levied. Quantities of imports are ascertained from inToices 
or by actual examination ; of exports, from declarations and by examination of the shipping 
documents, shippers being liable to penalties for misstatement. The origin and destination 
of goods are also obtained from the shipping documents. In some cases, however, goods 
intended for transhipment abroad are so entered, e.g. to Xew York, rid London. The 
transit trade includes all goods transhipped direct in port, as well as goods landed into 
transhipment warehouses. The transit trade of Colombo has largely increased of late years, 
but, as no bills of entry are required in respect of transhipment goods, the returns as to 
quantity are only approximately correct, and no returns as to value can be prepared. 

Principal exports in 1919 — Cacao, 271.797/. ; cinnamon, 321.332/. ; 
coir (and manufactures", 265,136'. : copra, 2,813,656/. ; coconut oil, 
2,232,560/. ; tea, 10,130,621/. (208,560.943 lbs.) ; plumbago, 150.616/. ; 
coconut, fresh, 25,445/. ; coconut, desiccated, 2,167,666/. ; areca nuts, 
266,013/. ; rubber, 11,484,470/. (900,198 cwt.) ; citronella oil, 77,934/. 

Principal imports in 1919. — Cotton manufactures, 1,538,990/. ; rice, 
5.767.429/. ; coal and coke, 2,998,151/ ; spirits, 90,771/. ; sugar, raw and 
refined, 879,307/.; manures, 879,214/. ; bullion and specie, 295,300/. 

According to Ceylon returns the total imports from the United Kingdom 
in 1919 amounted to 2,947,029/., and exports thereto, to 13,447,089/. 

In 1919 (British Board of Trade Returns) the value of tea imported 
into the United Kingdom from Cevlon was 9,065,000/. (quantitv, 137,333,000 
lbs.). Other imports in 1919 were: rubber, 3,608,000/. (33,500,0001b*.) ; 
coconut oil, 1,531,000/. : nuts, and kernels, 1.432,000/. ; plumbago, 60,000/. ; 
cinnamon, 163 000/. The principal exports of United Kingdom produce to 
Ceylon in 1919 were cottons, 656,000/.; iron and steel and manufactures 
thereof. 384,000/. : machinery, 167JO0O/. : spirits, 41,000/. ; tobacco, 36,300/. 

Total imports into United Kingdom, 1920 : 16,915,000/. ; total exports of 
British pioduce to Ceylon, 6,347,000/. 

Shipping and Communications. 

Shipping entered and cleared, 1919, 17,706,617 tons (British, 13 181,162 
tons). In 191S, the total tonnage was 6,607,565, and British, 4.975,698. 



106 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — CEYLON 

On January 1, 1920, 116 sailing vessels of 9,529 tons, and 7 steamers 
of 737 tons net, total vessels 123 of 10,266 tons net, were registered as be- 
longing to Ceylon. 

727 miles of railway were open at September 30, 1919, and several ex- 
tensions are under construction. 

In 1919 there were 551 post offices of various classes ; money order offices, 
195 ; telegraph offices, 160 ; postal packets or postcards passed through 
the post office, 44,000,000 (exclusive of parcels). 7,319 miles of telegraph 
wire ; telegrams despatched, 1,382,833. 

Money and Credit. 

Six banks have establishments in Ceylon : the Mercantile Bank of India, 
the Bank of Madras, the National Bank of India, the Bank of Colombo, the 
Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia 
and China. The Ceylon Savings Bank on December 31, 1919, had 39,706 
depositors, and deposits amounting to Rs. 4,089,722 ; and the Po3t Office 
Savings Bank, 114,591 depositors, and deposits, Rs. 2,744,202. 

The weights and measures of Ceylon are the same as those of the United 
Kingdom. The currency consists of : — Copper : Ceylon 1-cent and ^-cent 
pieces, 6£ cents being equivalent to Id. English. Nickel : Ceylon 5-cent 
piece. Silver: Indian rupee ( = 100 cents), equivalent (by Ordinance No. 6 
of 1903) to Is. Ad, English ; and Ceylon 50-cent, 25-cent, and 10-cent 
pieces. Gold : British sovereigns, which are legal tender at Rs. 15 to the 
sovereign (these have, however, now been demonetized). Ceylon Govern- 
ment currency notes of Rs. 1,000, 100, 50, 10, 5, 2, and 1. On September 
30, 1919, the value of currency notes in circulation was Rs. 40,533,042. 

Dependency. 

The Maldive Islands, 400 miles west of Ceylon, are governed by an 
elected Sultan, who resides in the island of Male, and pays a yearly tribute 
to the Ceylon Government. Next to the Sultan is the first Wazir, or Prime 
Minister, then the Fandiari, the head priest or judge, and besides them 
6 Wazirs or Ministers of State. The Maldives are a group of 13 coral islets 
(atolls), richly clothed with cocoa-nut palms, and yielding millet, fruit, and 
edible nuts. Population over 70,000 Mohammedans. The people are 
civilised, and are great navigators and traders. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Ceylon. 

Administration Reports of Ceylon. Annual. 

Blue Book of Ceylon. Annual Report on Ceylon. 

Decennial Census of Ceylon. 

C'cylon Sessional Papers. Annual. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London. 

Statistics of Ceylon ; in 'Statistical Abstract for the Colonial and other Possessions of 
the United Kingdom.' Annual. London. 

Repo-rt to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Ovster Fisheries of the Gulf of 
Manaar. By Professor Herdman. London, 1903-5.— Correspondence relating to Agree- 
ment for Lease of Pearl Fisheries on the Coast of Ceylon. Cd 2906, 1906. London.— 
Reports on tli" Results of the Mineral Survey in 1903-4, and 1904-5. Colonial Reports, 
Lonaon, 1905 and 1906. 

Burrows (S. M.), The Buried Cities of Ceylon : a Guido-book to Anuradhapura, *c. 
London. 

Carpenter (E.), From Adam's Peak to Rlephanta. London, 1904. 2nd Edition. 

Cave (H. W.), The Ruined Cities of Ceylon. Newel. London, 1900.— Golden Tips 
Ceylon and its Tea Industry. London, 1900.— The Book of Ceylon. London, 1913. 

J?erj/unon( J. ),Thc Ceylon Handbook and Directory. Colombo and Ijondon. Annual. 

Qardintr (I. s.), The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadire Archipelagoes. 
2 toIs. Cambridge, 1901-1905. 

Oordon-Cumning (M\at E.), Two ITappy Years in Ceylon. JtoU. Edinburgh 1892. 



CYPRUS 107 

Mltton (G. E. j, The Lost Cities of Ceylon. London. I91C. 

Oxford ^urvev of British Empire. Vol.11. London. 19H. 

Skinntr (Major), Fifty Tiais in Ceylon. London, 1891. 

TennanU (E.), History of Cevlon. London, l«i9. 

WiH-renuuinph< (Din M. de 7..\ Epigraphia Z°vlanica. London, 1917. 

The Mahavansa— An Historical Narrative of Sinhalese Kin^s of Oylon, from 543 B.C. 
to ISIS a.d. Translated by Tumour and Wtfesinh ; another Translation by Prof. W. 
Geiger, 1S11 

Chriitmai Island. See Straits Sbttlbments. 

CYPRUS. 

High Commissioner.— U. Stevenson, C.M.G. Salary, 3,000/., and Duty 
Allowance, 6001. 

Chief Secretary.— J. C. D. Fenn. Salary, 1,400/. 

The island is the third largest in the Mediterranean, 40 miles from the 
coast of Asia Minor and 60 from the coast of Syria. It was administered 
until November 5, 1914, by Great Britain, under a convention concluded 
with the Sultan of Turkey at Constantinople, Jnne 4, 1878, but on the 
outbreak of hostilities with Turkey on November 5, 1914, the island was 
annexed. The High Commissioner has the usual powers of a Colonial 
Governor. There is an Executive Council, consisting of the Chief Secretary, 
the King's Advocate, the Treasurer, with three locally resident additional 
members. The Legislature consists of eighteen members, six being office 
holders, including the Chief Secretary, the King's Advocate, and the 
Treasurer, and twelve elected (for five years), three by Mohammedan and 
nine by non-Mohammedan voters. The voters are all male British sub- 
jects, or foreigners twenty-one years of age, who have resided five years, and 
are payers of any of the taxes known as 'Verghis.' Municipal conncils 
exist in the principal towns, elected practically by all resident householders 
and ratepayers. Those eligible to the council must be voters rated upon 
property of the annual value of from 10/. to 20/., according to population. 
Area 3,584 square miles. Population, Census 1911 : — 139,383 males, 
134.725 females ; total, 274,108 (including 144 military population). 
Mohammedans (Ottoman Turks) 56,428 ; Christians (Autocephalous Church 
of Cyprus), 214,480 ; others, 3,200. Inhabitants per square mile, 76 48. 
Estimated population, December 31, 1920, 315.219 exclusive of military. 
Birth rate, 1916, 28"1 per 1,000 ; death-rate, 17 *1. 

The principal towns are Nicosia (the capital), 18,461 ; Larnaca, 10,652 ; 
Limasol, 11,843: Famagusta and Varoshia, 6,127; Paphos and Ktema, 
3,946; Kyrenia, 1,986. There are six administrative districts named after 
these towns. 

The system of elementary education is designed *o that each race in the 
island has its own schools. Besides elementary schools there were in 1919-20 
3 Gymnasiums, a commercial Lyceum, 1 ' Greek high school ' for boys and 
a ■ high school ' for girls, a Priests' Training School, and two Moslem High 
Schools, one for boys find one for girls. The Government contributed 
(1919-20) 12,000/. to education. Total expenditure on elementary and 
se:ondary education, 52.469/. Total number of elementary S'hoolsin 1919-20, 
739 (501 Greek -Christian, 231 Moslem. 4 Armenian and 3 Maronit**) ; teachers, 
925 in elementary schools, of whom 65 5 were Greek-Christian and 272 
Moslem. Totai enrolment in elementary schools, 42,059, comprising 7,554 
Moslem, 34,273 Greek -Christian, 100 Armenian, and 132 Maronites. 
There are 11 weekly newspa]>ers in Greek. 

The law courts consist of (1) a supreme court of civil and criminal 
appeal ; (2) six assize courts, having unlimited criminal jurisdiction ; 



108 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — CYPRUS 



(3) six district courts, having limited criminal jurisdiction and unlimited 
civil jurisdiction ; (4) six magisterial courts with summary jurisdiction ; (5) 
ten village judges' courts. In all, except supreme court, native (Christian md 
Mohammedan) judges take part. There are also 4 Sheri Courts, for Mo- 
hammedans only, which administer the Moslem Sheri or ecclesiastical law. 
In the year 1919-20 the number of offences was 12,471, and the number of 
persons committed to prison was 2,587. Strength of police force, March 
31, 1920, 26 officers and 792 men ; total, 818. 

The revenue and expenditure for five years, ended March 31, exclusive of 
Grant-in-Aid, and share of the Turkish debt charge, were : — 



Revenue 

Expenditure 



1913-14 
(pre war) 

£ 
341,816 
296,165 



1916-17 

£ 

332,584 
318,378 



1917-18 

£ 

498,460 
382,598 



1918-19 

£ 

610,499 
494,675 



1919-20 

£ 

602,927 
485,400 



Chief sources of revenue, 1919-20 .-—Tithes, 147,864/.; excise, 75,037/.: 
customs, 80,294/. ; sheep, goat, and pig taxes, 12,557/. ; verghis, 29,175/. : 
court receipts and stamps, 29,041/.; port dues, &c, 8,372/.; railway, 
33,375/. Customs revenue: 1913-14, 52.117Z. ; 1916-17, 44,425/. ; 1917-18, 
50,434/. ; 1918-19, 42,368/. ; 1919-20, 80,294/. Cyprus share of Turkish 
national debt, 92,800/. per year (excluded from above table). 

Public debt, 1919-20, 227,503/., for harbour, railways, and irrigation. 
Annual grant from imperial funds to revenue (not included above), 50,000/. 
per year. 

Cyprus is essentially agricultural. Chief products in 1920 : wheat, 
2,220,000 kiles; barley, 2,210,000 kiles ; vetches, 340,000 Idles ; oats, 
187,000 kiles; olives, cotton. Grapes are produced in large quantities. 
Other products are raisins, carobs (locust beans), fruit, linseed, silk, cheese, 
wool, hides, and (by the Department of Agriculture) origanum oil. In 1920 
there were 288,560 sheep, 210,995 goats, and 31,920 pigs. Onc-thiid of 
cultivable land is under cultivation. There are irrigation works for the storage 
and distribution of rain-water. The Forest Department has done much for the 
preservation and development of the forests existing at the time of the 
British occupation, and for the re-afforestation of denuded districts. The 
area of delimited forest is 700 square miles. Sponge fisheries are carried <>n. 
Gypsum, terra umbra and marble are found in abundance ; mining for 
copper has commenced ; asbestos is mined, 22,928 cwt. being exported in 
1916 ; 21,386 cwts.in 1917 ; and 4,556 cwts. in 1918. 

The commerce, and the shipping, exclusive of coasting trade, for five 
calendar vears were : — 





1013 


191(5 


1917 


1918 


1919 




(pre-war) 




£ 






Merchandise : — 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Imports . 


619,337 


967,780 


968,168 


1,013,582 


1,525,427 


Exports . 


620,591 


708,446 


787,922 


861,345 


1,371,580 


Bullion and specie : 












Imports . 


56,747 


9,837 


i,m 


214 


20,587 


Export* . 


79,322 


■ 12,146 


4,792 


681 


8,619 


Shipping entered 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


and cleared 


721,515 


208,850 


164,579 


70,841 


829,474 



The import value is that at the port of arrival, and includes cost, freight, and other 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE K>9 

charges; the export value is that at the port of shipment when the goods are ready for 
exportation. Quantities and values are ascertained from declarations by importers and 
exporters, Terifled in the case of dutiable imports by actual weighing and measuring. The 
countries of origin and of destination of goods are also obtained from declarations checked 
by invoices or bills of lading when necessary. 

Chief imports, 1919 :— Butter, 18, 190*. ; coffee, raw, 26,44"*.; flour, 
28,833*. : fish, 15,022*. ; olive oil, 63,728*. ; provisions, 17,531*. ; rice, 
31,833*. ; sugar, 86,867*. ; tobacco in leaf, 90,860*. ; hides and skins, 11,696*. ; 
petroleum, 56,355*.; iron and steel manufactures, 15,479*. ; machinery, 
13.355 ; cotton vara and thread. $8,129'.; cotton piece goods, 139,493*. ; 
haberdashery and millinery, 17,085*.; sacks, 19,211*.; s'lk manufactures, 
18.907*.; woollen manufactures, 43,576*. ; candles, 11,086*. ; leather and 
leather manufactures, 165,136*.; matches, 10,336*. ; medicines, 14,871*.; 
paper (cigarette), 11,526*. ; soap, 53.S49*. 

Chief exports, 1919 :— Vheat, 53,389*.; barley, 155,911*.; pomegranates, 
29,518*.; raisins, 122,318*.; spirit, 50,499*.; wine, 125,495; potatoes, 
55,508?.: tobacco in leaf, 65,214*.; carobs. 254,253*.; cotton, 102,404*.; silk 
cocoons, 47.64S*. ; wool, 32,662*.; aniseed, 14,048*. ; linseed, 9,537*.; hides 
and skins, 25,831*.; asbestos, 25,355*.; cotton manufacture*, 15,714*.; 
gypsum, 5,222*. 

Imports from United Kingdom, exclusive of specie, 1919, 532,601*. 
Exports to United Kingdom, exclusive of specie, 1919, 313,455*. 

The Imperial Ottoman Bank and the Bank of Athens have establish- 
ments in the island. The Government Savings Bank (begun in 1903) had, 
at the end of March, 1920, 230 depositors, with 7,673*. to their credit Coins 
current — Cyprus silver, namely, 18 copper piastres, 9 c.p., 41 c.p. and 
3 c.p. (9 piastres = one shilling). Government currency notes, of 10*., 
5*., 1*., 10s., 5s., 2s., and Is. denominations, are also in circulation. Weights 
and measures are as follows : — 

Length : 1 Cyprus Pic = § yard. 

Weight : 1 Oke = 2-8 lb. 

Capacity : 1 Kile — 8 Imperial gallons. 

There are 746 miles of good carriage road, exclusive of village 
roads ; 245 miles of telegraph lines ; cable connects with Alexandria. A 
narrow gauge Government railway runs from Famagusta (where harbour works 
were completed in 1906) through Nicosia and Morphou to Evrykhou (76 
miles). Total number of letters, postcards, newspapers, book-packets, and 
parcels delivered in Cyprus, 1919-20 : local, 1,552,200 ; received from 
abroad, 790,880 ; posted for foreign countries, 617,491. There were 246 
miles of telegraph line in operation in 1916-17. 

Books of Reference concerning Cyprus. 

Annual Report ofH.M.'s Higji Commissioner. 

Statistical Abstract for the Colonial and other Possessions of the United Kingdom. 
Annual. London. 

Baedeker's "Palestine and Syria, including the Island of Cyprus. " 5th ed. 1912. 

Cobham CC.D). An Attempt at a Bibliography of Cyprus. 5th ed. Cambridge, 1908. 
Bxcerpta Cypria : A Collection of Materials for the History of Cyprus. Cambridge, 1908. 

Deiehampt (E.). Au Pays d 'Aphrodite Paris, lS9s'. 

Baekett (J.), History of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus. London, 1901. 

Jcfrey (G. E.), The Present Condition of the Ancient Architectural Monuments of 
Cvpr'is. * Oxford. 1910.— Historic Monuments of Cyprus. Cyprus, 1918. 
" Luke <H. C), Cvprus under the Turks. Oxford, 1920. 

Luke(H C )and Jardine(.D. J.), The Handbook of Cyprus. London, 1920. 

Macmillan'i Guides : The Eastern Mediterranean. London. 

Mariti (G.), Travels in Cyprus. [Translated from the Italian.] Cambridge, 190B. 

Memorandum on the Island of Cyprus. Hesperia Press, 1919. 



110 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — HONG KONG 

Ohnefaltch-Richter (Magda H.), Griechische Bitten und Gebrauche auf Cypern. Berlin, 
1914. 

Orr (C. W. J.), Cyprus under British Rule. London, 1918. 
Oxford Surrey of British Empire. Vol. I. London, 1914. 
Tristsch (Davis), Cypern. Frankfort, 1911. 



HONG KONG. 

Constitution and Government. 

The Crown Colony of Hong Kong was ceded by China to Great Britain in 
January, 1841 ; the cession was confirmed by the treaty of Nanking, in 
August, 1842; and the charter bears date April 5, 1843. Hong Kong is 
the great centre for British commerce with China and Japan, and a military 
and naval station of first-class importance. 

The administration is in the hands of a Governor, aided by an Executive 
Council, composed of the General Officer Commanding the Troops, the 
Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Treasurer, the Secretary for 
Chinese Affairs, and the Director of Public Works (the last two being special 
appointments), and two unofficial members. There is also a Legislative 
Council, presided over by the Governor, and composed of the General Officer 
Commanding the Troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the 
Tieasurer, the Director of Public Works, the Captain-Superintendent of 
Police, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs (the last three being special appoint- 
ments), and six unofficial members — viz., four nominated by the Crown (two 
of whom are Chinese), one nominated by the Chamber of Commerce, and 
one by the Justices of the Peace. 

Governor— Sir R. E. Stubbs, K. CM. G. Appointed 1919. Salary 6, 000Z., 
including 1,200Z. allowance. 

Area and Population. 

Hong Kong is situated at the mouth of the Canton River, about 90 
miles south of Canton. The island is an irregular and broken ridge, 
stretching nearly east and west about 1 1 miles, its breadth from 2 to 5 miles, and 
its area rather more than 32 square miles ; separated from the mainland by a 
narrow strait, the Lyeemoon Pass, about half a mile in width. The 
opposite peninsula of Kowloon, on the mainland, was ceded to Great Britain 
by treaty in 1861, and now forms part of Hong Kong. The city of Victoria 
extends for upwards of five miles along the southern shore of the beautiful 
harbour. By a convention signed at Peking on June 9, 1898, there was 
leased to Great Britain for 99 years a portion of Chinese territory mainly 
agricultural, together with the waters of Mirs Bay and D^ep Bay and the 
island of Lan-tao. Its area is 356 square miles, with about 94,000 
inhabitants, exclusively Chinese. Area of Old Kowloon is 3 square miles. 
Total area of colony, 391 square miles. A scheme was begun at the end 
of 1916 for reclaiming 12 million square feet of land from the soa in Kowloon 
Bay, and erecting thereon a model town. 

The population of Hong Kong, excluding the Military and Naval establish- 
ments, was estimated to be in the mid'He of 1919 as follows : — Non-Chinese 
civil population, 13,600; Chinese civil population, namely, City of Victoria 
(including Peak), 320,080 ; villages of Hong Kong, 16,520 ; Kowloon 
(including New Kowloon ), 86,550 ; New Territories (land), 97,100 ; popula- 
tion afloat, 64,250 ; total Chinese population, 584,500 : total civil popola- 
lation, 598,100. 



INSTRUCTION — JUSTICE AND CRIME — FINANCE 111 

Of the resident white population nearly one-half is British and one-third 
is Portuguese. 

The registered births and deaths for five years were as follows : - 



Year 



1914 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 



Birthi Deaths 



3,001 


9,585 


2,631 


10,558 


2,400 


10,433 


2,321 


13,714 


2,194 


11,647 



Birth* 


Deaths 


per 1,0001 


per 1,000 l 


7 3 


23 3 


61 


24 


53 


23 4 


4*1 


24 4 


4 3 


23 2 



i Birth and death rates are calculated only on the population of Hong Kong and 
Kowloon, there being no jurisdiction by the sanitary authorities over the New Territories 
(except New Kowloon). 

In 1915 the number of Chinese emigrants was 68,275, and the uumber 
of immigrants 109,753; in 1916, 117,653 and 72,405; in 1917, 96,298 and 
98,232; in 1918, 43,830 and 74,109 ; and in 1919, 59,969 and 136,020 
respectively. 

Instruction. 

Education is not compulsory, but all schools are State-inspected, and 
required to maintain a certain standard of efficiency. There are 3 secondary 
Government schools for children of British parentage, with an average 
attendance of 163 (1920), and 5 Government schools for Chinese boys, and 
one for Chinese girls, with a total average attendance of 2,444. There are 
also numerous schools in receipt of grants. The total number of pupils in 
all schools in 1920 was 25,786. The University Matriculation Examination 
serves the purpose of a leaving examination. The total expenditure on 
education in 1919 was 254,302 dollars, net. 

The Hong Kong University was formally opened in March, 1912, and 
during the session 1919-20 the number of students was 230, mostly 
Chinese. Faculties of Medicine, Engineering and Arts have been 
established, with a large s^affof British professors and lecturers. There are 
well-equipped scientific laboratories, and recent additions are schools for 
instruction in physiology, pathology, and tropical medicine. The 
engineering laboratories have been equipped with machinery presented by 
various firms who are interested in technical education. It is the only 
British University in the Far East. 

Justice and Crime. 

There are Courts of Justice consisting of a Supreme Court, the second 
court or Court of Summary Jurisdiction, and a third court or Appeal Court, 
a police magistrate's court, and a marine magistrate's court. In 1919, 
2,552 were committed to Victoria gaol for criminal offences ; in 1918, 
1,498. The daily average of prisoners in gaol was 601 in 1918, and 756 in 
1919. There is a police force in the colony numbering 1,22S men, of whom 
159 are European, 477 Indians, and 592 Chinese. 

Finance. 

The public revenue and expenditure of the colony were as follows 
in five years. The dollar of Hong Kong is of variable value; for 1913 



112 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — HONG KONG 

it is here taken at 2s., for 1914 at Is. lOJrf., for 1915 at Is. 9fd., for 1916 
at 2s. ljd., for 1917 at 2s. 7±d., for 1918 at 3s. 2gi., for 1919 at 3s. 8$d. 









Tear 


Revenue 


Expenditure 




£ 


£ 


1913 (pre-war) 


S51.230 


865,801 


1915 


1,063,111 


1,372,902 


1916 


1,455,388 


1,165,700 


1917 


1,960,690 


1,834,743 


1918 


3,013,676 


2,624,027 


1919 


3,081,220 


3,340.574 



The revenue is derived chiefly from land, taxes, licences, quarry rent, 
liquor and tobacco duties, and an opium monopoly, which together more 
than cover the expenses of administration, except in the year 1915. A large 
portion of the expenditure has to be devoted to the maintenance of a strong 
police force. Expenditure on establishments in 1919, 4,709,340 dollars. 
The estimates for 1920 are: revenue, 15,314,800 dollars; expenditure, 
14,886,473 dollars. 

Public debt, 341,8002., raised in 1887 and 1893 for public -works. 
Another loan, 1,143,9332. in Inscribed Stock at 3£ per cent., was raised in 
1906 for purposes of railway construction, also a 6 per cent. War Loan 
of 3,000,000 dollars was authorised. On December 31, 1919, the balance 
of assets over liabilities was 4,290,188 dollars (799,9412.). 

Defence. 

The military contribution payable to the Imperial Government was 
3,552,939 dollars for 1919. The Defence Corps cost 27,525 dollars foi 1919. 
Hong Kong is the headquarters of the China Squadron. 

Industry, Commerce, Shipping, and Communications. 

The chief industries of Hong Kong are sugar refining, ship-building and 
repairing, rope-making, tin refining, tobacco manufacture, the manufacture 
of cement, and the manufacture of knit goods. Deep-sea fishing is important, 
especially for the New Territories. 

The commerce of Hong Kong is chiefly with Great Britain, India 
and Ceylon, Australia, United States, China, Japan, Indo-China, and 
Siam. Hong Kong is a free port (except as regards the importation of 
intoxicating liquor and tobacco). There were no complete official returns of 
trade prior to 1918, but complete trade and shipping returns are now officially 
compiled and published quarterly and annually. Hong Kong is the centre of 
trade in many kinds of goods. Among the principal are sugar ami flour, rice, 
cotton, cotton yarn and cotton piece goods, silk, hemp, leather, tin. 
wolframite, bulk and case oil (kerosine), oils and fata, peanuts, Chinese 
medicines, fish and fishery products, tea, coal, cement, condensed milk, 
matches. The Chinese tea and silk trade is largely in the hands of 
Hong Kong firms. 

Imports into Hong Kong in 1919 : from the British Umpire, 19.7 16,0102. 
(United Kingdom only, 5,129,7842.); from foreign countries, 70,905,6982. ; 
total imports, 90,651,7082. Export* from Hong Kong in 1919 : to the 
British Empire, 18,993,1452. (United Kindgdom only, 2,698,8132.) ; to China 
and Japan, 62,649,7842. ; to other foreign countries, 22,300,0052. ; total 
exports, 103,942,9842. 



INDUSTRY, COMMERCE, SHIPPING, ETC. 



113 



The trade of Hong Kong and the United Kingdom (Board of Trad* 
returns) for five years is given as follows : — 



Imports (consignments) 
into Gt. Britain from 
Hong Kong .... 

Export* of British Pro- 
dnce to Hong Kong 

Exports of Foreign and 
Colonial produce . . 



1913 
(pre-war) 



675,276 

4,354,222 

200,36.3 



1917 



£ 
1,456,580 
1,096.519 
47,535 



1918 



£ 

M-.C.3-2 

3.744,833 

50,888 



1919 



1920^ 



£ £ 

2,*2C,J11 2,506,333 

4,493,560 13,112,752 

331,816 302.33s 



1 Provisional figures. 
The principal items of trade for 5 years are given as follows : — 



f 


1913 
(pre-war) 


1916 


1917 


19 18 


1919 


Imports (consign- 










ments) into Uni- 












ted Kingdom : 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Preserved Gin- 












ger 


81,485 


69,418 


52,550 


58,197 


309,629 


Silk, all kinds 


75,975 


58,629 


46,165 


82,622 


18,012 


Drugs . 
Feathers Jtdown 


57,256 


45,730 


49,805 


104,278 


163,771 


55,669 


95.167 


30,036 


45,146 


89,404 


Hides, raw 


3,519 


113,135 


441,082 


275,260 


215,941 


Tin in blocks, 












ingots, bars, 












and slabs 


192,337 


197,277 


197,806 


— 


7,399 


Exports from Uni- 












ted Kingdom : 












Cottons k, yarn 


2,422,539 


1,862,561 


1,814,720 


2,090,568 


2,222,792 


Woollens A: yarn 


401,003 


347,107 


341,123 


217,621 


286,293 


Iron and steel 












and manufac- 












tures . 


309,979 


423,261 


164,923 


286,875 


490,982 


Michinerv 


93,618 


75,972 


54,560 


343,981 


192,868 


Painters' 












colours, &c. 


51,949 


117,005 


65.997 


89,827 


125,374 


Soap 


64,251 


104,644 


71,870 


65,706 


59,422 


Tobacco . 


137,860 


232,143 


86,877 


133,959 


69,738 



20,987 vessels, including 10,353 junks and 2,509 steam-launches, re- 
presenting altogether 10,489,114 tons, entered in 1919, and 20,998 vessels, 
including 10,357 junks and 2,526 steam-launches, representing 10,584,312 
tons, cleared in 1919. The number of fishing and other boats frequenting the 
harbour and bays of Hong Kong in 1919 may be estimated at abont 20,000. 

There is an electric tramway of 94. miles and a cable tramway connect- 

he Peak district with the lower levels of Victoria. The British section 

of the Hong Kong-Canton Railway was begun in 1907, and opened to 

traffic on October 1, 1910. The branch line from Fanling to Sha Tau Kok 

was completed and opened to traffic in April, 1912. 



114 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — HONG KONG 

There were 17 post offices in Hong Kong in 1919 ; Revenue, postal and tele- 
graphic, 460,893 dollars ; expenditure, 138,225 dollars. Telegraph lines, in- 
cluding cables, 1918, 283 miles ; telephone wires, excluding military lines, 
10,850 miles. There is a wireless telegraph service under the Post Office, 
besides a military and naval wireless station. 

Money and Credit. 

The British banking institutions in the Colony are the Hong Kong and 
Shanghai Banking Corporation, whose head office is at Hong Kong, the 
Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, and the Mercantile Bank 
of India, Ltd. There are also several Chinese and foreign banks. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

The currency of the Colony consists of the notes of the above-mentioned 
banks, and of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican dollars, besides subsidiary 
coins. The British Dollar is of 416 grains of silver 900 fine, as compared 
with 417 74 grains of 902*7 fineness of the Mexican dollar. 

Subsidiary coins are 50 cent pieces (209*52 grains 800 fine), 20 cent pieces 
(83*81 grains 800 fine), 10 ct-nt pieces (41*90 grains 800 fine), 5 cent pieces 
(20*95 grains 800 fine), and 1 cent copper pieces of 115*75 grains of copper 
or mixed metal. 

The circulation of foreign copper coin was prohibited in 1912, and similar 
action is being taken with regard to foreign silver and nickel coins and 
bank notes. 

Weights and Measures are : 

The Tael = 1J oz. avoirdupois. 

„ Ficul = 133J lbs. 

,, Catty = 1J ,, ,, 

,, Chek . .......= 14| inches. 

,, Cheung = 12 T S , feet. 

Besides the above weights and measures of China, those oi Great Britain 
are in general use in the colony. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Hong Kong. 
1. Official Publications. 

Administrative Reports. Annual. Hong Kong. 
Annual Report on Hong Kong. London. 

Convention between tin United Kingdom and China respecting Bxtension of Hong 
Kong Territory. Treaty Series, No. 16. 1898. London, 1898. 
Government Gazette. Published weekly on Fridays. 
Historical and Statistical Abstract. Hong Kong. 
Names (Chinese) of Islands. Bavs, Hills ind Passes. Hong Kong. 
Notes upon Climatic and General Conditions of Living. Hong Kong. 
Sessional Papers. Annual. Hong Kon;, 
Street Index. Hong Kong. 
Trade and Shipping Returns Quarterly and Annual. Hong Kong. 

2. Non-Official Publications. 

Bentham (G.), Flora Hone Kongensis. Hong Kong, 1902. 

Bitel (E. J.), Europe in China. [A nistory of Hong Kong.] London, 1895. 

Ireland (A.), The Far Eastern Tropics. [Studies in the administration of Dependen- 
cies]. London, 1905. 

Ky*he(J. W. Norton), History of the Laws and Courts of Hong Kong. London, 1899. 

Luca#(C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. 2nd ed. Vol.1. London, 
1906. 

Morte (H. B.), Currency in China. 

Oxford Hurvev of British Empire. Vol. II. London, 1914. 

Skertehlu (S. B. J.), Our Island. Hong Kong, 1898. 

Twentieth Century Impressions of Hong Kong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports 



INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 115 

INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES. 

India, as defined by Parliament (52 and 53 Vict. c. 63, s. 18), comprises 
all that part of the great Indian Peninsula which is directly or indirectly 
under British rule or protection. In a popular sense it includes also certain 
countries such as Nepal, which are beyond that area, but whose relations with 
India are a concern of the Foreign and Political Dej>artnient of the Govern- 
ment, whose ageut resides in the country concerned. These countries will be 
found included in the third part of the Year- Book among Foreign 
Countries The term British India includes only the districts subject 
to British law, and does not include native States. The term is so used, 
unless otherwise stated, in the tables, ic, that follow. The symbol Ry. 
stands for ten rupees. Rx. 1 — Rs. 10. 

Government and Constitution. 

The present form of government of the Indian Empire is established 
by various Parliamentary Statutes which are now consolidated in the 
Government of India Act, 1915, as amended by the Government of India 
(Amendment) Act, 1916, and the Government of India Act, 1919. All the 
territories originally under the government of the East India Company are 
vested in His Majesty, and all its powers are exercised in his name ; all 
revenues, tributes and other payments, are received in his name, and 
disposed of for the purposes of the government of India alone. Under the 
Royal Titles Act, 1876, the King of Great Britain and Ireland has the 
additional title of Emperor of India. 

It is the declared policy of Parliament to provide for "the increasing 
association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the 
gradual development of sell-governing institutions with a view to the 
progressive realisation of responsible government in India as an integral 
part of the British Empire." 

Government, in England. — The administration of the Indian Empire 
in England is entrusted to a Secretary of State for India, assisted by 
a Council of not less than eight and not more than twelve members, 
appointed for five years by the Secretary of State. At least one-half of the 
members must be j>ersons who have served or resided ten years in India, 
and have not lelt India more than five years previous to their apj>oiEtment. 
A member may be removed by His Majesty upon an address from both Houses 
of Parliament, and the Secretary oi State may for special reasons, to be 
recorded in a minute signed by him and placed before both 
Houses of Parliament, reappoint a member of the Council for 
a further term of five years. No member can sit in Parliament. 
The duties of the Council, which has no initiative authority, are to 
conduct the business transacted in the United Kingdom in relation to 
the government of India. The expenditure of the revenues of India, 
both in India and elsewhere, is subject to the control of the Secretary 
of State in Council, and no appropriation can be made without the 
concurrence of a majority of votes of the Count il. The Secretary of State 
regulates the transaction ol business. The existence of a legislative Assembly 
in India with a large elected majority renders it desirable that the 
Secretary of State should intervene only in exceptional circumstances in 
matters of purely Indian interest, where the Government and Legislature 
of India are in agreement. 

Power is given by the 1919 Act for the appointment in the United 
Kingdom of a High Commissioner for India, to whom may be delegated 

I 2 



/ 



116 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



powers of the Secretary of State respecting contracts, and to whom other 
duties may be assigned. 

The salary of the Secretary of State, under the 1919 Act, must, and the 
cost of the India Office for other than agency services may, be borne by the 
British, and not, as formerly, by the Indian Exchequer. 

Central Indian Government. — The supreme executive authority in India 
is vested in the Governor-General in Council, often styled the Government 
of India. The Governor- General, or Viceroy, is appointed by the Crown, 
and usually holds effice for five years. The Capital of the Empire and 
the seat of government was moved from Calcutta to Delhi in 1912, the 
latter being formed into a separate territory under a Chief Commissioner. 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. — lit. Hon. the Earl of Reading, 
G.C.S.I., G.C.B., K.C.V.O. (January, 1921). 

The salary of the Governor-General is Rs. 2,56,000 (17,0702.) a year. 
The following is a list of the Governors-General of India, with the 
dates of their assumption of office :— 



Lord Canning 

Earl of Elgin 

Sir John (Lord) Lawrence . 

Earl of Mayo 

Lord (Earl of) Northbrook . 

Lord (Earl) Lytton 

Marquis of Ripon 

Earl (Marquis) of Dufl'erin . 

Marquis of Lausdowne 

Earl of Elgin 

Lord Curzon of Kedleston . 

EarlofMinto 

Lord Hardtnge of Penshurst 

Lord Chelmsford 

Earl of Reading . 



1856 
1802 
1864 
1809 
1878 
18?6 
1880 
1881 
1S8S 

ism 

1S!'-.1 
1905 
1910 

1021 



Warren Hastings . . . 1774 

Sir John Macpherson. . . . 1785 

Earl (Marquis) Cornwallis . . 1786 

Sir John Shore (Lard Teignmouth) . 1798 

Marquis Wellesley .... 1798 

Marquis Cornwallis .... 1805 

Sir Geo. H. Barlow .... 1805 

Ear) of Minto 1807 

Earl of Moira (MarquU of Hastings) . 1813 

Earl Amherst 1823 

Lord W. C. Bentinck .... 1828 

Lord Auckland 1836 

Lird EUenborough .... 1842 

Sir H. (Lord) Hardinge . . 1844 

Earl (Marquis) of Dalhousie . . 1848 

Until 1834 these were Governors-General of Fort "William in Bengal, not 
of India. 

There is an Indian Legislature consisting of the Governor-General and 
two Chambers, the Council of State and the Legislative Assembly. The 
Legislature was formally opened on February 9, 1921. The Council of State 
consists of not more than 60 members, of whom not more than 20 are officials. 
The Legislative Assembly contains 144 members, of whom 26 are official 
members and 103 are elected. The life of the Council of State is live years, 
and of the Assembly three years, but dissolution may occur sooner, or the 
period may be specially extended by the Governor-General. Joint sittings 
of the two Chambers may be held for the settlement of differences between 
them. The Legislative Assembly is presided over by a President appointed 
by the Governor-General. This Legislature has power, subjeot to certain 
restrictions, to make laws for all persons within British India, for all British 
subjects within the Native States, and for all native Indian subjects of the 
King in any part of the world. The Governor-General, with the assent of 
His Majesty, conveyed after oopies of the proposed enactment have been laid 
before both Houses of the British Parliament, may enact certain measures 
against the wish of tho Council or Assembly. 

The various departments of Government are in charge of the Governor- 
Qeneral's Executive Council. This body has no fixed number of 
members (there were eight in July, 1920). but at least three of them must 
have had ten years' service in India, and one must be a barrister or pleader 
of not less than 10 years' standing. There arc (1920) eleven departments — 
Homo, Foreign and Political, Finance, Army, Public Works, Revenue and 



GOVERNMENT AND CONSTITUTION 117 

Agriculture, Commerce, Legislative, Education, Railways, and the Board of 
Industries and Munitions. At the head of >-ach. except the last two, is 
one of the secretaries to the Government of India. The President of the 
Railway Board is the head of the Railway De|<artment, and he is authorised 
to act as if he were a Secretary to the Government of India. The Foreign 
and Political Department is under the immediate superintendence of the 
Governor- G en eraf. 

India is now divided into fifteen administrations, as follows : — 

Madras : Governor, Rt Hon. Baron Wiilmgdon of Ratton, P.C., G.C.S.I., 
G.C.I. E., G.B.E. (1919) ; salary, Ra. 1,23,000 per year. Area, 142,000 square 
miles ; population, at 1911 census, nearly 41% millions, mainly Hindus. 

Bombay: Governor, Captain Sir G. A. I.hvd, G.O.I. E., D.S.O. (1918); 
salary, Rs. 1,28,000 per year. Area, 123,000 square miles; population in 

1911, over 19% millions, mainlv Hindus. 

Bengal: Governor, Rt. Hon. the Earl of Ronaldshay, G.C.I.E. (1917) ; 
salary, Rs. 1,28,000 per year. The province was reconstituted from April 1, 

1912, and has an area of 78,700 square miles, and a population (1911 census) 
of nearly 45% millions, mainly Hindus and Mahomadans in almost equal 
proportions. 

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh: Governor, Sir S. H. Butler, 
K.C S I., CLE. (1918) ; salary, Rs. 1,28,000 per year. Area, over 107,000 
square miles, and population at 1911 census, over 47 million* (oyer 40 million 
Hindus and over 6% million Mahomadans). 

The Punjab: Governor, Sir E. D. Maclagan, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E. 
(1919); salary, Ra. 1,00,000 per year. Area, 99,000 square miles ; population 
(1911), over 19 millions (10 million Mahomadans, 6% million Hindus, 
and 2 million Sikhs). 

Burma: Lieut.-Governor, Sir R, H. Craddock, K. C.S.I. (1918); salary, 
Rs 1,00,000 per vear. Area, nearly 231,000 square miles; population 
(1911), over 12 millions, mainly Buddhists. 

Bihar and Orissa: Governor, Rt. Hon. Lord Si aha of Raipur, K.C.S.I., 

K.C. (1920,; salary, Rs. 1,00,000 per year. The province was 

ooustituted from April 1, 1912, out of Bengal, and contains the three great 

sub-provinces of Bihar, Orissa, and Chota Nagpur. Area, over 83,000 

square miles, and population (1911), nearly 34% millions, mainly Hindus. 

Central Provinces and Berar : Governor, Sir F. G. Sly, K. C.S.I. (1920) ; 
salary, Rs. 72,000 per year. Area, nearly 100,000 square miles ; population 
(1911) nearly 14 millions, mainly Hindus. 

Assam: Governor, Sir William Harris, K.C. I.E. (1921); salary, Rs. 
66,000 p*r year. The province was separated from Eastern Bengal and 
reconstituted from Aprill, 1912. Area, 53,000 square miles ; population 
(1911), nearly 6J millions, over half being Hindus, and over a quarter 
Mahomadans. 

N.W. Frontier Province : Chief Commissioner and Agent to the Governor- 
General : Sir A. H. Grant, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., (1919) ; salary, Rs. 48,000 per 
year. Area, 13,400 square miles; population (1911) nearly i\ millions, 
mainly Mahomadans. 

Ajmer-Merwara : Agent to the Governor-General, Rajputana, and Chief 
Commissioner, The Honourable Mr. R. E. Holland, CLE. ^1919); 
salary, Rs. 48,000 per year. Area, 2,700 square miles ; population (1911),' 
about 500,000, mainly Hindus. 



118 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

Coorg : Chief Commissioner, The Honourable Mr. W. P. Barton, G S. I. , 
CLE. (1920); salary, Es. 48,000 per year. Area, 1,580 square miles ; 
population (1911), 175,000, mainly Hindus. 

Baluchistan : Agent to the Governor- General and Chief Commissioner. 
The Honourable lit. -Col. A. B. Dew, C.S.I., CLE. (1919); salary, 
Rs 48,000 per year. Area, over 54,000 square miles ; population (1911), over 
400,000, mainly Mahomadans. 

Delhi: Chief Commissioner, C A. Barron, C.S.I., CLE. (1919); salary, 
Rs. 36,000 per year. The province was constituted from October 1, 1912, 
and consists of a small enclave in the Punjab. Area, 557 square miles ; 
population (1911), about 390,000. 

Andaman and Nicobar Islands : Chief Commissioner, Lt.-Col. H. C 
Beacion, CLE., LA. (1920) ; salarv, Rs. 36,000 per year. Area, 3,140 
square miles; population (1911), 26,000. 

High Commissioner in England. — Sir Win. Meyer, G.CI.E. , K. C.S.I, 
(appointed October, 1920), 42, Grosvenor Gardens, London. 

Provincial Government. — The Government of India Act, 1919, which came 
into operation in December, 1920,and January, 1921, effects important constitu- 
tional changes, more particularly in the government of the Provinces. 
The various functions of government are classified as Central and 
Provincial subjects, the latter being practically definitely committed to 
the Provincial Governments, while for purposes of convenience, certain 
Central subjects, such as the collection of income tax, may be dealt 
with by the Provincial Governments as the agents of the Central Govern- 
ment. The Governor-General in Council retains unimpaired powers of control 
over the Provincial Governments in their administration of ' reserved ' sub- 
jects, but in ' transferred ' subjects will only be competent to intervene 
where it is necessary to safeguard Central subjects or to decide questions 
where two or more Provinces are concerned, or to safeguard the due exercise 
and performance of any powers and duties possessed by or imposed on the 
Governor General in Council in regard to the Hiyh Commissioner, to the 
raising of loans by local Governments, or under rules made by the Secretary 
of State in Council. The list of subjects transferred to Indian Ministers, 
with certain reservations, include local self government, medical administra- 
tion, public health and sanitation, education, public works, agriculture, 
fisheries, co-operative societies, excise, registration, development of 
industries, adulteration, weights and measures, and religious and charitable 
endowments Certain sources of revenue are definitely allocated to the 
Provinces, whi<h are required to contribute to the Central Govrnment 
certain annual sums which are to be the first charge on their revenues. 

The new Provincial Governments are based upon a scheme of diarchy, 
or dualised form of government, and consist of the Governor in Council 
and the Governor acting with Ministers. The Ministers, who are elected 
members of the Legislative Council, have charge of certain Departments 
of Government known as ' transferred subjects,' while others, the ' reserved 
subje' ts,' are administered by the Governor-in-Council. Thus each side has 
its share in the conduct of the Government, with responsibility for its own 
work, while co-ordination is achioved by the influence of the Governor, who 
is associated with both sections. 

The Governor's Executive Council consists of not more than four members, 
one qualified by twelve years' public service in India. The Legislative 
Council contains not more than twenty per cent, of official members and 



GOVERNMENT AN T D CONSTITUTION 119 

at least seventy per cent, elected members, and, in addition to its legislative 
functions, votes all expenditure, subject to certain specified exceptions 
an<l to the p >wer of the Local Government to incur expenditure, on reserved 
subjects without the Council's assent if th« Governor certifies such expendi- 
ture to be necessary. The normal duration of the Legislative Council 
is thiee years, but it may be dissolved sooner by the Governor, or its 
term specially extended for one year. The Ministers who assist the 
Governor in the administration of transferred subjects are not to be officials. 
The Governor may uot be a member of the Legislative Council, but may 
address the Council. 

TheProviuces to which this new form of government is applied are Bengal, 
Madras, Bombay, Bihar and Orissa, Unied Provinces, Punjab, Central 
Provinces, and Assam. The minimum number of members in each Legislative 
Council is: Madras, 118 ; Bombay, 111; Bengal, 125; United Provinces, 
118 ; Punjab, 83 ; Bihar and Orissa, 98 ; Central Provinces, 70 ; Assam, 
53. The numbers may be increased, and in several provinces increases have 
already been made. Proposals for a revision of Burma's constitution on the 
lines of the Indian Reform Act of 1919 are under consideration (March, 1921). 

The provinces are usually formed into divisions under Commissioners, and 
then divided into districts, which are the units of administration. At the 
head of each district is an executive officer (collector and magistrate, or 
deputy -commissioner), who has entire control of the district, subject to 
the control of his official superior district officer. Subordinate to the 
magistrate (in most districts) there are a joint magistrate, an assistant - 
magistrate, and one or more deputy-collectors and other officials. There 
are 267 of such districts in British India. 

Government of Indian States.— The control which the Supreme Govern- 
ment exercises over the Indian States varies considerably in degree ; but they 
are all governed by the Indian princes, ministers, or councils. The ^ 
princes have no right to make war or peace, or to send ambassadors to each 
other or to external States ; they are not permitted to maintain a military 
force above a certain specified limit ; no European is allowed to reside at 
any of their courts without special sanction ; and the Supreme Govern- 
ment can exercise control in case of misgovernment. Within these limits 
the more important princes are autonomous in their own territories. Some, 
but n^t all of them, are required to pay an annual fixed tribute. The total 
number of Indian States is about 700, ranging from Hyderabad, with an 
area of over 82,000 square miles and a population of over 13 millions, to 
•mall States consisting of only a few villages. 

In recent year* the Princes have met in conferences at the invitation of 
the Viceroy, but in February, 1921, a Council of Princes was established as a 
permanent consultative body to discuss matters relating to treaties, or affairs 
of Imperial or common concern. 

Local Self-Goverxmext. 

There were at the end of 1918-19, 731 municipalities, with a population 
of over 17 millions. The total number of members of the municipal bodies 
was 9,943, of whom 5,532 were elected. The municipal bodies have the care 
and lighting of the roads, water supply, drainage, sanitation, medical relief, 
vaccination, and education, particularly primary education ; they impose 
taxes, enact bye-laws, make improvements, and spend money, with the 
sanction of the Provincial Government. Their aggregate income in 1918-19 
was about 7,066,000/., exclusive of loans, sales of securities, and other ex- 
traordinary receipts amounting to 5,071,000/. The aggregate expenditure 



120 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

was 6,630,000?., excluding extraordinary and debt expenditure of 5,253, 0007. 
By the Local Self-Government Acts of 1883-84, the elective principle 
was extended, in a large or small measure, all over India. In all larger 
towns, and in many of the smaller towns, the majority of members of 
committees are elected by the ratepayers ; everywhere the majority of town 
committees consists of Indians, and in many committees all the members 
are Indians. In many municipalities women have the right to vote, and in 
a few they are eligible for election. For rural tracts, except in Burma, there 
were 739 district and sub-district Boards, and 535 Union Panchnyats in 
Madras, 281 Union Committees in Bengal, and 38 in Bihar and Orissa, 
with 17,592 members in 1918-19, 7,144 being elected. These Boards are 
in charge of roads, district schools, markets, public health institutions, 
&c. Their aggregate income in 1918-19, excluding debt items, was 
5,770,000/., and expenditure (excluding debt items), 5,134,000*. 

Area and Population. 

I. Progress and Present Position of the Population. 
The population in the following table is in millions and two decimals. 

British Territory, 



Year 



1861 
1871 
1881 



Area in sq. mis. 



856,000 
860,000 
875,186 



Population 

(millions*) 

196-00 
195 84 
199 20 



Year 



Area in aq. mis. 



1891 | 964,993 
1901 1,097,901 
1911 1,093,074 



Population 
(millions) 



221-38 
231-61 
244-27 



Following are the leading details of the census of March 15, 1901, and 
that of March 10, 1911 : — 



British Provinces 



Ajmer-Merwara 

Andamans and Nicobars 

Assam 

Baluchistan 

Bengal 

Bihar and Orissa 

Bihar . 

Orissa. 

Cbota Nagpur . 
Bombay (Presidency) 

Bombay 

Sind . 

Aden . 
Burma 

Central Provinces and 
Beritr 

Central Provinces 

Berar . 
Coorg 
Madras 



Area in 

square miles 

(1911) 



2,711 

8,148 

53,015 

54,228 

78,699 

83,181 

42,861 

18,743 

27,077 

123,059 

78,998 

46,986 

80 

230,839 

99,828 

82,037 

17,766 

1,582 

142,380 



Population 
in 1011 



501,395 

26,459 

6,713,635 

414,412 

45,483,077 

84,490,184 

28,762,969 

5,181,753 

5. 605,302 

19,672,648 

16,113,042 

8,513,485 

46,106 

12,115,217 

18,910,808 

10,869.146 

8,067,162 

174,976 

41,405,404 



Population 
in 1901 




11,971,452 

9,217,486 

2,764,016 

180,607 

88,229,654 



Increase or 
Decrease 
1901-1911 



+ 24,488 

+ 1,810 

+ 871,757 

+ 32,806 

+ 8,841.600 

+ 1,247,801 

+ 892,757 

+ 140,611 

! 70t,tM 

i l,Ua,8M 

+ 80S, 270 

+■ 302,556 

+ 9,191 

+ 1,624,698 

+ 1,944,856 

+ 1,641,710 

+ 803,146 

- 5,031 

+ 3,175,750 



Pop. \,tr 

sq. mile 

1911 



185 
8 
127 
S 
578 
416 
561 
873 
207 
160 
21 o 

ll 

577 
.VJ 

139 

178 

111 
291 



AREA AND POPULATION 



121 



British Provinces 



ArM in 
square miles 

mi 



Population 
in 1911 



Population 

in l.«.l 



Increase or Pop. par 
Derirase »q. mile 
1901-1911 1911 



North-West Frontier 

ProTince l 
Punjab 
United Provinces 

Agra . 

Oudh . 



13,418 
99,779 

vn,m 

£3,109 
24,158 



2,196.933 2,041,534 + 155.399 

20,530.387 - S55,3«l 

47,182, 044 ; 47,«94,2T7 - 510,233 

84.U24 .040 | 84,869,109 - 286,069 

12,558,004 12 633, 168 - 276,164 



164 
200 
440 
417 
MO 



Total Provinces 1,098,074 244,207,542 ! 231,605,940 |+ 12,«61,«0? 223 



1 DistricU and Administered Territories. 



In 1901 the population consisted of 117,653,127 males and 113,952,818 
females; in 1911, of 124,873,691 males and 119,393,851 females. 

The following Indian State* are in political relations with the Indian 
GoTernment : — 



State or Agency 


Area in 

square miles 

1911 


Population . 
1911 


1W1 , 1901-1911 

i 


Pop. per 
sq. mile 

1911 


Assam State (M anipur) 


8,456 


346,222 


1 
284,465 \+ 


•1.75T 


41 


Baluchistan 8tates . 


80.410 


420,291 


428,640 - 


8.349 


5 


Baroda State . 


8,182 


2,032.796 


1,952,692 + 


80,106 


348 


Bengal States . 


5.893 


Mf i* r 


740.299 + 


-;.•- 1 


16* 


Bihar and Orissa States . 




3,945,209 


3.314 


89 ,794 


138 


Botnbar States . 


($,864 


7,411,675 


6,908.559 + 


503,116 


116 


Central India Agencv 


TT t W 


•.S6*,980 




859,175 


121 


Central Provinces States . 


31,174 


2.117,002 


1,631..- 


4>- HI 


68 


Hyderabad State 


82,6 « 


13,374,676 


11,141,142 ,+ 2,23S,534 


162 


Kashrmi State . 


$4,432 


3,:; 


2,905,578 + 


252.548 


37 


Madras States . 


10,549 


4,811,841 


4.1S- 




456 


Cochin 


1,361 


918,110 


813,035 + 


100486 


675 


Travancore 


I "-604 


3,428,975 


2,953,157 + 


476,811 


462 


- 1 -<tate 


29,475 


5,806.193 


5,589,399 ,+ 


266,794 


197 


N'.W. Frontier Province 












(Agencies A Tribal areas) 


25,472 


1,622.094 


■ 


M 


Punjab States . 


36,551 


4. -212,794 


4,424.' 


311,604 


115 


Rajiutana Agency . 


128,987 


10,530.432 


9,853,366 + 


677,066 


83 


Sikkiiu State . 


2,818 


tt,t*> 


89,014 !+ 


MUMfl 


81 


United Provinces States . 


5,079 


utjtm 


802,097 + 


2V.93.- 


164 


Total States 


709.555 


70,888,854 


62.755,116 + 8,133,738 


101 


Total India . 


1,802,629 


315,156,896 


294,861,056 +20,795,840 


175 



Baroda. — This consists of fire or six larger, and a considerable number of 
smaller separate areas. Ruler, H.H. Sir Sayaji Rao Gaekwar, G.C.S.I., 
OC I.E., Maharaja of Baroda. There is an executive council of the 
principal officers of State, and, since 1908, a legislative council of 17 
members. Educational policy is progressive, and education is largely free 
and compulsory. In 1913 there were 3,045 educational institutions, and 
207,918 scholars. The gross receipts in 1917-18 were about 1,68,10,000 
rupees, and the disbursements about 1,49,05,000 rupees. 



122 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

Central India Agency. — This includes some 150 States. The bulk 
of the population are Hindus. The Indian Government is represented by an 
Agent at Indore, and under him is the Resident at Gwalior, and Political 
Agents for Baghelkhand, Bundelkhand, Bhopal, Southern States of 
Central India, and Malwa. The territories of the different States are much 
divided and intermingled, and their political relations with the Indian 
Government and with one another are very varied. Most of the ruling 
princes and chiefs exercise authority through a Diwan or Minister. 
Education is progressing, but varies greatly in different States. The annual 
revenue of the wtiole group is approximately 2,500,0002. 

Hyderabad. — Ruler, Lieutenant-fieneral H.E.H. Sir Usman Ali Khan, 
G.C.S. 1., G. B.E., Nizam of Hyderabad. This is the largest and most 
populous of the internal States The administration is carried on, 
subject to the order of H.E.H. the Nizam, hy an executive council. A Legis- 
lative Council was established in 1893, and consists of about 20 members. 
The British Government is represented by a Resident. The bulk of the 
population are Hindus, but the ruling family is Muhammadan. European 
officers and experts control and supervise some of the more important branches 
of administration. The annual revenue is approximately 3,000,0002. 

Kashmir. — This State occupies most of the northernmost portion of 
India, and is administered by Lieutenant-General H.H. Maharaja Sir Pratap 
Singh, G.O.S.I., G.C.I.E., G B E., Maharaja of Jammud and Kashmir, with 
the assistance of ministers, the Indian Government being represented by a 
Resident. The revenue in 1917-18 was 903,0002., and the expenditure 
859.0002. The bulk of the population are Muhammadans, though the ruling 
family is Hindu. 

Mysore. — Ruler, Colonel H.H. Maharaji Sri Sir Krishnaraja Wadiyar 
Bahadur, G.C S.I., G. B.E. . Maharaja of Mysore. The administration is 
carried on under him by the Diwan or Prime Minister, assisted by two 
Councillors. -The Indian Government is represented by a Resident. There 
is a Representative Assembly dating trom 1881, elected by the leading ryots, 
merchants, and local bodies. It meets for a few days annually for discussion, 
but has no powers. A Legislative Council was formed in 1907 consisting of 
from 13 to 18 members. The bulk of the population are Hindus. The 
education system is on a high level. Primary education was made free in 
all schools in 1908. The revenue in 1917-18 was 2,97,32,000 rupees, and 
the expenditure 2,76,70,000 rupees. 

North West Frontier Province. — Only about one-third of this is British 
territory, lying along the Punjab border. Between this and the Afghan 
frontier is the tribal territory. The British Government exercises the 
minimum of interference. The region is divided into five Political Agencies : 
Northern Waziristan, Southern Waziristan, the Kurram, the Khyber, and Dir, 
Swat, and Chitral. Only in the last can anything approaching an organised 
State be said to exist. Free primary education was introduced in April, 1912. 

Rajputana Agency. — Rajputana includes 21 States surrounding the 
British province of Aimer- Merwara. The Indian Government is represented 
by an Agent at Abu, and under him are three Residents (for Mewar, Jaipur, uud 
W. Rajputana), and three Political Agents (for E. Rajputana, S. Rajputana, 
Kotah and Jhalawar, and Haraoti andTonk). The bulk of the population 
are Hindus. The administration varies considerably from State to State, but 
generally the central authority is in the hands of the ruling prince or chief, 
who is usually assisted by a Council or by a Diwan or Kamdar. Education 



AREA AND POPULATION 



123 



is generally backward. The approximate annual revenue of the whole of 
the States is about 2,500,000/. 

(Baluchistan and Sikkira are dealt with elsewhere.) 
The following are further details concerning some of the larger Indian 
States:— 



Statu 



Ares in 
square 

miles 



Jammu & Kashmir . 84, 432 



Approximate 
Population An' nal 

1911 Revenue 

£ 



Raj pu tana States : 
Alwar 

Bharatpur . 
Bikaner 

Bundi 

Dholpur . 
Jaipur 

Jaisaliner . 

Jodhpur (Marwar) 

Karanli 

Kotah 

Tonk . 

Udaipur (Mewar) 

Central India States 
Bhopal 
Gwalior 
Indore 
Rewa . . I 

Bombay States 
Cutch 

Kolhapur (includ- 
ing feudatory ; 
Jagirs) 
Khairpur (Sind) . i 
Junagarh . 
Navanagar . j 

Bhavnagav 



128,987 - 
3,141 

1,982 j 
23,315 j 

2,220 

1,155 ; 
15,579 , 

16,062 

34,963 

1,242 * 

5,684 

2,553 
12,756 

77,367 
6,902 

25,107 
9,469 

13,000 

63,864 
7,616m 



3,217 

6,050 ' 

3,284 ; 

3,791 I 

2,860 ! 



3.158,126 

10,530,432 
791,688 

558,785 
700,983 

218,730 

263,188 
2,636,647 

88,311 

2,057,553 

146,587 

639,089 

303,181 
1,293,776 

9,356.980 
730,383 
3,093,082 
1,004,561 
1,514,843 

7,411,675 
513,429 



833,441 
223,788 
434,222 
349.400 
441,367 I 



903,000 

2,539,000 
232,000 

210,000 
220,000 

46,000 

80,000 
533,000 

14,000 
440,000 

40,000 

224,000 

130,000 
176,000 

2,497.000 
200,000 
905,000 
420,000 
187,000 

2,900,000 
167,000 



382,000 
100,000 
190,000 
151,000 
287,000 



Ruling Family 



Dogra Rajput 
(Hindu) 

Naruka Rajput 

(Hindu) 
Jit ( Hindu) 
Rathor Rajput 

(Hindu) 
Chauhan (Hara) 

Rajput (Hindu) 
Jat (Hindu) 
Kachhwaha Rairmt 

(Hindu) 
JadonBhati Rajput 

(Hindu) 
Rathor Rajput 

(Hindu) 
Jadon Rajput 

(Hindu) 
Hara Rajput 

(Hindu) 
Pa than, M. 
Sisodiya Rajput 
(Hindu) 

Afghan, M. 
Mahratta (Hindu) 

Ditto 
Bhagel Rajput 
(Hindu) 

Jadeja Rajput 
(Hindu) 

Kshatriva (Hindu) 
M. 



.V=Muhamma<lan. 
1 Excluding the Kunn of Cutch. 



124 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 





Area in 




Approximate 




States 


square 
miles 


Population 
1011 


Annual 
Revenue 

£ 

1,139,000 


Ruling Family 


Madras States 


10,084 


4,811,841 




Travancore 


7,129 


3,428,975 


761,000 


Kshatriya (Hindu) 


Cochin 


1,361 


918,110 


254,000 


Ditto 


Banganapalle 


255 


39,344 


17,000 


Shiah, M. 


Pudukkottai 


1,178 


411,886 


101,000 


Kallar (Hindu) 


Sandur 


161 


13,526 


6,000 


Maratha (Hindu) 


Central Prov. States 


31,174 


2,117,002 


154,000 




Bastar 


13,062 


433,310 


24,000 


Kshatri, Somvan- 
shi Chandel 
(Hindu) 


Bengal, Bihar and 










Orissa, and As- 










sam States 


45,941 


5,226,954 


622,000 





Bengal States 










Cooch Behar 


1,307 


592,952 


164,000 


Kshatriya 
(Brahmo) 


Tripura 


4,086 


229,613 


112,000 


Kshatriya (Hindu) 


U.P. States : 


5,944 


1,178,972 


396,000 





Rampur 


899 


531,217 


240,000 


Pathan(Shiah. M. ) 


Tehn (Garhwal) 


4,180 


300,819 


44,000 


Kshatriya (Hindu) 


Benares 


865 


346,936 


112,000 


Hindu 


Punjab States : 


36,551 


4,212,794 


1,380,000 





Patiala 


5,412 


1,407,659 


488,000 


Sidhu Jat (Sikh) 


Bahawalpur 


15,000 


780,641 


182,000 


Daudputra, M. 


Jind . 


1,259 


271,728 


87,000 


Sidhu Jat (Sikh) 


Nabha 


928 


248,887 


103,000 


Sidhu Jat (Sikh) 


Kaptirthala 


630 


268,188 


167,000 


Ahluwalia (Sikli) 


Mandi 


1,200 


181,110 


39,000 


Rajput (Hindu) 


Sirraur (Nahan) . 


1,198 


138,520 


57,000 


Rajput (do.) 


Chamba 


3,216 


135,873 


34,000 


Rajput (Hindu) 



M = Muliammadan. 

The following table, in millions, applies to India, British territory and 
Indian States, in 1911 : — 



Unmarried. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


Total. 


Males . . . . 78-4 
Females . . . | 52 '5 


72-9 87 
737 26 4 


160-0 
152-6 



Total Population classified by age and civil condition 



812*8 



AREA. AND POPULATION 



125 



II. Population according to Language, &c 

The following table shows, for all India in 1911, th« chief linguistic families and 
sub-families with the population (in millions) assigned hereto i — 



i. Vernaculars of India : 
Austro- Asiatic family — 

Mon-Khmer 

Munda 
Tibeto-Chinese family— 

Tibtto-Barman . 

Siamese-Chinese 



Dravidian family . 68*74 
Indo-European family — 

0-56 • Aryan I 288-82 

S&5 Unclassed languages 0*03 

B. Vernaculars of other Asiatic 

10-93 countries and Africa Ml 

2-04 C. European languages . 32 



The following are the languages more prevalent than English, with the population 
in 19U (in millions and two decimals) who speak them: — 



Languages 


Pop. 


Hindi . 


88-00 


Bengali 


48-37 


Telugu 


38-54 


Marithi 


: 19-81 


Tamil. 


1S-13 


Punjihi 




R liasthani . 


1407 


Western Hindi 


14-04 


Gujarat i 


10*68 


Kanarsse 


1053 


Oriya . 


10-16 



BjtJSjSBTSjrsl 



Malayalam . 
Western Panjabi 
Bindhl 

E s s t tg u Hindi 
SasUii 
Pashto 
Assamese . 
Gond . 

Western Pahari 
Kashmiri 




tsjsj | .»--- 



Pop. 



Karen . 


1-6T 


Shan . 


0-90 


Knrukh or Orion 


•-80 


Mundari 


0-60 


Tulu . 


0*66 


Khand or Kni 


©"ft* 


Baloch 


0-30 


Ho . 


•-42 


Bihari 


0-40 


Arakanese . 


0-39 


Manipuri . 


0-31 



The English langcags comes next in ordtr with 303,515. 



The British-born population was in 1S91 100,551, in 1901 9e*,653, in 1911 
122.919. In 1911, the total number of persons not horn in India, including the Prench 
and Portuguese possessions, was '650,502. Of these, 391.316 were from countries 
eoutUuous to India; 112,79*1, other countries in Asia; 122,919, the United Kingdom; 
13,076, European, American, or Australasian countries ; 10,394 born in Africa, Ac, or 
at sea. 

III. Occupations or the Population. 

Distribution of ths total population of India according to the occupations 
by which they were supported in 1911 : — 



- 


Thous. 


- 


i Thous. 


Pasture and agriculture . 


224,696 


Trade. ... 


17,839 


Fishing and hunting 


1,855 


Including — 




Mines, quarries, salt, Ae. 


530 


Hotels, cafes. Ac., and 




Industry 


55,323 




, 10,198 

1,277 


Including— 




Trad a in textiles ■ 


Textiles .... 


8.307 


Banks, exchange, insur- 




Dress and toilet 


7.T51 


ance. Ac. 


1,220 


Wood 


3.800 


Army and Nary 


6T0 


Food industries . 


3.712 


Police . 


1.729 


Ceramics .... 


2,240 


' Public administration 


5,648 
a. 82". 


Building indnstries 


2,062 


i Professions and liberal arts 


Metals .... 


1,861 


Including : Religion . 


juta 


Chemicals, Ac. . 


1.242 


Instruction 


674 


Hides, skins, Ac 


M 


Medicine . 


627 


Transport (including postal, 




> Domestic service 


4,599 


telegraph, and telephone 




Ail others .... 


13,227 


services) 


5,029 






Tots! 


313,470 



126 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

IV. Movement of the Population. 

The ratio of births and deaths in British India per thousand of the popu- 
lation under registration is officially recorded as follows : — 





Birth rates ' 


Death rates 1 










1918 1919 


1918 


1919 


Delhi ...... 


47-92 45 8 


93-47 


42-0 




32-9 27-5 


3S-1 


36-2 


United Prove, of Agra &Oudh. 


39-89 32-39 


82-37 


41-69 




39-6 40-3 


SO -96 


28-3 


Central Provinces and Berar . 


43-24 


34 31 


102-6 


43 24 




83-01 


29 89 


39-59 


81 09 




3498 


80-52 


461 


50-09 


Bihar and Orissa 


37-5 


30-4 


56-7 


40 




28-9 


25-5 


43-0 


27-2 




31-61 


27-9 


88-05 


32-53 


N.W. Front. Prov. . 


30-6 


28-6 


70-3 


28-6 




29-67 


26-35 


42-65 


35 36 


Ajmer-Merwara 


20-35 
35-35 


3004 


114-78 


28 67 


Total 


30-24 


62-46 


35-87 



1 The rates for the two years are calculated on the 1911 census population. 

The registered deaths in 1919 numbered 8,554,178, of which cholera 
accounted for 578,426; plague, 74,284: fevers, 5,468,181; dysentery and 
diarrhcea, 291,643. The total deaths from plague in all India (British and 
native) from 1896 to the end of 1918 exceeded 10 millions, averaging nearly 
half a million per year. 

The number of coolie emigrants from India was in 1915-16, 4,290; in 
1916-17, 6,339; in 1917-18, 869. The bulk went to Demerara, Trinidad, 
Jamaica, Fiji, and Surinam. The emigration of unskilled labour has been 
prohibited, and it has been decided not to revive indentured emigration. 
The question of the introduction of a system of assisted emigration is 
under consideration. 



V. Principal Towns. 
The urban population of India in 1911 was as follows : — 



Towns with 


No. 


Population 


Over 100,000 

50,000—100,000 .... 
20,000— 50,000 .... 
10,000— 20,000 .... 
5,000— 10,000 .... 
Under 5,000 .... 


80 

45 

181 

442 

848 
607 


7,075,782 
3,010,281 
5,545,820 
6,163,954 
5,944,503 
2,007,888 


Total 


2,158 


29,748,228 



AREA AND POPULATION 



127 



The population (1911) 



Town* 


Population 


Calcutta 1 (with 


suburbs) 


1,222,313 


Bombay . 


979,445 


Madras . 


518,660 


Hyderabad 


500.623 


Rangoon 


293,316 


Lucknow 


259,793 


Delhi . 


232,837 


Lahore . 


22- 


Ahmedabad 


216,777 


Benares . 


203,804 


Bangalore 2 


189,485 


Agra 


185,449 


Cawnpore 


178,557 


Allahabad 


171,697 


Poona 


158,856 


Amritsar 


152, 


Karachi . 


151,903, 


Mandalay 


138,2991 


Jaipur . 


137,098 


Patna . 


136,153 


Madura . 


134,130 


Bareilly . 


129,462 


Srinagar . 


. 126,344 


Trichinopoly 


123,512 


Meerut . 


116,227 


Surat 


114,868 


Dacca 


108,551 



of the principal towns of India was as 


ollows : — 


Towns 


Population 


Towni 


Population 


Nagpur . 


101,415 


Tanjore . 


60,341 


Jubbulpore 


100,651 


Negapatam 


60,168 


Baroda . 


99,345 


Farukhabad 


59,647 


Multan . 


99,243 


Jodhpur . 


59,263 


Peshawar 


97,935 


Salem 


59,152 


Rawalpindi 


86,483 


Muttra . 


58,183 


Ajmer 


86,222 


Moulmein 


57,582 


Moradabad 


81,168 


Gorakhpur 


56,892 


Ambala . 


. 80,131 


Cuddalore 


56,574 


Calicut . 


78,417 


Bhopal . 


56,204 


Hyderabad 




Bikaner . 


55,826 


( Bombay) 


Fvzabad 


54,655 


Imphal 
Bhagalpur 


. 74,650 


Cocanada 


54,110 


74,349 


Shikapur 


53,944 


Rampur . 


. 74,316 


C"njeeveram 


. 53,864 


Shahjahanpur 


71,778 


Cut tack . 


52,528 


Mysore . 


71,306 


Ferozepore 


50,836 


Jhansi . 


70,208 


Bhatpara. 


50,414 


Jullundur 


69,318 


Gaya 


49,921 


Sialkot . 


64,869 


Kolhapur 


48,122 


Aligarh (Koil) 


64,825 


Coimbatore 


47,007 


Kumbakonam 


64,647 


Patiala . 


46,974 


Trivandrum 


63,561 


Lashkar . 


46,952 


Saharanpur 


62,850 


Jamnagar 


. 44,887 


Darbhanga 


, 62,628 


Alwar 


41,305 


Hubli . 


61,440 


Bellary . 


34,956 


Sholapur 


61,345 


Mirzapur 


. 32,332 


Bhavnagar 


60,694 







1 Includes Howrah ; excluding it the figure is 1,043,307. 

2 Include* Civil and Military Station (100.S34) 



128 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



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INSTRUCTION 



129 



Of the Christians the following are the chief sub-divisions (1911 census): — 



Denomination 


Persons 


Denomination 


Persons 


Roman Catholic* . 


1,490,863 


ConcregBtionalist . 


'.S.MS 


Anglican* 


. 


Salvationist . 


NMM 


Presbyterians 


181, 


Other Protestants . 


45,894 


Baptists 


337,226 


l ( Romo-SjTian) . 


413,142 


Lutheran 


. 1 218,500 


svrian (others) 




Methodists . 


171.844 


Armenians. Greeks, etc. 


i i. 4 



Instruction. 



The following statistics are those of the census of 191] 




Able to read and Unable to read and 
write write 


Total 


Males 16,938,668 143,480,620 

Females . . 1,600,763 397,030 

15.539,431 294,877,650 


■288 
152,997,793 
313,417,0s! 1 



i This number fails short of the total population of British India by 1,739,315 persons 
enumerated in tracts where literacy was not recorded. 

The persons with a knowledge of English numbered 1*7 millions. 

Educational institutions in India are of two claaaes : — (a) those in which 
the course of study conforms to the standards prescribed by the Department 
of Public Instruction or by the Universities, and either undergo inspection 
by the Department, or regularly present pupils at the public examinations 
held by the Department or Universities. These institutions are called 
" Public," but may be under public or private management. (6) Those that 
do not fulfil these conditions. These are called "Private." As regards 
public institutions, the system of education operates, in general, through 
(i) the Primary Schools, which aim at teaching, through the vernacular 
languages, reading, writing, and other elementary knowledge ; (ii) the 
Secondary Schools, in which the instruction does not go beyond the matricu- 
lation or school-leaving certificate standard. The schools are divided into 
English or vernacular, and also into high and middle schools ; (ii 
Colleges, the students in which, having passed matriculation, are reading 
for a degree. The colleges are affiliated to the six universities — Calcutta, 
Madras, Bombay, the Punjab, Allahabad, and Patna. New universities 
have been established at Dacca, Lucknow, and Rangoon. There is also the 
Hindu University at Benares, and a university for the Mysore State. An 
Act has been passed in the Imperial Legislative Council (September, 1920), 
for the establishment of a Muslim University at Aliearh. Some statistics 
for the universities in 1919 are given in th* following table :— 





Number of Candidates for Examinations in 1919 in 


University 


founded ! Masters of Bachelors 
Arts and of Arts and 
Science Science 


Intermediate 

Examinations w. u _ J ., ! .. 
in Arts and Matncr.lav on 

Science 


Calcutta .... 

Madias .... 

Bombar .... 

Allahabad 

Punjab .... 

Patna 

Benares 

Mysore 


1857 ; 3,844 

81(a) , 3.459(a) 

4 ; . 1,189 

145 1,557 

i 113 1,435 

1917 23 471 

1917 SO 110 

1916 15 


7,816 15,83') 
3.794(a) 16(6) 
1,366 3,785 
2.006(a) 3,094 
1,808 6.194 
1,041 3,275 
179 ?' 



(a) No examinations in tt.Se. or B.Sc. or I.Sc. 
(6) There is a School Final Examination al«o. 
NoT*._Caudidates from Indian States and Ceylon are not included in the above table 



130 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

There are in addition, various institutions of a special character, such 
as technical schools teaching arts and industries, engineering, &c. ; law- 
schools ; medical schools and colleges ; and training colleges and normal 
schools for the training of teachers. 

The following table gives the number of institutions and scholars in 1918-19 
in British India, including Ajmer-Merwara, British Baluchistan, and Civil 
and Military Station of Bangalore : — 



- 


Institutions for 


Scholars 


Males 


Females 


Males Females 


General Education : 
Secondary 

Spscial schools . . 




193 

7,427 

129,803 

3,404 


16 

722 

20,468 

297 


62,727 1,103 

1,103,234 108,899 

4,821,611 1,119,871 

110,557 10,661 


Private institutions 




33,169 


525,020 1 72,894 


Total . 


173,996 23,351 


6,628,146 1,318,428 


Grand Total 


197,347 


7,936,577 



The " special" schools include (1918-19) 703 training schools for masters, 
with 17,600 scholars ; 114 for mistresses, with 3,100 scholars ; 8 schools of 
art, with 1,400 scholars ; 2 law schools, with 62 scholars ; 27 medical schools 
with 4,600 scholars ; 17 engineering and surveying schools, with 1,000 
scholars; 272 technical and industrial schools, with 13,500 scholars ; 79 
commercial schools, with 4,400 scholars ; 4 agricultural schools with 64 
scholars ; 6 reformatory schools with 1,150 scholars ; and 2,469 other schools 
with 74,400 scholars. 

The following table shows the number of institutions and scholars, and 
expenditure on public education, in the several provinces in 1918-19: — 



Province 



Public Institutions 



Institutions Scholars 



Madras . . 

Bombay 

Bengal 

United Provinces 

Punjab 

Burma 

Bihar and Orissa 

Central Provinces aud 

Berar 
Assam 
North-west Frontier 

Province . 
Coorg . 
Delhi . 

Ajmer-Mtrwara . 
llritieh lialuchistan 
Bangalore . 

Total . 



32,879 
12,679 
49,223 
14,002 
6,767 
9.23S 
26,752 

4,751 
4,680 

726 
100 
170 
174 
73 
110 



lliL', 880 



1,583,087 
797,406 

1,862,320 
848,049 
431,628 
377,191 
789,096 

347,747 

215,448 

42,637 
8,023 

V-',304 
8,857 
8,620 

11,178 



7,338,663 



Private Institutions 



Institutions 



4,003 
1,514 
2,478 
8,967 
2.198 
17,862 
1,961 

68 
270 

330 

9 

71 

99 

175 

6 



85,017 



Scholars 



109,864 

«9,209 
76,680 
45,572 
195,717 
3?,044 

1,990 
9,267 

5,723 
166 
2,994 
3,534 
2,499 
102 



597,914 



Expenditure 

on 
Education. 



£ 

1.053,453 

1,801,211 

1,850,509 

1,149,H8 

826,818 

514,036 

51'3,430 

391,859 

17S.877 

MjM 

7,748 
17,191 

88,785 

11.044 
33,987 



S,657,588 



The following was the educational expenditure for " public " institutions 



JUSTICE AKD CRIME 131 

in certain years, more than half from fees and provincial resource*, the 
rest from local rates, municipal funds, endowments, kc. : — 



1918-H 


1914-15 


1915-16 


1918-17 


191 : 


1918-19 


£ 
6,696,585 


£ 
7,296,291 


7,407,968 


i 

7,525,538 


7,880,609 


£ 
' 8,657,53? 



A system of State Scholarships exists by which it is possible for a boy 
to pass from the village school to the University. There are also State 
Technical Scholarships : and Indian Government Sehola every year) 

to Indian graduates to enable them to pursue their studies at a British 
University. 

Notwithstanding the recent great progress of education, the proportion 
able to read and write is still very small. 

During 1918 the following newspapers and periodicals were published: 
in Madras 254 ; Bombay, 140 ; Bengal, 353 ; United Provinces, 
359 ; Punjab, 264 ; Burma, 35 ; Bihar and Orissa, 59 ; Central Provinces and 
Berar, 29 ; Delhi, 28. They were published in the following languages or 
dialects English, Bengali, Hindi, Uriya, Kanarese, Sindhi, Sanskrit. Burmese, 
Chinese Urdu, Persian, Gujrathi, Marathi, Karen, Pwo-Kai Karen, 

Tamil, Telegu, Malayalam, Arabic, Hindustani, Khasi, Lnshai, Ajmer. 
Merwara, and Gurmukhi. (The figures include bilingual and polylingual 
publications. ) 

Justice and Crime. 

The Presidencies of Madras, Bombay, and Bengal, and also the United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the province of Bihar and Orissa, and the 
provinces of the Punjab and Delhi, have each a supreme high court, with 
12, 8, 15, 9, 3, 7 and 8 judges, respectively, in 1920. There is appeal to 
the Privy Council in England. The Central Provinces and Berar, 
Oudh, North-West Frontier Province, Coorg, Sind, Upper Burma, and 
Chota Nagpur have judicial commissioners. Lower Burma has a chief court 
with rive judges (in 1930). For Assam the high court of Calcutta is the 
highest judicial authority. Below these courts are, for criminal cases, Courts 
of Session, and below these, Courts of Magistrates (first, second, and third 
class). The inferior civil courts are determined by special acts or regulations 
in each province. The most extensive system consists of the sessions judge 
acting as a ' District Judge '; subordinate judges ; and below them ' Munsifs'. 
There are also numerous special courts to try small causes. Side bv side with 
the civil courts there are revenue courts, presided over by officers charged 
with the duty of settling and collecting the land revenue. 

The number of officers exercising civil and criminal jurisdiction on 
December 31, 1918, was as follows : — 





Courts 


Civil 


Criminal 


Total 


Provincial 
District 
Subordinate . 




M 
1,570 


200 

■M 
7,460 


1,621 
9,030 


Total 




. ; 


8,540 


10,947 



K 2 



132 THE BRITISH EMPIRE J — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

Nearly all the civil judges, and the great majority of the magistrates, 
in the courts of original jurisdiction are natives of India ; in Bengal, 
Madras, and Bombay the proportion of natives in the appellate court is 
considerable. 

The following table gives certain details of criminal cases (in 
thousands) : — 



Persons 


1913 


1914 


1915 

2,086 
997 
760 
181 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Under trial 
Convicted . 
Of whom, fined . 
,, imprisoned. 


2,141 
988 
768 
165 


2,120 
993 
767 
172 


2,098 

1,009 

790 

173 


2,038 
987 
771 
161 


1,930 
919 
714 
164 



The civil police in 1918 were 203,359 in strength. 
Number of prisoners in gaol at the end of the years quoted 



Prisoners 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


Male . 
Female 


109,408 
2,607 


119,494 
2,793 


113,068 
2,660 


112,865 
2,745 


119,410 
2,748 


117,573 
2,562 


Total . 


112,015 


122,287 


115,728 


115,610 


122,158 


120,135 



The number of civil suits instituted in 1918 was 2,160,415. 

Finance. 

(Rs. 15 =£1). 



Tears 

ended 

March 

31 



1914 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 



Revenue 



Expenditure charged to Revenue 



In India 



ilmperiaHJ^n 



£ 1,000 
53,361 
52,685 
64.810 
77.088 
83,709 
86,857 



£1,000 
30,989 
31,074 
82,868 
33,525 
38,320 
39,620 



In 
England 



£1,000 

857 

705 

877 

2,049 

3,229 

9,198 



Total 



£ 1,000 
85,207 
1-4,414 
98,050 
US 66S 
123,258 
135,570 



In India 



Imperial i^SaH 



In 
England 



£1,000 
81,594 
34,419 
37,063 
44,985 
67,129 
78,557 



£1,000 
80,989 
81,074 
32,303 
88,625 
36,820 
80,(80 



£1,000 
20,818 

20,109 
21,146 
26,065 

27.M7 



£1,000 
89,896 

8.'.,602 
90,572 
104.r,7.". 
127.07S 
145,644 



1 The revenue retained by the Government in India for its own purposes und for 
meeting the expenditure incurred by the Secretary of State in England is deaetlbed us 
'Imperial,' while that assigned to the local Governments is 'Provincial.' The expen- 
diture is similarly classified. The 'Imperial' revenue is at present mainly derived 
from land revenue, opium, salt, stamps, excise, customs, income-tax, tributes, 
post oftice and telcgraphR, railways, Irrigation, mint, military services, &c. The 'Pro- 
vincial' revenue is mainly derived from laud revenue, stamps, excise, income-tax, 
forests, registration, irrigation, civil departments, &e. 



FINANCE 



133 



Since 1900-01 the budget estimates have been prepared on the basis of 
an exchange rate of 1*. id. for the rupee. 

The following table shows the items of revenue and expenditure for 1919-20 
(revised estimate) and 1920-21 (budget estimate) j — 



Revtnue 


Expenditure 


Heads of Revenue 


1919-20 


1920-1921 


Heads of 


1919-20 


1920-21 






Expenditure 






£ 


£ 




£ 


£ 


Land revenue 


22,090,800 


23,797,800 


Refunds, "| 






Opium 


2,990,Su0 


2,942,000 


compensa- .- 


2,705.600 


2,346,000 


Salt . 


3,764,000 


4,488,400 


tious, £c. J 






Stamps 


7,223,100 


7,607,500 


Charges of col- 1 
lection . / 


9,457,200 


11,344,100 


Excise 


12,752,300 


13,674,000 




Provincial rates. 


36,100 


37,400 


Interest 


8,934,200 


8,192,500 


Customs . 


14,919,600 


17,009,700 


Posts and Tele- \ 
graphs . J 


4,725,300 


6,073,500 


Income tax 


15,771,000 


11,390,400 




Forests 


3,659,800 


7J.900 


Mint . 


356,200 


258,200 


Registration 


723,800 


746. '200 


Civil salaries, 4c. 


25,845,000 


2S,29 r .,000 


Tribute 


026,000 


610,300 


Miscel. Civil > 
charges . ] 


6,498,200 


8,0H.70t 


Interest 


4,380,100 


4,051,000 


Posts and Tele- 






Famine relief \ 






graphs 


5,996,800 


6,184,200 


and insur- .- 


1,248,100 


1,000,000 


Mint . 


1,609,700 


679,500 


ance J 






Civil depart- 






Railways : Inter \ 
est and miscel-. 
laneous ch'ges ' 






ments 


2,157,400 


•2,079,500 


14,590,200 


15,284,100 


Miscellaneous . 


1,862,800 


0,27o,800 






Railways : Net 






Irrigation . 


4,231,200 


4,390,400 


Receipts 


21,377,300 


21,60S,700 


Other public 1 
works. j 


6,909,000 


9,104,100 


Irrigation . 


5,843,600 


5,945,200 




Other public 






Military services 


60,091,000 


41,519,500 


works 
Military receipts 


363 J00 


371,300 

1. 19,500 








7,14l|o00 


Total . 


145,591,800 


136,422,100 








Add- Allotments'* 
to Provincial. 
Gvts. unspentj 


757,300 




















Deduct— Portion 












of Provin. Ex- 












penditure de- 












frayed from 


705,000 


4,111,000 








Provincial bal- 












ances 
Total expenditure] 














Total revenue . 


135,570,000 


134,325,900 


charged against 
revenue - J 


145,614,100 


132,311,100 



In addition to the above, there is an estimated capital expenditure on State railways 
and irrigation works in 1919-2') of 9,336, OiOl., tnd 333.SO0/. initial expenditure on the new 
capital at Delhi. The estimated amounts in 1920-21 are 13,S52,lo0f. and 735.S001. respec- 
tively. There was also a capital charge of 100, 000,UO0J. in 1917-18, representing India's 
financial contribution to the war, which was met partly by making over to the British 
Government the proceeds of the Indian war loans raised in 1917 and 1918, and partly by 
taking over a portion of the British Government's war debt. 

The following table shows the receipts from the most important sources of revenue in 
recent years. 



134 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



Tear ended 
March 31 



1913-14 
1915-16 
1910-17 
1917-18 
1918-19 
1919-20 
1920-2 l« 



Land! Optum ' Salt 2 



£1,000 
21,392 i 
22,031 I 
22,041 I 
21,607 | 
21,090 
22.091 ' 
23,798 



£1,000 £1,000 
1,625 3,445 



1,914 
3,160 
3,079 
3,289 
2,991 
2,942 



3,648 
4,826^ 
5,499 
4,278 
3,754 
4.4SS 



Stamps I Excises! ° 



£1,000 
5,318 
5,434 
5,777 

5,728 
6,019 
7,223 

7,508 




£1,000 £1.000 £1,000 

8,894 ' 7,558 ' 1,050 

5,874 I 

8,659 ! 

11,036 

12,121 j 



8,632 
9,216 
10,162 
11,558 
12,752 
13,674 



2,090 
3,773 
6,3086 

7,758 



14,920 15,7717| 
17,010 11,3907| 



£1,000 
17,626 
17,977 
21,314 
24.048 
24,856 
21,377 
21,609 



Irrigation 



£1,000 
4,713 
4,779 
5,156 
5,064 
5,347 
5,S44 
5,945 



i Exclusive of Portion of Land Revenue due to irrigation. 

2 The salt duty was raised from March 1, 1916. 

3 The Excise revenue is derived from intoxicating liquors, hemp drugs, and opium con- 
sumed in the country. The bulk of the revenue comes from spirits. The excise systems 
and rates of duty vary from province to province. The receipts In the period shown have 
been adversely affected by war conditions. 

* Liquors, petroleum, sugar, tobacco, cotton manufactures, metals, manufactured articles, 
are the chief items from which the .customs revenue is derived. The duties un most articles 
except cotton goods were raised on March 1, 1916, and the duty on imported cotton goods in 
1917. further increases in duties were proposed in March, 1921. The import of silver 
bullion and coin except under licence was prohibited in July, 1917, but the prohibition 
was withdrawn during 1920-21. Under this head are also included the proceeds of export 
duties on rice, on jute (imposed in 1916 and raised in 1917), on tea (imposed in 1916), and 
on hides (imposed in 1919); and of excise duties on cotton manufactures, and on motor 
spirit (imposed in 1917). 

5 Includes the proceeds of a super-tax imposed in 1917. 

8 Estimates. 

7 Includes the proceeds of an excess profits duty imposed in April, 1919. 

Land Revenue. — The most important source of public income is the land. 
The land revenue is levied according to an assessment on estates or holdings. 
In the greater part of Bengal, and Bihar and Orissa, about one-fourth of 
Madras, and some districts of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the 
assessment was fixed permanently at the end of the 18th century ; while it is 
fixed periodically at intervals of from twelve to thirty years over the rest of 
India. In the permanently settled tracts the land revenue falls at a rate of 
13as. lOp. per acre of cultivated land. In the temporarily settled tracts, 
excluding areas under partial assessment or free from assessment, the land 
revenue averages Rl 13as. 4p. per acre of cultivated land, and in the case of 
privately owned lands, represents something less than one-half of the actual 
or estimated rental. For details as to the nature of the different tenures 
of land that prevail in India see the Year-Book for 1886, p. 799. See also 
under Agriculture. 

The land revenue was estimated to be contributed in 1919-20 as follows : — 



Administrations 
Burma .... 
Bihar and Orissa 
Central Provinces and Berar 
Assam .... 

Total 



Rs. 

3,79,47,000 
1,62,03,000 
2,19,03,000 

-.74,000 

83,13,61,000 
O.SOOt) 



Administrations Rs. 

India, General . . . 19,19,000 

N.W. Frontier Province . 20,70,000 

Madras 6,0«, 6 

Bombay 5,64,37,000 

Bengal 2,95,60,000 

United Provinces of Agra and 

Oudti .... 6,60.56,000 

Punjab 2,90,39,000 

Opium. — IuBritish territory the cultivation of tin' poppy for the) production 
of opium is practically confined to the United Provinces, and t ho manufacture 
of opium from this region is a State monopoly. The bulk of the opium 
exported is supplied direct to the Governments of consuming countries in the 
Far East, while a certuin quantity is also sold by auction in Calcutta at 
monthly sales. Ophim is also grown in many of the Native States of Rajputmia 
and Central India, which have agreed to conform to the British system. 



FINANCE 



135 



Army Expenditure. — The expenditure in recent years is given as follows: 



Tear ended March 31 



1914 
1915 
1916 

1917 



£ 

19.7S9.239 
20,336.559 
B,MMI I 
24.2C0.003 



Tear ended March SI 



1918 
1919 

1920 (Estimate) 

1921 (Estimate) 



£. 
2S. 003, 904 
42,907,293 
55,483,300 
BrUMM 



Debt. — The debt of British India, bearing and not bearing interest, was 
464,877,138*. at March 31, 1920, comprising 272,241,582*. in India, and 
192,635,556*. in England. 

Ont of India's contribution of 100,000,000*. to the cost of the war, 
77,274,000*. representing the proceeds of the Indian War Loans raised in 
1917 and 1918 have been paid to the British Government. 

Finance of Separate Governments, and Local Finance. — The revenue and 
expenditure of each Government in 1918-19 were as follows : — 



India (General) .... 
North-West Frontier Province 

Madras 

Bombav 

Bengal 

United Province* of Agra and Oudh 

Punjab 

Bnrma 

Bihar and Orissa .... 
Central Province! .... 

Assam 

In England 

Total . . 



Revenue 


Expenditure 


R*. 


Rs. 


62,40,67,607 


88,18,55,702 


66,26,856 


1,55,04,86$ 


19,22, 59,781 


9,96,43,158 


•26, 75.07,364 


12.M, 08,684 


25,52,34,107 


8,54,64,767 


12, 13,62.662 


10,23/0,146 


10,11,73,430 


7.12.? 


11,911,64,849 


7,04.^ 


4,77,09,200 


3,95,89,063 


4,44,70.472 


3,65. 01, 1*2 


2,09,t. 


1,89,63,714 


3,84,34,940 


35,44,42.42:. 



1,83,88,66.210 
.H.OSIZ.) 



1,90.61,72,296 
(127,078,U3I.) 



The above excludes the revenue and expenditure of municipalities and of 
district and local boards. The income of the former is derived mainly from 
rates, octroi, taxes on houses, lands, vehicles and animals, tolls, and assessed 
taxes; and of the latter from leases on land. The revenue for 1918-19 of 
all municipalities which bank with Government treasuries was 7,082,939*. 
The expenditure was 6,658,408*. The revenue of district and local boards 
was 6,161,328*., and the expenditure 5,524,534*. The following table shows the 
amounts for the chief administrations in 1918-19 (in thousands of rupees) : — 









Reven 


ue 


Expenditure 


— 


Munici- 


District 


Munici- 


District 


palities 


Boards 


palities 


Boards 


Madras ! 1,21,07 


2,39,28 


1,34,48 


2.04,81 


Bombay . 






2.98,76 


1,06,99 


3,09,99 


1,05,27 


Bengal . 






2,06,58 


1,09,14 


1.83,78 


1,05,39 


United Province* 






1.19,01 


1,35,78 


1,04,51 


1,17,80 


Punjab . 






I 84.55 


94.91 


70,85 


81,43 


Burma . 






l,0:,4t! 


69,83 


82,89 


58,65 


Bihar and Orissa 






33,60 


85,25 


33,17 


77,70 


Central Provinces 






44,55 


51,13 


40,71 


46,49 


Assam 6,18 


21,77 


i,W 


20,43 



136 THE BRITISH EMPIRE :— INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

Defence. 

The militaiy forces in India consist normally of the British Regular 
forces, the Native Army, the Volunteers, and the Imperial Service troops. 
They are administered by the headquarters staff and the Army department, 
both under the supreme control of the Commander-in-Chief, who is a member 
of the Viceroy's Council. The headquarters staff comprises the division of 
the Chief of the General Staff, the Adjutant General's division, the Quarter- 
Master-General's division, the medical division, the ordnance division, and 
the military works division. The Army department deals with supply and 
finance. For purposes of inspection and training the forces are organised 
into a Northern army and a Southern army, each army containing a number 
of divisions and independent brigades, whose commanders deal with head- 
quarters direct on most questions of administration. At the end of 1920 
this organisation was in process of change, the intention being to form four 
commands, in place of two. In September, 1920, the report of the Esher 
Committee on the organisation of the Indian Army was issued. Its chief 
recommendations are that the Chief of the Imperial General Staff should be 
the sole responsible military adviser of the Secretary of State for India, the 
Commander-in-Chief in India acting in the same capacity to the Govern- 
ment of India ; that a Military Council, analogous to the Army Council, 
should be formed to assist theCommander-in Chief, India ; that there should 
be facilities for interchange between officers of the Indian and British armies. 
There are also important recommendations aiming at improving the con- 
ditions of all ranks, British and Indian, serving in India. In December, 
1920, General Sir Charles Monro was succeeded as Commander-in-Chief, 
India, by General Lord Rawlinson. 

At the outbreak of war the strength of the Army in India, exclusive of 
the volunteers and the Imperial Service troops, but inclusive of reservists of 
the native army, was : British troops 76,953, native troops 239,561. The 
total number of native troops recruited during the war, up to the date of the 
armistice (November 11, 1918), was 1,161,789. In 1917 the Defence Force 
Act was passed by the Government of India, and by it compulsory service 
was applied to Europeans and British subjects between the ages of 16 and 50, 
and the Volunteers, who consisted of Europeans and Eurasians, were merged 
into the new Defence Force. In September, 1918, it was rendered liable to 
service overseas. It then numbered 50,000. The total number of 
British and Native troops sent from India overseas to France, East 
Africa, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Gallipoli, Salonica, Aden and the Persian 
Gulf up to the date of the armistice was 1,215,338. The approximate 
number of casualties amongst Indian ranks was 115,000. 

In September, 1920, the Defence Force Act was repealed, and the 
Auxiliary Forces Act and Indian Territorial Force Act became law. Under 
these Acts voluntary registration was substituted for compulsory registra- 
tion. Preliminary training for infantry to be 32 days, and 40 days for the 
other arms. An Auxiliary Officers' Corps is formed of those who served in 
the Great War. The Indian Territorial Force is designed to form a Beoood 
line to the Regular Army in India ; it is not liable to service overseas, and 
is to have its own staff. 

The Imperial Service troops are raised and maintained by Native States, 
and arc trained under the supervision of British officers. During the war 
great assistance in rabiug troops was afforded by the Indian Princes, m.niv 
of whom themselves served overseas. The Imperial Service troops were 
largely augmented, the Nepaul Durbar in particular supplied 200,000 
recruits for the Indian Army, 20 battalions of infantry, and maintained a 
reserve of 20,000 men in training. 



AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY 137 

At the end of 1920 the reorganisation of the British garrison of India 
was completed, the establishment being 75,896 men, but. the demobilisation 
of the Indian Army generally had been retarded both by trouble on the 
north-west frontier and by the delay in settling the Treaty of Peace with 
Turkey. Throughout 1920 operations continued on the north-west frontier, 
mainly against the Waziris ami the Mahsuda, At the end of the year, how- 
ever, the prospect that order would be at length restored in this disturbed 
district was good. During the summer of 1920 it l>ecame necessary to 
dispatch from India to Mesopotamia reinforcements equivalent to two Indian 
divisions, and at the end of 19^0 there were approximately 130,000 Indian 
troops serving outside India, mainly in the occupied areas of Turkey. 

In accordance with the reform of the constitution of the government of 
India, a number of substantive commissions in the Indian army are now 
granted to Indian officers who have done distinguidied service during the 
war, while honorary commissions are also given to Indian officers, who, 
though they have rendered distinguished service, are not eligible for 
substantive commissions through age or lack of education. Forty Indian 
genrlemen are now nominated annually to the Royal Military College, 
Smdhurst, to enable them to qualify for commissions in the Indian army, 
while 44 candidates are appointed to the training college at Indore, where 
thej are able to qualify for temporary commission*. 

Agriculture and Industry. 

Agriculture, Land Tenure, ttc- The chief industry of India has a] 
been agriculture. The total number of the population supported by agri- 
culture, including forestry and raising of livestock, was, according to the 
census of 1911, nearly 225 millions (178 millions in British India and 47 
millions in the Native States) out of a total population of 313 millions 
244 millions in British India and 69 millions in the Native States). In every 
province of India there is a Department of Land Records and a Department 
of Agriculture. There are staffs of experts in the provinces and there is an 
Imperial staff of experts with a fully equipped central station, Research 
Institute and College for post graduate training of those who have 
completed the Agricultural Course iu provincial colleges. There is also 
a Civil Veterinary Department for the prevention and cure of cattle diseases 
and for the improvement of the breeds of cattle, horses, &c. There is an 
Imperial Laboratory for research and the preparation of sera and antitoxins. 

In provinces where the zaminddrl tenure prevails (i.e., where single pro- 
prietors or proprietary brotherhoods possess large estates of several hundreds 
or thousands of acres), the State land revenue is assessed at an aliquot part 
(usually about one half) of the ascertained or assumed rental. The revenue 
is payable on each estate as a whole, the assessment remaining unchanged 
for the period of settlement. In the greater part of Bengal, and Bihar and 
Orissa, and in parts of the United Provinces and Madras the settlement 
is a permanent one and not liable to revision. In provinces where the 
raiyaticari (or ryotvari) tenure prevails (i.e., where each petty proprietor 
holds directly from the State, as a rule cultivates his own land, and has no 
landlord between himself and the Government), the revenue is separately 
assessed on each petty holding, and land revenue becomes payable at once 
(or after a short term of grace in the case of uncleared lands) on all exten- 
sions of cultivation. The raiyatwdri proprietor may throw up his holding, 
or any portion of it, at the beginning of any year after reasonable notice, 
whereas the zamindar or large proprietor engages to pay the revenue assessed 
upon him throughout the term of the settlement. 



138 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



The following table shows the land surveyed under the two types of 
tenure, and the land revenue assessed in 1918-19 : — 



Province 


Zamindari and Village 
Communities 


Raiya twirl, Ac. 


Area 
Surveyed. 


Population 
of Surveyed 


Revenue 


Area 
Surveyed. 


Population 
of Surveyed 


Revenue 
£ 




Acres 


Area 




Acres 


Area 


Bengal 


50,454,866 


44,588,115 


1,957,046 


_ 


Madras 


29,586,469 


11,979,339 


555, 9S9 


61,461,888 


29,426,065 


3,981,135 


Bombay 


8,910,279 


(a) 


(a) 


44,732,430 


15,133,597 


2,190,128 


8ind . 


— 


— 


— 


30,098,076 


3,513,435 


678,648 


Agra . 


52,996,987 


34,613,795 


3,298,016 


— 


— 


— 


Oudh . 


15,306,720 


12,558,004 


1,187,493 


— 


— 


— 


Bihar and Orissa 


52,802,785 


34,490,038 


1,087,138 











Punjab 


56,351,813 


19,554,295 


3,049,848 


— 


— 


— 


Upper Burma . 


— 


— 


— 


54,990,970 


4,112,894 


1,083,402 


Lower Burma . 


— 


— 


— 


55,206,000 


6,471,277 


2,235,913 


Central Provinces 


40,452,2S3 


10,872,772 


781,175 


12,140,2471 


(b) 


0>> 


Berar 


— 


— 


— 


11, 374,651* 


3,067,153 554,964 


Assam 


5,592,673 


(a) 


77,453 


25,712,901 


(3,713,635 4S3,845 


N.-W. Pron.Prov. 


8,437,801 


2,255,073 


170,320 


— 


— — 


Ajmer-Merwara . 


1,770,921 


501,395 


24,363 


— 


— 


Delhi . 


368,758 


412,821 


•26,102 


— 


— — 


Coorg 


— 


— 


— 


1,012,260 


174,976 : 25,351 


Pargami Manpur 


— 


— 


— 


31,346 


6,609 i 1,053 



(a) Included under Raiyatwari, &c. (b) Included under Zamindari. 

1 Includes 10,240,417 acres of Government Forest. 

2 Includes 2,130,209 acres of Government Forest. 

The following table shows the total acreage under the chief crops and 
the production in three years : — 



Name of crops 


1917-18 


1918-19 


1919-20 
Provisional 




Area Sown 


Yield 


Area Sown 


Yield 


Area Sown 


Tield 




Acres 


Tons , 


Acres 


Tons 


Acres 


Tons 


Rice . 


80,342,000 


36,228,000 


77,019,000 


24,201.000 


78,394,000 


34,199,000 


Wheat i . 


35,487,000 


9,922,000 
Bales 


23,798,000 


7,608,000 
Bales 


29,976,000 


10,092,000 
Bales 


Cotton i . 


25,299,000 


4.065,000 
Tons 


21,038,000 


3,978,000 


29,063,600 


5,845,000 








Tons 




Tons 


Linseed, pure . 


3,102,000 


398,000 


1,668,000 


176,000 


2,541,000 


328,000 


„ mixed 


695,000 


117,000 


321,000 


59,000 


560,000 


105,000 


Rape & mustard 














pure 
„ mixed 


4,811,000 


750,300 


3,044,000 


4*4,700 


3,580,000 


671,800 


2,815,000 


405,000 


1,848,000 


388,000 


2,480,000 


503,000 


Sesamum, pure 


3,429,000 


314,000 


2,660,000 


240.000 


3,184,000 


376,000 


, mixed 


850,000 


67,000 


925,000 


88,000 


975,000 


98,000 


Groundnut 


1,936,000 


1,057,000 
Bales 


1,407,000 


626,000 
Bales 


1,570,000 


884,000 

l!;i!es 


Jute 2 


2,736,000 


8,867,200 
InCVt*.of Dye 


2,500,400 


6,955,700 
InCwta.of Dye 




:s,000 

In i nt a. of Dye 


Indigo 


710,200 


120.S00 
Tons 


296,700 


43,700 
Tons 


233,300 


Tons 


Sugarcane 


2,809,000 


8,312,000 

lbs. 


2,861,000 


2,859,000 
lbs. 


2,695,000 


2,989,000 
lbs. 


Tea . 


667,100 


371,296,300 676,500 


380,469,000 


691,800 


377,028,500 



i Including Native States. 

' Excluding Nepal, for which no estimate of irea or yield is available. The figures 
of imports from Nepal are, however, 92,000 bales in 1915, 70,000 in 1916, and 41,000 in 
1917, 73,000 in 1918, and 60,000 iu 1919. 

The total area cropped in British India in 1918-19 was 228,178,723 acres, 
and the net area (deducting areas cropped more than once) was 201,210,113. 



AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY 



139 



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140 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



Of the total area under irrigation in 1918-19, 21,198,000 acres were irri- 
gated by canals; 7,268,000 acres by tanks; 14,216,000 acres by wells: 
and 4,501,000 acres by other sources. State irrigation works accounted for 
25 million acres in 1918-19. The estimated value of crops grown on 
this area during the year amounted to about 92 6 millions sterling. In the 
case of irrigation works (as distinct from navigation canals), for which capital 
accounts are kept, the net revenue apart from charges for interest was 
3,756,600*. 

Livestock, in British India, census 1919-20 : oxen, 117,428,000 ; buffaloes, 
28,493,000; sheep, 21,984,000; goats, 24,134,000; horses and ponies, 
1,699,000 ; mules, 75,000 ; donkeys, 1,372,000 ; camels, 408,000. 

Forests. — The lands under the direct control of the State Forest Department 
are classified as ' Reserved Forests' (forests intended to be permanently main- 
tained for the supply of timber, &c, or for the protection of water supply, 
&c), ' Protected Forests,' and ' Unclassed ' forest land. The following table 
shows the extent of these areas in 1918-19 : — 



Bengal 

United Provinces .... 

Punjab 

Burma 

Bihar and Orissa .... 

Assam 

Central Provinces (including Berar). 

Coorg 

North-West Frontier Province . 

Ajmer 

Baluchistan (portions under Br. Ad.) 
An da mans and Nicobars . 

Madras 

Bombay (including Sind) 

Total .... 



Reserved 
Forests 
Sq. miles 



311 
109 
,336 
,747 
,495 
,64.0 
520 
236 
142 
313 
85 
,712 
,100 



Protected Unclassed 
Forests Forest land 
Sq. miles Sq. mile* 



101,639 



1,711 
1,101 
4,169 

1,089 



487 



8,557 



4,030 

61 

7«7 

116,829 

16,309 



472 
2,122 

682 



141,272 



Total 
Sq. miles 



10,629 

7,473 

7,045 

146,165 

2,836 

21,804 

111,645 

520 

236 

142 

785 

2,207 

19,394 

12,687 



251,468 



The net revenue from the State forests in 1919-20 was about 2,192,000?. 
(i.e., taking Rs. 10 to the 11., or at Rs. 15, 1,461,000*.). 

Industries. — The most important indigenous industry, after agriculture, 
is the weaving of cotton cloths. Other important indigenous industries are 
silk rearing and weaving, shawl and carpet weaving, wood-carving and metal- 
working. One of the most important industries connected with agriculture 
is the tea industry, the number of persons employed being about 972,000. 
The area under tea plucked in 1919-20 was about 643,000 acres, distributed ai 
follows: Assam, 389,700; Bengal, 163,200; Madras, 28,200; Punjab, 
9,700 ; Agra, 7,700; Bihar and Orissa, 2,100; Upper Burma, 1,700 : and the 
Travancore State, 40,700. The production in 1919-20 was about 377 million 
pounds, against about 381 million pounds in 1918-19. The exports of Indian 
tia from British India (including the State of Travancore) in 1919-20 
were:— to United Kingdom, 336,917,000 lb. ; Russia, 20,000 lbs. ; Canada, 
8,300,000 lb.; China, 161,000 lb.; Australasia, 7,783,000 lb.; Ceylon, 
1,721,000 1b.; Asiatic Turkey, 4,646,000 lb. ; United States, 6,594,000 lb. ; 
elsewhere (including exports across the land frontier), 15,892,000 lb. ; total, 
382,034,000 lb.; against 326,646,000 lb, in 1918-19. (The production 
figures for 1919 20 are provisional.) 



AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY 



141 



Some statistics of mills, factories, &c, in 1918 or 1918-19, are given as 
follows for British India (works or factories employing generally 50 persons 
or more are included in the statistics; :— 





Number of 

Mills, Factories, 

Ac 


Persons 

employed 

(daily 


Other information 




avenge) 








[Output: 581 mln. lb. yarn; 326 
J mln. lb. woven goods. Spindles. 
l 6,175,676. Looms, 108,059 
I Capital authorisedi. 17.327,000/. 


Cotton mills 


235 


207,669 














(Capital authorisedi, 9,S48,OOOJ. 
Looms, 40,043. Spindles. 
\ 839,919. 


Jute mill* .... 


7« 


175,500 








Woollen milli . 


6 


7,832 


/Capital authorisedi, 1,743,0001. 
{ Production, 8,801,000 lb. 
/Capital authorisedi, 327,000*. 


Paper mllli 


7 


5,405 


1 Production, 67,332,000 lb. • 


Government arms and 1 








ammunition factories, . 


14 


33,459 


— 


and arsenals . . . ' 








Breweries. 


16 


1,895 


Production, 8,214,000 gallons. 


Cotton ginning, clean- \ 








ing, and pressing mills J 


1,405 


100,981 




and factories. . ./ 








Dockyards 


14 


21,507 


— 


Iron and brass foundries . 


5A 


8,599 


— 


Iron and steel producingi 
works . . ./ 


o 


20,320 


- 


Jute presses 


12:. 




— 


Lac factories 


70 




— 


Petroleum refineries. 


8 




— 


Printing presies 


141 




— 


Railway workshops and\ 


86 


118 115 




other factories . f 








Rice mills. 


575 


47,724 


— 


Saw mills .... 


1M 


12.S16 


— 


Silk Filatures . 






— 


Sugar factories 


38 


10,157 


— 


Tile and brick factories . 


202 


22.49S 


— 


Engineering workshops . 


115 


25,567 


— 



1 So far as known. 



With regard to cotton spinning and weaving the following tahle gives 
some further details for India (including Indian States) : — 



Tear ended March 31 


Spindles 


Yarn 
production 


Looms 


Cloth 
production 








Lbs. 

09 2, 770,851 
651,903,307 
722,4X^579 

681,107,231 
660,575,015 
615,040.464 
035,760,245 


No. 

;,. *.= 
103,311 
10S.417 
110.- 
114.S05 
116,094 
(a) 




1914 . 

1915 . 

1916 . 

1917 . 
191S . 
1919 . 




No. 

6,620,576 
6,598,108 
'088 
6,670,162 
6,614,269 
0,590,918 
(a) 


Lbs. 

274.388,550 
277,005.900 
352,254,554 
377,728,816 
3Sl,404,170 
349,580,450 
383,846,936 


. 





(a) Complete figures not yet available. 

Companies. — On March 31, 1919, there were 2,789 joint stock companies 
incorporated in India, under the Indian Companies Act of 1913 and the 
Mysore Companies Regulation III of 1895 (repealed by Regulation VIII of 
1917), and in operation, with paid-up capital of 71,076,000*. (1/. -^Rs. 15). 



142 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

The following table shows the principal classes of these companies : — 



Companies working 



Banking and Insurance 

Railways and Tramways 

Other Trading .... 

Tea planting 

Goal mining 

Cotton mills 

Jute mills 

Mills for wool, silk, hemp, &c. 
Cotton and Jute screws and presses 

Sugar 

Land and Building 




Paid-up capital 



£ 
0,011,000 
8,979,000 

14,170,000 
4,175,000 
4,778,000 

12,005,000 
7,018,000 
1,584,000 
1,790,000 
587,000 
2,368,000 



These figures exclude companies not incorporated in India, although 
carrying on business there. At the end of March, 1919, the number of such 
companies working in India was, so far as known, 597, with a paid-up 
capital of nearly 477,108,000Z., besides over 141,346,000/. debentures. Rail- 
way companies accounted for about one-seventh of the paid-up capital and 
about half of the debentures, and other important companies were navigation 
companies (paid-up capital 22,365, 0001), jute mills (1,994,000Z. ), rice mills 
(24,000Z.), tea planting companies (18,126,000Z.), gold mining companies 
(2,106,0002.), and other mining companies (5,205, O00Z.) 

Mineral Production. — Statement showing the values of the minerals 
produced in British India and Indian States during 1917 and 1918. 



Mineral 



Coal 

Gold . 

Petroleum . 

Manganese-ore 1 . 

Salt 

Saltpetre 

Lead and lead-ore. 

Tungsten-ore 

Building materials 

and road metal . 
Micai . 
Tin-ore and tin 
Jadestone ' . 
Ruby, sapphire & 

spinel 
Monazite 
Iron-ore 
Silver . 
Copper-ore . 
Alum . 
Barytcs . 
Potash . 



1917 



£ 

4,511,645 

2,22i,S89 

1,092,985 

1,501,080 

983,157 

527,669 

397,478 

623,074 



£ 

6,017,089 

2,060,152 

1,131,904 

1,481,735 

1,644,211 

589,190 

450,477 

726,321 



240,776 


238,355 


508,173 


625,741 


94,495 


134,635 


07,502 


124,113 


51,831 


40,310 


56,489 


58,819 


39,977 


47,298 


23 7, 2 Hi 


296.0W 


30,162 


4,053 


3,707 


900 


— 


2,948 
46 



Mineral 



Magnesite 

Clay 

Chromite 

Steatite 

Agate . 

Gypsum 

Diamond 

Ochre . 

Corundum 

Antimony 

Amber . 

Graphite 

Platinum 

Bauxite . 

Moljbdenite 

Asbestos 

Bismuth 

Aquamarine 

SniiKirskite 

Apatite . 



Total value 



1917 

"~ £ 

14,559 

9,020 

26,215 

6,470 

255 

1,034 

1,826 

1,629 

3,875 

139 

684 

547 

19 

620 

626 

308 

163 

297 



13,206,566 15,771,085 



1918 



£ 

4,641 
13,623 
52,068 
10,921 

1,139 
2,625 
1,959 
4,100 

87 

361 

2 

894 

lie 

180 

4 
3,400 



1 Export values. 

The quantity of coal produced in India (including Indian States) was 
20,722,493 tons in 1918; of manganese-ore, 517,963 tons ; wolfram, 4,431 



COMMERCE 



143 



tons; mica, 54,684 cwt. ; copper, 3,619 tons; of rubies, including sapphirei 
and spinels, 164,115 carats ; gold, 536,118 ox. 

The quantity of coal produced in 1919 was 22,628,000 tons. 

The average number of persons working in or about mines regulated by 
the Indian Mines Act was 237,738 in 1918, of whom 150,064 worked 
underground. 

Commerce. 

The following table applies to the sea-borne external trad* of India, 
which in 1834-35 amounted to Rupees 14,34,22,900 :— 



Imports 



Exports and Re- Exports 



1913-14<pre-war) 
1916-16 . 
191«-17. 
1917-18 . 
1918-19 . 
1919-20 . 




M»-c: ir.ii.»e 



Rupees 
191,30,79,536 
138,16,93,032 
160,24,89,599 
164,35,48,949 
188,66,24,317 
221,70 



Rupees 
43,43,96,503 
11,94,62,390 
38,45,26,683 
51,76,43,152 
71,36,65.075 
r8,tS,88,5M 



Rupees 
249,00,61,911 

247.31,10,343 
244,90,39,300 
255,32,02,610 
332,75,78,755 



Rupees 
7,0», 28,830 
8,21.57.819 
6,41,73,057 
iUSl 
9,01,03,571 
13,67.97,719 



The following 
treasure : — 



table excludes Government stores and Government 



Tears ended 
March 31 



1914 (pre-war) 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 



iMfOKTS 




183,94,79.324 
131.98,62,443 
149,63,52,647 
150,42,51,105 
169,03.41,421 
207,97,23,940 



36,62,04,456 
11,85,52,673 
14,89.74 216 
26,05,48,255 
0.127 
11,12,31,996 



Rupees 
219,86,83,7S0 
143,34,14,516 
164,53.26,863 
176.47.99,360 
170,25,51,548 
219,09,55,936 



Years ended 
March 31 



1914 (pre-war) 

1916 

1917 

191S 

1919 

1920 



EXPOBTS AMD Rt-EXFOKTS 



Merchandise 

R<. 
848,87,88, 173 

lt*7,38,W,l*6 
245,15,06,272 
242,56,46,666 
253,S8,13,522 
326,79,31,299 



Treasure 

Ra. 

7,05,20,354 
7,42,58,319 
4,94,16,578 
5,43,10,741 

i,wja in 

7,51,95,707 



Total 




144 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

Of the exports of merchandise in 1919-20 Rs. 309,01,51,174 represented the products of 
the country. Rs. 17,77,80,125 were re-exports of imported foreign merchandise. 

The returns of quantities and values of imports and of exports are based on the bills of 
entry and shipping bills respectively. The value is the wholesale value at the place of 
import or export, less trade discount, duty not being included in the value of dutiable 
goods. The accounts present the countries from which the goods have been consigned 
to India and the countries for which goods shipped from India are intended. No dis- 
tinction is maintained between general, special, and transit trade ; but goods of foreign 
origin, when re-exported, are shown in detail separately from those of Indian 
origin. 

The gross amount of import duty collected in 1919-20 was Rs. 16,90,59,480, and export 
duty Rs. 4,81,11,248. Import duties are derived from cotton goods, Rs. 4,09,21,094, 
liquors, Rs. 1,38,00,684, metals, chiefly iron and steel, Rs. 1,13,86,349, oils, Rs. 1,02,57,632, 
salt, Rs. 1,47,03.352, sugar, Rs. 1,30,04,654, tobacco, Rs. 89,07,085, and silk and silk 
goods, Rs. 60,56,774, in 1919-20; export duties are levied on rice, tea, and jute, also raw 
hides and skins (from September 11, 1919). 

In many cases the Native States of India impose Customs duties on goods imported 
from other parts of India. 

The imports and exports, excluding Government stores and Govern- 
ment treasure, were distributed as follows in six vears : — 



Tears 

ended 

March SI 



Imports:- 
1914 2 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 

Exports:- 
1914 2 
1910 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 



Bengal ] 



Bihar and 
Orissa 



Rs. 

75,90,72,901 
55,0S,37,S69 
58,22,39,947 
08,20,73,608 
64,06,59,081 
87,58,80,600 

1,03,35,14,853 
91,87,17,019 
96,55,92,377 
87,12,32,714 
105,73,55,175 
139,73,98,635 



Burma 



Madras Bombay 



Rs. Rs. Rs. 

16,78, 16,396 16,53,68,244 94,20,43,857 

10,78,74,423 11,56,07,618 52,91,42,976 

11,86,44,713 12,87,58,409 68.52,69,397 

9,85,22,598 12,47,02,610 72,77,29,277 

10,59,01,918 11,76,93.689 72,28,82,656 

14,80,54,801 13,49,54,139 86,09,76,039 

24,27,92.737 26.88,37,4921 74,46,61,751 

14,96,32,273 :24,92,83,26S 54.05,97,092 



19,54.41,073 28,59,88,238 
20,72.95,376 |21, 23,83,468 
24,97,61,654 124,24,14,283 



19,98,43,915 135,94,92,011 120,41,52,921 



80.92,30,740 
87,72,01.330 
79,31,26,205 



Sind 



Rs. 

16,43,82,382 
12.64,51,630 
13,04,14,397 
13,17,71,267 
11,54,14,204 
17,10,90,357 

28,65,13,363 
18,98,80,862 
24,46,70,422 
31,18,43,519 
22,30,39,216 
18,22,39,524 



1 Eastern Bengal and Assam included with Bengal. 

2 Pre-war year. 

Imports and exports of bullion and specie wer« as follows : — 



Years ended 
March 31 


Import* of 
Gold 


Imports of 


Exports of 


Exports of 
Silver 






1914 (pre-war) 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 


Rs. 

28,22,64,078 
5,2K,16,821 

13,33,78,689 

29,09,49,298 
2,27,68,156 

48,25,15,571 


Rs. 
15,21,32,425 
6,66,45,669 
25,11,47.994 
22,66,98,854 
69,08,91,919 
29,98,72,988 


Rs. 
4,90,26,080 
6.39,08,008 
10,25,194 
3,91,63,391 
7,84,01,343 
12,92,13,211 


Rs. 
S,18,02,770 
1,83,49,811 
6,81,46,868 
3,62,75,790 
1,17,02,228 
76,84,508 



Gold is used chiefly in the form of ornaments, and much of it is imported 
in small bars. 






COM MERCK 



145 



The distribution of commerce by coon tries was as follows (merchandise 
alone) in years ending March 31, 1919 and 1920 : — 



Countries 


Imports into India from 


Exports of Indian Produce to 




1918-19 


1919-20 


1918-19 


1919-20 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


United Kingdom 


76,99,62,130 


1,04,'.H,32,780 


70,03,60,740 


92,90,^6.470 


France 


1,84,64,566 


1,76,87,860 


8,82,07,185 


15,70,89,93»> 


Germany 


2,295 


4,3 ',757 


— 


l,8>,58,5o0 


Austria-Hungary 


150 


12,65,030 


14,79,297 


35,70.060 


Italy .... 


91,72,380 


1,36,93,810 


9,61,50.000 


19,130 


Belgium . 


63,925 


69,80,510 


1,08,240 


9,45.54, 17<> 


Holland . 


25.30,^70 


99,06,550 


9,27,869 


1,63,49,230 


Spain .... 


30,87,720 


53,66.000 


57,52,260 


2,35,69,270 


Russia 


48,465 


15,31,487 


— 


11,270 


China (including Hong 










Kong) . 


4,25,37,7.-0 


6,58,06,370 


7,69,67,475 


19,53,61,250 


Japan. 


33,52,27.590 


19,15,2i\330 


29,14,07,025 




Ceylon 


2,93,01,363 


2,51. _ 


10,11,24.270 


10,79,29,480 


Straits Settlements . 


5,60,66,792 


5,93,42,79'.) 


7,02,30,660 


7,25,28,380 


Java, Borneo and 










Sumatra . 


11,62,71,180 


21. -.4,77,080 


8,84,87,930 


2,15,15.800 


Arabia 


39,80,640 


54,23,030 


1,54,98,165 


1,34,75,170 


Persia. 


1,11,78,720 


-9,610 


3, M, 87, 200 


2,65,13,800 


Egypt 


1,63,59,615 


1,38,62,710 


14,63,62,935 


3,30,20,870 


East African Protec- 










torate! 


1,84,83,390 


1,66,67,910 


1,12,66,020 


1,31,22.960 


Other E. African pnrts 


35,41,095 


46,11,050 


1,70,56,245 


70,19,620 


Mauritius (including 










Seychelles) 


2,56,18,320 


1,28.46,530 


1,26,95,955 


1.33.67,980 


United States . . ■ 


16,14.86,246 


25.26,73,892 


33,06,51,495 


48,62,11,870 


8onth America . 


1,10,375 


4,60,410 


6,86,14,575 


8,64,51,890 


Australia . 


2,16,97,584 


3,24,40,793 


6,38,86,425 


3,89,37,070 



Including Zanzibar and Pen ba. 



The value of the different classes of goods (private merchandise only) 
was as follows : — 



Import* 



Exports of Indian Produce 



1919-20 



Rs. 



I. Food, drink and tobacco ■ 30,49,09,163 
II. Raw materials, and pro- ' 
dure 4 articles mainly 
unmanufactured . . 9,93.90,662 17,33,88,961 

III. Articles, wholly or 

mainly manufactured . 1,23,24,97,575 1,45,38,25,853 

IV. Miscellaneous and un- 
classified, including 

parcel post .... 5,35,44,021 ! 4,12,21,070 



191S-19 



1919-20 



Rs. 
41,12,8* 



Rs. Rs. 

63,26,3S,951 42,22,83,287 

86,50,28,631 1,59,35,67,740 

S7,49,79,532 1,03.22,08,483 

2,06,03,3S2 3,70,91,664 



Total 



1,69,03,41,421 2,07,97,23,940 2,39,32,50,496 i 3,09,01,51,174 
(112,689,4281.) (138,648,2631.) (159,559,033/.) (206,010,0787.) 



146 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



The value of the leading articles of private merchandise (Indian produce 
only in the case of exports) was as follows in 1919-20. 



Imports 



Cotton manufactures (in- 
cluding twist and yarn) . 

Sugar (refined & unrefined, 
molasses & confectionery, 
and saccharin included) 

Metals, and ores . 

Machinery and mill work 

Silk (raw & manufactured) 

Oils .... 

Chemicals . 

Hardware 

Liquors 

Matches 

Paper and pasteboard . 

Salt .... 

Woollen goods 

Spices .... 

Provisions . 

Instruments, apparatus and 
appliances & parts thereof 

Tobacco .... 

Glass 

Dyeing & tanaing substances 

Drugs and medicines . 

Wood and timber 

Apparel (excluding haber- 
dashery, millinery,hosiery 
and boots and shoes) 

Soap 

Building and engineering 
materials .... 

Fruits and vegetables . 

Paints St painters' materials 

Tea-chests .... 

Haberdashery and millinery 

Belting for machinery 

Motor cars and motor cycles 
and parts thereof . 

Stationery .... 

Animals, living . 

Railway plant and rolling- 
stock 

Books, printed and printed 
matter .... 

Earthenware and porcelain 

Boots and shoes . 

Umbrellas and fittings 

Grain and pulse . 

Coal, coke, and patent fuel 



Value 

1919-80 

Rs. 

59,07,92,895 



22,99.26,623 
22,76,95,284 
9,01,81,899 
7,70,78,728 
9,43,76,456 
1,61,05,038 
4,36,62,196 
3,37,41,101 
2,04,83,227 
2,34,45,708 
2,09,52,393 
l,69,t>5.20S 
2,26,52,941 
2,90,91,093 



2,21.94,443 
2,01,86,564 
1,99,S0,942 
1,88,89,442 
1,S2,49,640 
1,57,94,419 



1,58,82,507 
1,22,23,139 

1,24,03.310 

1,89,60,320 

1,30,71,406 

69,68,837 

96,85,238 

54,08,078 

3,92,84,435 
78,25,408 
16,25,041 

4,58,72,750 

42,35,356 
72,46,451 
37,78,087 
20,38,931 
3,03,90,917 
12,85,562 



Exports 



Jute (raw) . 

,, (manufactured) . 
Cotton (raw) 

,, (manufactured) in 

eluding twist and 

yarn 
Rice .... 
Wheat and wheat flour 
Other grain and pulse 
Tea . . 

Hides and skins. 
Seeds (oil seeds mainly) 
Lac (excluding lac dye) 
Wool (raw) . 
Wool (manufactured) 
Opium 
Oils . 
Rubber (raw) 
Indigo. . . , 
Other dyes and tans . 
Paraffin wax 
Spices. 
Saltpetre . 
Coffee .... 
Hemp (raw) 
Manganese ore . 
Other kinds of metals and 

ores .... 
Oilcakes 
Provisions . 
Fruits and Vegetables 
Tobacco 

Silk (raw and cocoons) 
Silk (manufactured) . 
Coir goods . 
Manures 
Wood 

Coal .... 
Sugar (refined & unrefined 
and confectionery) . 
Bran and pollards 



The share of each province in certain exports ol Indian produce in 1919-20 



- 


Bengal 1 


Bihar an 
OrisM 


Bombay 
lis. 


Sind 
Ks. 


Madras 
Ks. 


Burma 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Ks. 


Rice . 


1,08,11,974 


— 


1,46,88,324 


1)5,33,238 


8,78,971 


7,17,54,780 


Wheat . 


1,51,601 


— 


7,38,991 


11,46,087 


6 


20 


Opium 


1,96,02,620 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Indigo. . 


72,62,081 


— 


19,34,302 


3,16,501 


8T, 78,188 


— 


Cotton, raw 


3,32,60,362 


— 


47,18,97,465 


2,00,82.926 


4,25,39,172 


1,87,43,786 


Seeds . . 


6,32,82,144 


— 


11, 87,07, 788 


5,02,76,978 


8,01,20,768 


8,02,615 


Jute, raw. 


24,46,47,259 


— 


900 


— 


28,46,272 


93 


Tea. . . 


17,81,97,944 


— 


64.09,5:i3 


7,65,076 


2,02,74,167 


3,750 






rn Bengal 


and Assam included with 















COMMERCE 



147 



The trade between India and the United Kingdom (British Board of 
Trade Returns) is as follows ; — 



Imports (Consignment*) 
into U.K. from I udia 

Export* to India 1 — 
British produce 
Foreign and colonial 



1013 
(pre-war) 



1917 



191E 



1919 



£ 

108,21 3,961 



19M 1 



£ 
95,678,C00 



48,420,490 66,836,578' 88,541,21 

i 

70,273.221 59.965.373 49,180.830 70,8*0.991 1S1. 884.000 
1,397,010 750,221 446,704 1 1,069.965 1,704,000 



1 Excluding stores shipped for Indian Government prior to July 1, 1917. These amounted 
from January 1 to June SO, 1917, to 4,463,822*. - Provisional figures. 

The principal articles of import from India into the United Kingdom 
(British returns) : — 



- 


19U 

( pro-war i 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Tea .... 


7.?iC'.223 


10,865,062 


10.095.978 


9.134,788 


23,245.9.-; 


19,191,895 


Wheat .... 


T,99MS1 


8,845.461 


4.458.620 


2.540,034 


592,219 
8,433,746 


37 


Rice. Rice Meal ft Flour 


1,915,439 


4.142.738 


%j$m m 


b an ras 


,546.091 


Barlev .... 


1 308.478 


1,428,986 


2,018.972 


i.:- 3.5ii 


— 


5,060 


Beans, not fresh, haricot 


29.558 


407.184 


742 357 

■MM 
1 HMM 


1^67,850 


5,603,172 


1,236.474 
86,040 

$.>< Ml 


Seeds .... 


4,163,145 


3.C.-J 839 


r,HMW 


9,S3t,5U 


Leather .... 


2,839,089 


3,533,053 


4,700.125 


4,517.765 


I.UMR 


;■'..-•:.•-<-, 


Cotton (Raw) 


1.226.175 


1,487.120 


1,700,066 


2.876,406 


3,687,813 


4,018,495 


Wool .... 


1,659,117 


2,099.491 


2,556,794 


2,284,502 


3,485,219 


4.286,043 


Jute .... 


9.1M.2M 


8,638.503 


7,453.409 


4 332/0* 




13.431,159 


Jute Manufactures 


2.429.917 


MM.6TI 


6,299,354 


4 940,194 


3,281,419 




Hemp .... 


385,225 


715,061 


1 MM 




578,497 


2,104,096 


Motor Spirit . 


594,553 


917.806 


1,356,892 


. 


506 494 


1.256,817 


Manganese Ore 


708,125 


1,085,849 


2,200,778 


- 


2,957,611 


1,743.527 


Skins and Furs 




459,019 


777.645 


873.4S-) 


254.309 


i,4«t,on 


Hides, Raw . 


351,077 


73-,677 


801,197 


1,675,752 


1,175,52/ 


2.543.0S0 


Indigo .... 


4S.20S 


1,117,172 


1,386 564 


578,1** 


245,539 


137,686 


Myrobolars . 


176,621 


I8M77 


4: -.•.-.--' 


639,563 




451,010 


Oil, unrefined coconut. 




2^9,912 


224,905 




2.006,080 


1,305,455 



The chief articles of British produce exported to India are as follows : — 



- 


1913 
(pre-war) 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Cotton Manufactures 


35.885,826 


W,8ni40E 


26.758,997 


35.917,016 


28,611,107 


31,645,710 


Cotton Yarn . 


2,267,699 


2,028,648 


2,032,080 


2,211,620 


1,902,385 


2,333,567 


Iron and Steel and 














Manufactures thereof 


9,307,865 


5,55«,507 


4.224972 


3,109.909 


2,815.960 


8,666,447 


Machinery 

Railway Carriages £ parts 


5,396.803 


4,104,936 


3.420,634 


t,75f,*M 

126.956 


2.52C.621 
250.796 


5,942,876 


1,361,925 


655,581 


347,084 


1,573,230 


Copper, wrought and 


1,332,332 


502,366 


181,447 


96,896 


112,919 


1,673,924 


unwrought. 














Woollens . . 


1,388,302 


395.183 


837,430 


1,316,923 


996, SI 6 


875.320 


Chemicals 


483,921 


759,960 


1,021.683 


1,516,599 


1,137,958 


1,173,619 


Soap .... 


433,814 


520,600 


599,300 


726.993 


624, H0 


MS, K 


Paper .... 


512.573 


444,067 




470.63$ 


410.756 




Painters' Colours, Ac. 


389,472 


372. 7«7 


546,921 


516,110 


219,070 


746.77S 


Medicines and Drugs 


485 396 


401,928 


558.090 


403. >22 


466,723 


651,388 


Boots & Shoes. Leather 


433.741 


196,497 


256.329 


' 


133,95$ 


122.347 


Spirits .... 


313,075 


317,652 




540. 63>, 


543 323 


637,518 


Beer and Ale . 


323.890 


206 464 


220.548 


136.237 




159,252 


Tobacco 


261,038 


282.051 


450,919 


640,714 




634,384 


Books, Printed 


308,507 


272.299 


281,636 


276.445 


S24.850 


830,914 


Apparel .... 


332.292 


260,831 


324,936 


832,910 


292.59S 


334,534 


Linen Manufactures 


253.746 


290.78* 


452,659 


411,179 


137,83s 


4Si>,S65 



L 2 



148 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



The foreign trade of the six largest ports in private merchandise only 
imports and exports, in five years : 















- 


1913-14 
(Pre-war) 


1916-17 


1917-18 


1918-19 


1919-20 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Calcutta 


168,59,03,499 


148,81,54,615 


142,69,02.509 


166,00.07,784 


217.43,60,495 


Bombay 


131,99,27,947 


132,«7,30.582 


139,54,48,392 


147,70,45,278 


192,08 68,610 


Rangoon 


33.01,27 255 


28,29.86,659 


26,55,11, S 2 


30,49,53,584 


32,46.32,933 


Madras 


20,88,46,978 


21,90,91 999 


17.94.55.224 


20.69,31,013 


27,99.09^76 


Karachi 


1 42,81,34,589 


37 06,70.910 


44,00.06,946 


33.83.20,681 


35.25,89.195 


Tutirwin . 


6,96,63,950 


6.15,34 090 


5,60.02.290 


5.53 05,445 


8,38 37,78$ 



The trans-frontier land-trade (excluding treasure) was during four years :- 




Rs. Imports Rs. Exports 



10,77,77,715 
13.09.42.154 
13,28,97,766 
14,85. 03.8S3 



9,58,67,547 
12,32,50.207 
13,69,27,407 
15,26.80,700 



Rs. Total 



20.36,45,262 
25.41,92.361 
26.9«,25,173 



The Trade (excluding treasure) with the leading trans-frontier countries 
was as follows : — 





1 


nports from 


I 


Exports to 




1917-18 
Rs. 


1918-19 


1919-20 


1917-18 


1918-19 


1919-20 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Las Belai 


11,97,258 


12,06,900 


— 


3,05,376 


3,77,181 


— 


Kalati 


2,91,272 


2,39,661 


— 


1,70,039 


1,74,174 


— 


Persia 


1,32,340 


4,01,968 


2,93,319 


22,57,051 


37,77,424 


1,03,47,770 


S. VV. Af- 














ghanistan 


88,23,360 


90,77,175 


1,47,51,560 


85,23,006 


1,55,80,068 


1,53,34,591 


N. E. Af- 














ghanistan 


83,S8,165 


88,30,193 


1,48,77,823 


1,03,48,515 


1,47,27,013 


87,75,313 


Dir, Swat, 














& Bajaur 


49,36,996 


47,44,959 


39,11,046 


82,85,277 


88,59,252 


80,30,778 


Buner 


1,70,854 


1,50,291 


1,16,733 


3,03,8S0 


3,09,441 


2,46,812 


Kurram 














Valley 


2,01,462 


2,60,138 


1,94,949 


7,94,222 


17,64,277 


11,35,761 


Central Asia 


13,41,599 


15,31,744 


10,90,805 


26,94,344 


37,93,377 


42,57,038 


Tibet 


64,4*,00i. 


68,95,957 


65,73.509 


22,67,134 


22,55,489 


32,04,421 


Nepal 


3,84,41.173 


1,77,13.263 


5,20,13,290 


2,10,81,371 


2,28,07,342 


2,90.45 472 


Karenni * . 


20,93,68. 


20,'9,v56 


22,83,016 


5,98,443 


8,27,732 


8,02,441 


Shan States^ 


4,43,15,183 


,05,54,42. 


8,12,80,522 


4,89,19,702 


4,07,60,506 


4,85,54,291 


Siain 


25,43,474 


32.67,446 


61,76,256 


14,21.189 


18.58.486 


20,86,822 


W. China . 


83,84,041 


70,12,207 


73,45,821 


68,61,574 


1,00,76,402 


1,15,70,789 



British Baluchistan, have been discontinued with effect from April 1, 1919, this trade now 
failing within the category of internal traffic. 

2 Partly internal and partly trans-frontier trade. 

The total value of the coasting trade in imports and exports, apart 
from Government stores and Government treasure was, in 1916-17, 
Rs. 114,18,44,470; in 1917-18, lis. 120,74,65,750; in 1918-19, Rs. 
156,80,66,439 ; in 1919-20, Rs. 216,76,49,017. The total quantity 
of the inland (rail and river-borne) import and export trade of ludia 
each amounted to 33,812,000 tons, valued ut Rs. 4,97,71,00,000, in 1916-17; 
33,655,000 tons, valued at Rs. 513,28,00,000, in 1917-18 ; 33,829,000 tons, 
valued at Rs. 6,15,62,00,000 in 1918-19; and 31,818,000 tons, with an 
estimated value of Rs. 6,28,96,00,000 in 1919-20. 



SHIPPING AND NAVIGATION 



149 









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re* 


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150 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



The number of vessels which entered with cargoes in the interportal trade 
was in 1916-17, 91,273 of 8,045,742 tons ; in 1917-18, 91,991 of 6,366,966 
tons ; in 1918-19, 93,150 of 7,616,676 tons ; in 1919-20, 89,251 of 9,045,672 
tons ; and cleared in 1916-17, 74,642 of 7,986,587 tons; in 1917-18, 74,973 
of 6,227,984 tons ; in 1913-19, 78,890 of 6,598,618 tons ; m 1919-20, 72,704 
of 9,374,816 tons. 

The number and tonnage of vessels built or first registered at Indian 
ports for five years : — 



1916-17 



1913-14 
(Pre-war) 



Vo.\ Tou - No. Ton - 
nage " nage 



1917-18 



1918-19 



v „ Ton- w Ton- ~ Ton- 
• nage *»• nage ^ nage 



1919-20 



Built 
Registered 



141 I 5,311 

212 122,283 



102 7,120 142 
209 24,009! 296 



11,808 
16,872 



341;sc,,264l 200 121,013 
339 39,550! 300 130,990 



Internal Communications. 
I. Roads. 
The following table shows approximately the length in miles of roads 
maintained by public authorities throughout the country : — 



Province 


Metalled Miles 


Unmetalled Miles 
31,677-83 


Total Miles 


Bengal. . . (1918-1919) J 


3,117-87 


34,795-70 


Assam . . „ 


527-00 


S.462-54 


8,98954 


Bihar and Orissa ,, 


3,137-00 


15, 879-00 


19,01600 


United Provs. . ,, j 


7.354-8S 


20,799-76 


34,154 64 


Punjab . . ,, 


2,905 59 


22,06:! -80 


24,969 39 


Burma. . . ,, 


1,972-22 


10,569-65 


12,541-87 


Central Provs. arid Berar,, 


8,894 00 


4,099-00 


7,'.<93-00 


Madras . . ,, 


21,604-75 


5,342-20 


g«,916*96 


Bombay . . ,, 


8,054-84 


19.465-53 


27,620-87 


N.W F. Prov. . „ 


873-17 


2,702-49 


3,575-661 


Coorg . . ,, 


235-75 


186 37 


422 12 


Riijimtana . „ 


307-00 


323-00 


680-00 


Baluchistan . ,, 


<»75-79 


34399 


1,3)9-78? 


Military works . (19Ui-1917) 


1,409*44 


997-16 


2.44s 60 



1 Includes 2,197-31 miles of road maintained by local authorities, but it is not known 
whether they are metalled or unmetalled ; but excludes 130-75 miles of serviceable fair- 
weather roads, and 071-43 miles of bridle paths. 

2 Exclusive of 188 25 miles of serviceable fair-weather and temporary roads 1,598-00 
miles of bridle paths. 

In several provinces certain of the large canals which are primarily in- 
tended for irrigation are also used for navigation by country boats and barges 
of shallow draught. The length of navigable channel in the several province* 
is : — Madras, 1,318 miles ; United Provinces, 412 miles : Punjab, 259 miles ; 
Bengal, 590 miles ; Bihar and Orissa, 519 miles ; Burma, 91 miles. 

An estimate has reeentlv been sanctioned for the proposed Grand Trunk 
Canal in Bengal, which will form a very important addition to the navigable 
waterways of the Province. The canal will be 22 miies in length, and will con- 
nect the Hooghly River at Calcutta with the navigable rivers o I Eastern Bengal. 

Inland steamer navigation is almost exclusively confined to Burma and 
to the Uanges- Brahmaputra- Megna group of waterwavs, which connect 
Bengal with Bihar and Orissa on the one side, and with Assam on the other. 

A limited number of vessels ply on the Indus River, but this will 
probably cease when the large irrigation canals in the Punjab and Sind, at 
present under investigation, are constructed. 



INTERN J L COMMUNICATIONS 151 

II. Railways. 
Mile* open Miles open Mlletop»n Mile* open 

1907 . 30,010 j 1914-15 35,285 I 1916-17 36,286 I 1918-19 36,616 

1913-14. 34,656 j 1915-16 35,833 | 1917-18 36,333 | 1919-20 36,735 

The railways open on March 31, 1920, were as follows : — 

Mu«t 

State lines worked by the State .... . 7,369 

State lines worked by companies . . . 19,019 
Branch line Companies' railways under Guarantee and Rebate 

terms 2,134 

Companies' lines subsidised by the Central or Local Goyernments 2,306 

Unassisted Companies' lines 

District Board lines .... . 237 

Companies' lines subsidised by District Beards , . . 308 

Indian State lines worked by Indian States ... 2,595 

Indian State lines worked by the Main Line .... 1,823 

Companies' lines guaranteed by Indian States .... 760 
Lines in Foreign territory worked by British Indian Railway 

Companies 74 

Total . . 36,735 

The gauges of the Indian railways are : (1) The Standard, or 5ft. 6in. 
(17,990 miles in 1919 . he Metre, or 8ft. 3|in. (15,181 miles); and 

(3) The Special gauges of 2ft. 6in. and 2ft. (3,564 miles). 

The total capital expenditure on Railways to the end of 1919-20, in- 
cluding lines under construction and survey, &c, was as follows : — 

Ra. 

State lines worked by the State 1,56.13,02,000 

State lines worked by companies 3.46,54,33,000 

Branch line Companies' railways under Guarantee and 

Rebate terms 16,49,69,000 

Companies' lines subsidised by the Central or Local 

'Governments ...... 17,70,18,000 

Unassisted Companies' lines ...... 35,86,000 

District Board Lines 1,30,04,000 

Companies' lines subsidise! by District Boaids . . 1,47,90,000 
Indian State lines worked by Indian States . . . 11.12,82,000 
Indian State lines worked by the Main line . . . 10,87,76,000 
Companies' lines guaranteed by Iudian States . . 8,86.07,000 
Lints in Foreign territory worked by British Indian- 
Railway Companies 2,07,34,000 

Unclassified expenditure, including collieries, 4c. . . 1,13,01,000 

Total .... 5.74,08,92,000 

Passengers carried in 1919-20, 520,027,400; 1918-19, 459.732,400. 
Aggregate tonnage of goods and live stock in 1919-20, 87,630,000 tons ; 
1918-19, 91,161,000 tons. Gross earnings ou railways during 1919-20, 
59.435,000/., against 57,240,000/. during 1918-19. Working expenses in 
1919-20, 33,771,000/., or 56 82 per cent, of the gross earnings : as compared 
with 27,868,000/., or 4845 per cent, in 1918-19. Net earnings, 25,664,000/. 
in 1919-20, against 29,656,000/. in 1918-19 ; average return on the capital 
expenditure 6 - 80 per cent., against 8 09 per cent, in 1918—19. The net 
profit to th<- State, after meeting all charges for interest, kc, was 6,963,817/. 



152 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — INDIA. AND DEPENDENCIES 



in 1920, against 10,858,3792. in 1918-19. The railway staff in 1919-20 
numbered 6,941 Europeans, 10,865 Anglo-Indians, and 693,884 Indians ; 
total, 711,690. 

India and Ceylon haye been connected by rail and steamer ferry combined, 
the steamers plying between Dhanushkodi Point on Rameswaram Island and 
Talaimannar in Ceylon. A project has also been prepared for replacing the 
ferry by a railway, to be constructed on a causeway laid over the reef 
known as Adam's Bridge. 

III. Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones. 

In 1920 there were 69,494 post-offices and letter-boxes, against 753 in 1856. 

In the fiscal year ended March 31, 1920, the number of letters, post-cards, 
and money -orders passing through the post-offices was 1,225,047,599 ; of 
newspapers 61,918,287 ; of parcels 11,389,643 ; and of packets 68,384,861 ; 
being a total of 1,366,740,393. The following table gives statistics for 
five years : — 







Letter 
Boxes 


Total 
Revenue 




Tear ended Number of L*tterg> 
March 31 Newspapers, Ac. 


Post 
Offices 


Total 
Expenditure 


1916 1,082,984,058 

1917 1,120,235,120 

1918 1,147,922,768 

1919 1,229,355.641 

1920 1,306,740,393 


19,328 
19,409 
19,410 
19,445 
19,439 


49,684 
49,763 
49,749 
49,838 
50,055 


& 
2,450,883 
2,622,493 
2,774,015 
3,020,187 
3,550,973 


£ 

2,110,253 
2,114,737 
2,361,631 
2,643,965 
2,995,903 



The following are statistics of the Government telegraphs for five 
years : — 



Tear ended 


Number of 


Number of 


Revenue 


Revenue 


Number of 


March 31 


Miles of Wire 


Miles of Line 


Receipts 


Charges 


Paid Messages 


1916 


337,720 


86.067 


£ 

1,238,517 


£ 

948,452 


18,129,748 


1917 


343,487 


87,480 


1,385,499 


911,601 


19,297,692 


1918 


347,906 


87,714 


1,645,683 


848,197 


19,897,787 


1919 


357,472 


87,814 


2,157,348 


980,821 


21,314,943 


1920 


369,273 


88,417 


2,515,321 


1,435,324 


20,275,352 



There were 10,440 telegraph offices in India on March 31, 1920. 

There are several wireless telegraph installations under tho Government 
of India. 

The telephone system is in the hands of the Post and Telegraph 
Department, but telephone exchanges have been established in Calcutta, 
Madras, Bombay, Ahinedabad, Karachi, Rangoon, and Moulinein, by private 
companies, under licences from the Government. At the eud of 1919 than 
were 13 telephone exchanges, with 17,810 connections, established by 
companies, and 245 exchanges, with 8,975 connections established by the 
Department. 

Money and Credit. 

The total value of the silver, nickel, copper, and bronze coined in British 
India from 1835-36 to 1919-20 inclnsive was Rs. 7,53,29,03,895, includ- 
ing Rs. 50,14,78,068, the value of 221,003,960 British dollars ; Rs. 8,02,68,091, 
the value of 35,374,655 Straits dollais ; Rs. 92,74,505 and Rs. 23,17,847, 
the value of subsidiary silver coinage for the Straits Settlements and Ceylon 
respectively ; Rs. 2,43,47,157, the value of ooinage for the Egyptian Govern- 
ment ; Rs. 10,10,700, the value of pennies and halfpennies for the Australian 
Commonwealth ; Rs. 74,86,672, representing the value of cents and fractions 



MONET AND CREDIT 



153 



thereof. The heaviest coinage in any one year was struck in 1918-19. The 
value of money coined at the Calcutta and Bombay Mints in the last five 
years was as follows :- 




1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 



Rs. Rs. 

1,62,02,199 4,79,390 

32,32,79.270 30,35,195 

24.81,62,344 46,66,745 

52,21,19,625 1,58,59,152 



43,750 
20,000 



Rs. 

1,83,900 

7,06,556 

20,83.600 

21,83,550 



1S20 38,00,77,755 2,50,24,650 2.500 | 32,96,281 



Rs. 
1,68,65,489 
32,70,64,771 
26,49,32,690 
54.«»1, 62,3-27 
40,84,01,192 



An Act providing for the closing of the Indian Mints to the 
unrestricted coinage of silver for the public was passed in 1893. 
Provision was made (1) for the receipt of gold coin and bullion at the 
Mints in exchange for rupees at a ratio of Is. id. per rupee ; (2) for the 
receipt of sovereigns and half-sovereigns in payment of Government dues; 
and (3) for the issue of currency notes in Calcutta and Bombay in exchange 
for gold coin or bullion. By a Notification of the 11th September, 1897, 
sovereigns and half-sovereigns were also received at the Reserve Treasuries, 
at the rate of Rs. 15 for the sovereign. 

An Act (XXII. of 1899) declared the sovereign legal tender, 15 rupees to 
the sovereign. No gold was coined in India down to 1917, but the question 
of such coinage was examined by a Royal Commission appointed in 1912. 
The recommendations made by the Royal Commission are under the con- 
sideration of the Government of India. In view of the strain imposed by 
war conditions on India's metallic money, a branch of the Royal Mint wa-> 
established at Bombay, at the end of 1917, for coining into sovereigns the 
gold bullion and foreign coin received into the Paper Currency Reserve, 
in order to make the metallic part of this Reserve available as legal tender. 
Power was also taken by legWation for the coining in India of a 15-rupee 
gold coin (gold mohur), of the same size, weight, and fineness as the 
sovereign, and a number of these coins was struck at the Bombay Mint from 
May to August 1918. Sovereigns were minted between August and December 
1918, but since April 1919 the Branch Mint has been closed. 

Owing, however, to the rise in the value of the rupee, which began in 
1917, it was decided early in 1920 to fix its value, after a transitional 
period, at Rs. 10 to the gold sovereign, in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of the Indian Currency Committee (1919). By a communi<|ue 
dated the 2nd February, 1920, the Finance Department Notification of the 
11th September, 1897, mentioned abn-e, and a notification dated 11th 
December, 1906, authorising the receipt of sovereigns and half sovereigns at 
the Mints, were cancelled. Bills were passed in September. 1920, amending 
the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Acts and fixing the legal tender 
value of the sovereign and half sovereign at Rs. 10 and Rs. 5 respectively. 

The Coinage Act of 1906 provided for the introduction of a subsidiary 
nickel one-anna piece and the substitution of a bronze currency for the 
existing copper coins. The coinage of copper was accordingly discontinued 
with effect from August 1, 1906. The issue of the nickel one-anna piece was 
commenced with effect from August 1, 1907. In the Indian Coinage 
Amendment Act of 1918 (IV. of 1918), provision was made for the coinage 
of a new nickel two-anna piece, and coins of this denomination were issued 
from April, 1918. The issue of four-anna and eight-anna nickel pieces was 
authorised by the Indian Coinage (Amendment) Act, 1919 (XXI. of 1919). 



154 THE BRITTSH EMPIRE : — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



Since 1900, rupees have been coined as required to meet public 
demands. The entire profit accruing to Government on the coinage up to 
March 31, 1907, and during the year 1912-13, and half such profit for the 
years 1907-08 and 1908-09 were placed to the credit of a separate fund 
termed the Gold Standard Reserve, with the object of ensuring the stability 
of the currency policy of Government. Any profit arising from this source 
is at present credited entire to the Gold Standard Reserve. On August 81, 
1920, the Reserve amounted to 37,179,138Z. 

On July 16, 1861, an Act was passed by the Government of India pro- 
viding for the issue of a paper currency through a Government department of 
Public Issue, by means of promissory notes. Circles of issue were established 
from time to time, as found necessary, and the notes were made legal tender 
within the circle for which they were issued, and rendered payable at the 
place of issue, and also at the capital city of the Presidency. Subsequent 
legislation has relaxed the rigidity of the circle system. Notes of the values 
of one, two-and-a-half, five, ten, fifty, and a hundred rupees are now legal 
tender throughout British India, and the limitation of currency to the circle 
of issue is confined to notes of higher denominations. There are now seven 
circles' of issue with their headquarters at Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, 
Rangoon, Cawnpore, Lahore, and Karachi. 

Total values of notes in circulation on March 31 in six years, including 
the notes held in government treasuries and the Presidency banks : — 
Rs. tts. 

1913-14 . . 66,11,75,935 1917-18 . . 99,79.37,599 

1915-16 . . 67,73,34,540 1918-19 , 1,53,46,47,790 

1916-17 . . 86.37,51,735 1919-20 . 1,74,52,45,960 

Banks. — The three Presidency Banks of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, 
constituted under the Presidency Banks Act of 1876, act as bankers for the 
Indian Government. 

The following table shows the 'Capital,' 'Reserve,' 'Public and other 
Deposits,' at the three banks at the close of the calendar year 1919. 



- 


Bank of Bengal 


Bank of Madras 


Bank of 

!'• 'ill ''liV 


Public Deposits .... 
Other Deposits . . . . . 


£ 

1,333000 

1,333,0001 

2,700,000 

21,604,000 


* 

500,000 

300,000 

096,000 

8,104,000 


£ 

067,000 
733,000 

1,752,000 
18,878,000 



1 Includes 167,000*. set aside as a reserve against depreciation of investments. 

The number of Joint Stock Companies registered as engaged in banking 
or loan operations in India on March 31, 1918, was 542. Most of these com- 
panies consist of societies with a relatively small capital. 

Statistics of the Post Office Savings banks for four years : — 



1915-16 
1916-17 

1917-18 
1918-19 



Depositors 

1,660,000 
l,f,47,000 
1,6:37,000 
1.677,000 



Balance at end of 

Year 

Rs. 

15,32,12,000 

16,59,53,000 

16,58,46,000 

;, 44,000 



CURRENCY, WEIGHTS, ETC. — BOOKS OF REFF! 1"o 

Currency, Weights, and Measures. 

The money, weights, and measures ol India, and the British equivalents 
are now as follows : — 

The Pis = 4 Farthing. 

3 =1 Pies . . = li Farthing. 

4 Pie:, or 12 Pie . = 1 A%%a . . . = \\ Penny. 
16 Annas . - 1 Rupee . . = 2s. 

\Q Rupees = R 

Prior to September, 1920, 15 rupees = 1 A 
The rnpee weighs one tola (a tola = 180 grains;, '916 tine. 
Nickel 4 and 8 anna pieces have been introduced info India (1919). 
The sum of 1,00,000 rupees is called a 'lakh,' and of 1,00,00,000a 'crore' 
of rupees. A ' lakh ' of rupees is now equivalent to 10,0007. 

The Maund of Bengal of 40 ten . = oirdupois. 

,, ,, Bombay . . . = 28 lbs. nearly. 

,, ,, Madras . . . = 25 lbs. nearly. 

,, Tola = 180 gr. 

,, Ouz of Bengal . . . = 36 inches. 

An Act to provide for the ultimate adoption of a uniform system of 
weights and measures of capacity throughout British India was passed 
by the Governor-General of India in Council in 1871. This Act, 
however, has never been brought into operation. The matter was again 
considered by a Weights and Measures Committee, appointed in 191S, and 
the evidence was generally in favour of a uniform system, provided there is 
not a too radical change from the existing practice. The report of the Committee 
is under the consideration of the Government of India. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning India. 
1. Official Pcblications. 

Administration : Reports on the various provinces. Annual. — Statistics of British 
India. Annual. Calcutta. 

Agricultural Statistics of India. Annual. Calcutta. 

Army : Indian Army List. Quarterly. — Wars on or beyond the borders of British India 
since 1849. London, 1901. 

Banks. Statistical Tables. Calcutta. Annual. 

Famines: Reports of Famine Commissions, 18S5, 1887, and 1898. — Relief Operations, 
1899-1900. Vol. I., British Districts; Vol. II., Xative States.— Advances to Agriculturists 
at end of Famine. London, 1901. 

Finance : Accounts and Estimates, Explanatory Memorandum. Annual.— Estimates 
of Revenue and Expenditure. Annual. — Financial Statement of the Government of India 
with discussion in the Legislative Council. Annual. — Home Accounts. Annual. — Income 
and Expenditure under specified heads. Annual. — Report of Royal Commission on the 
Administration of the Expenditure of India. 4 vols. London, 190L — Statistic* of British 
India. Annual. Calcutta. Report of the Currency Committee of 1899. Calcutta, 1899. 

Gazetteers: The Imperial Gazetteer of India. "2nd ed. 26 vols, completed in 1909. 
London — Provincial and District Gazetteers. 

India List and India Office List. Annual. 

Judicial: Judicial and Administrative Reports. Annual. Calcutta. — Unrepealed 
General Acts of the Governor-General of India in Council. 6 vols. Calcutta, 1898-99. 
Statistics of British India. Annual. Calcutta. 

Live-stock Statistics, 1919- 20. Calcutta, 1921. 

Maritime Trade and Customs Administration of Bengal, Bombav, Karachi, Madras and 
Burma. Annual Reports. 

Mining : Report on the Inspection of Mines in India. Annual. Calcutta. Report on 
the Production and Consumption of Coal in India. Annual. Calcutta. 

Population : Report on the Census of British India, 1911. 2 vols. Calcutta, 1913. 

Public Services in India (I913U Report of Royal Commission, and Evidence. London. 

QninquennialReports on Education in Indis. I British India. Annual. Calcutta, 

Railways : Report on Railwavs. Annual. London. 

Sauitary Condition: Report on Sanitary Measures. Annual. London.— Plagne 
Commission. 3 vols, of evidence, 1S9S-99 London, 1900. 

Surveys : Reports of the Trigonometrical Surveys of India. 

The Area and Yield of Principal Crops in India. Annual. Calcutta. 



156 THE BRITISH EMPIRE 1 — INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

Tlie Indian Empire : A Short Review, and some hints for the use of soldiers proceeding 
to India. London, 1917. 

Trade. Annual Statement of the Trade of British India with Foreign Countries &c. 
Calcutta. — Review of the Trade of India. Annual. London. 

Treaties : Collection of Treaties, <fcc, relating to India. Edited by Sir C. U. Aitchison 
11 vols. Calcutta, 1892. 

General Statistics : Statistical Abstract for British India. Annual. London. 

Moral and Material Progress and Condition of India. Annual. London. 
Montagu <fe Chelmsford : Report on Indian Constitutional Reform. 
Report of the Indian Industrial Commission. 
Prices and Wages in India Annual. Calcutta. 
Index Numbers of Prices in India. Annual. Caloutta 

2. Non-Official Publications. 

Adye (Sir J.), Indian Frontier Policy. Historical Sketch. London, 1897. 

Aga Khan (H. H.). India in Transition : a Study in Political Evolution. London, 1918. 

Anderson (G.), British Administration in India. London, 1921. 

Anderson (G.), <fc Subedar (M.), The Expansion of British India (1818-1S58). London, 1918. 

Archer (W ), India and the Future. London, 1917. 

Baden- Powell (B. H.), Land Systems of British India. 3 vols. Oxford, 1892.— A Miort 
Account of the Land Revenue and its Administration in British India. Oxford, 1894— 
The Indian Village Community. London, 1899. 

Ball (V.), The Coal Fields of India (new edition). Calcutta, 1914. 

Bonarjee(P. D ), Handbook of the Fighting Races of India. London, 1901. 

Brown (P.). Picturesque Nepal. London. 1912. 

Bruce (Hon Mrs. C. G.), Kashmir. London, 1912. 

Buckla id (E. C), Handbook for India, Bunnah, and Ceylon. 10th edition. London, 1919. 

Buckley (R. B ), The Irrigation Works of India. London, 1905. 

Burgess (J), The Chronology of Modern India, 1494-1894. Edinburgh, 1913. 

Campos (J. J. A.), History of the Portuguese in Bengal. London, 1919. 

Chailley (Joseph), Administrative Problems of British India. [Eng. Trans.]. London, 1911. 

Chirol (V.), The Middle Eastern Question. London, 1903. — Indian Unrest, London, 1911. 

Collier (Price), The West in the East. London, 1911. 

Cotton (C. W E.), Handbook of Commercial Information for India. Calcutta, 1920. 

Cotton (Sir H. J. S.), New India, or India in Transition. 2d. ed. London, 1904. 

Creagh (General Sir O'W.), Indian Studies. London, 1918. 

Crooke (W.), The Tribes and Castes of the North-West Provinces and Oudh. 4 vols. 
Calcutta, 1896. The Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India. 2 vols. London, 
1897. The North-West Provinces of India, their History, Ethnology, and Administration. 
London, 1897. 

Cunningham (J. D.), A History of the Sikhs; New edition, revised by H. L. O. Garrett. 
London, 1919. 

Curtis (L.), Dyarchy (papers relating to). London, 1921. 

Curzon (Lord), Speeches in India. London. 1906.— The Place of India in the Empire. 
London, 1909. 

Das (G.), The Governance of India. Madras, 191S. 

Dautremer (J.), Burma under British Rule. London, 1913. 

Dewnr (D ), Handbook to English Pre-mutiiiv Records of the United Provinces. 
Allahabad, 1921. 

Dickinson (G. Lowes), An Essay on the Civilisation of India, China and Japan. 
London, 1914. 

Douie (J.), The Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Kashmir. Cambridge, 1918, 

JDu6ot8(J.A ).Hindu Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies. [Eng. Trs.] 3rd ed. Oxford, 1906. 

Dutt (R. C), Economic History of British India. London, 1902. — India in the Victorian 
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Elliot (Sir H. M.) History of India as told by its own Historians. The Mussulman 
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Elwin (E. F.), India and the Indians. London, 1912. 

Enriquez (C. M.), A Burmese Enchantment. Calcutta, 1916.— The Pathan Borderland. 
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Filippl (Filippo de), Karakorum and Western Himalaya. London, 1912. 

Fisher (F B ), and Williams (G. M), India's Silent Revolution. London, 1920. 

Forrest (G. W.), History of the Indian Mutiny. 4 vols. Edinburgh, 1904-1914 — Cities 
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Forsyth (J.), Highlands of Central India. London, 1919. 

Fortescue (Hon. John), Narrative of the Visit to India of their Majesties King George V. * 
Queen Mary, and of the Coronation Burbar held at Delhi, December 12, 1911. London, 1912. 

Foster (W.), The English Fartories in India. 7 vols Oxford. 

Frazer (L.), India under Curzon and After. London, 1911. 

Frazer (R. W.), British India in 'Story of the Nations' series. London, 1897.— 
Literary History of India. London, 1920. 



' 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 157 

Fuller (Sir Barapfylde), The Empire of India. London, 1913. 
Gilchrist (R. N.), Indian Nationality. London, 1920. 
Gordon (Sir J.), The Sikhs. London, 1905. 

Gough (8ir C), and Innes (A. D), The Sikhs and the Sikhs' War. London. 
Grierson (Sir O. A.), Linguistic Survey of India. Calcutta, 1918. 

Grijfin (Sir Lepel H.), The Rajas of the Punjab, being the History of the principal States 
in the Punjab. 2nd edit. London, 1872. 

Hall(H F.), The Soul of a People. [Buddhism in Burma.] London, 1902.— A People 
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Hamilton(C. J.). Trade Relations between EnglandandIndia(1600-lS96j. Calcutta, 1919. 
Harell (E. B.) The History of Aryan Rule in India. London, 1919. 
Hill (S. C.) (Editor), Indian Records Series. Bengal, 170S-57 3 vols. London, 1905. 
Holder-nets (Sir T. W.), Peoples and Problems of India. London, 1912. 
Holdich (Sir T. H.). Th« Indian Borderland. London, 1901.— India. In Regions of the 
World Series. Oxford and London, 1904.— The Gates of India. London, 1910. 
Hol**e*(T. R.), History of the Indian Mutiny. 5th ed. London. 

Hunter (Sir W. W.>, Life of the Earl of Mayo. London. 1S76.— Annals of Rural Bengal. 
London, 1S97. (Editor) Rulers of India Series. London, 1890-99.— History of Bnti.-h 
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Ilbfl (Sir C. P.) The Government of India. 2nd edition. Oxford, 1913. 
Industrial India (Periodical). London. 
Innes (McL.), Jhe Sepoy Revolt. London, 1897. 
Kale (Vainan Govin.i), Indian Administration. Poena, 1914. 

Kaye (Sir J. W.), The Administration of the East India Company : a History of Indian 
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1857-58. Xewed. 6 vols. London, 1897. 
K>ith (A. R), The Samkhya Svntem. 1919. 
Ketkar (S. V.), An Essay on Indian Economics. Calcutta, 1914. 
Keynes (J. M.), Indian Currency. London, 1913. 

Kineaid (C. A.), and Paratiu* (R.B.D.B.), A History of the Maratha People, 1919. 
Kydd (J. C ), A History of Factory Legislation in India. Calcutta, 192 1. 
Latifi (A.), The Industrial Punjab : A survey of facts, conditions, and possibilities. 
London, 1911. 

Lee-Warner (Sir W.), The Protected Princes of India. London, 1894.— The Native 
States of India. London. 1910. 

Letters received bv the East India Company from its Servants in the East. Vols. 
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Lorttt (Sir V.), A History of the Indian Nationalist Movement London, 1920. 
Lyall (Sir A.), The Rise and Expansion of the British Dominion in India. 4th ed. 
London. 1907. 

Vacdonald (A. J.),Trades, Politics, and Christianity in Africa and the East. London,1916. 
Maedonald (J. B.). The Government of India. London, 1919. 
Matthai (Jonn). Village Government in British India. London, 1915. 
Meutey-Thompton (E. C.) India of To-day. London, 1915. 
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Uookerji (R.), A Historv of Indian Shipping. London, 191S. 
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Murray's Handbook for Travellers in India. Ceylon, and Burma. London, 1919. 
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Nitbet (J.), Bunnah under British Rule— and Before. London, 1901. 
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Robert* (Field Marshal Lord), Forty-one Tears in India, from Subaltern to Commander- 
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Bu»*»li(R. V.)acd Lai (R. B. II.). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of 
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Sarkar (J.), Economics of British India. 4th edition. Calcutta, 1917. 
Scott (Sir G.), Burma : a Handbook of Practical, Commercial, and Political Information. 
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158 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — BALUCHISTAN 

Shah (K. T.), Governance of India Bombay, 1917. 

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Shirras (G. F.), Indian Finance and Banking. London, 1919. 

Singh (St. Nihal), The King's Indian Allies: the Rajas and their India. London, 1916. 

Smith (V. A.), The Early History of India from 600 b.c. to the Mnhammadan Conquest. 
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Thurston (E.), The Madras Presidency. Cambridge, 1913. 

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Townsend (M.), and Smith (G.), Annals of Indian Administration, 1856-75. 19 vols. 
Serampore and Calcutta. 

Trotter (L. J.), and Button (W. H.), History of India. London, 1917. 

Vansittart (E.), and Nicolay (B. U.), Nepal. Calcutta, 1915. 

Visvesvaraya (Sir M.), Reconstructing India. London, 1920. 

Wacha (D. E.), Rise and Growth of Bombay Municipal Government. Madras, 1913. 

Ward (F. K.), In Farthest Burma. London, 1921. 

Wardle (Sir Thomas), Kashmir and its Silk Industries. London, 1904. 

Watson (3. Forbes), and Kaye (Jn. Wm.), The People of India : a Series of Photographic 
Illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the Races and Tribes of Hindustan. 4 vols. 
Imp. 4. London, 1866-70. 

Watt (Sir G.), The Commercial Products of India. London, 1908. 

Wilson (H. M.), Irrigation in India. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C. 1903. 

Wolff (H. W.), Co-operation in India. Calcutta, 1919. 

Workman (F. B. & W. H.), Two Summers in the Ice-wilds of Eastern Karakoram. 
London, 1917. 

Woodrojfe (Sir J.), Is India Civilised ? Madras, 1919. 

Yoe (Shway), The Burman, his Life and Notions. 2nd ed. London, 1896. 

Yusuf-Ali (A.), Life and Labour in India. London, 1907. 

BALUCHISTAN. 

CrOVeninieilt, &C. — A country occupying the extreme western corner of 
the Indian Empire, approximately between lat. 24° 54' and 32° 4' N., and 
between long. 60' 56' and 70° 15' E. ; extreme length from E. to W. about 
550 miles ; breadth about 450 ; area, 134,638 square miles ; population 
(1911 census), 834,703. Bounded on the N. by Afghanistan and the North- 
West Frontier Province, on the E. by Sindh, the Panjab, and a part of the 
Frontier Province, on the S. by the Arabian Sea, on the W. by Persia, 
the boundary disputes with which were settled in 1905. The main divisions 
constituting an area of 134,638 square miles are : (1) British Baluchistan 
proper, with an area of about 9,096 square miles, consisting of tracts 
assigned to the British Government by treaty in 1879 ; (2) Agency Terri- 
tories, with an area of about 45,132 square miles, composed of tracts which 
have from time to time been acquired by lease, or otherwise brought under 
control, and placed directly under British ofhcers ; and (3) the native States 
of Kalat and Las Bela, with an area of about 80,410 square miles, the 
former consisting of a confederation of tribes under the Khan of Kalat, and 
stretching westwards to Persia, while tho latter occupies the alluvial valley 
between the Pab and Hala ranges from the sea to Bela. 

British and Administered Territory. — British Residents were appointed 
to the courts of the Khans of Kalat from tho middle of the nineteenth century, 
and British expeditions passed through the Boliin on their way to Kandahar 
and Afghanistan, but up to 1876 the country was considered independent. 
In 1875 Sir Robert Sandeman, the founder of the Baluchistan Province, first 
entered the country ; in 1877 the cantonment of Quetta, which is now the 
headquarters of the Administration, was occupied by British troops, and 
in 1879 the administration of the district was taken over on behalf of the 
Khan of Kalat. After the Afghan war, 1878-81, the districts of Pisbin, 
Shorarud, Duki, Sibi, and Shahrig were assigned to the British and in 



GOVERNMENT 15<J 

November, 1887, were formally constituted u British Baluchistan. In 1883, 
the districts of Quetta and Bolan were made over by the Khan to the British 
on an annual quit-rent of 25,000 rupees and 80,000 rupees respectively. In 
1886, the Bori valley, in which is now the cantonment of Loralai, was occupied. 
In 1887, the Khetran country, now known as the Barkhan tahsil, was 
brought under British control ; in 1889 British authority was established in the 
Zhob valley and Kakar Khurasan ; in 1896 Chagai and Western Sinjrani were 
included in administered territory ; in 1 899, the Xuskhi Niabat was made over 
by the Khan of Kalat on an annual quit- rent of 9,000 rupees ; and in 1908 
the Nasirabad tahsil was acquired from the Khan on an annual quit-rent of 
117,500 rupees. The area of British and administered territory, including 
tribal areas, is 54,228 sq. miles, and the population (1911) 414,412. The 
head of the civil administration is the Chief Commissioner and Agent to 
the Governor-General. The area under his direct administration is divided 
into 6 districts, each in charge of a Political Agent as follows : Quetta- 
Pishin, Sibi, Zhob, Loralai, Bolan Pass, Chagai. The Political Agent in 
charge of the Bolan Pass is also Political Agent for Kalat and Las Bela. 
The revenue administration of the Province is entrusted to an officer who is 
styled the Revenue and Judicial Commissioner. 

In the directly administered territory the chief items of revenue are: 
Land revenue, excise, court fees and stamps, and judicial fines. In 
some places the land revenue is levied in money in accordance with a fixed 
assessment, but generally it is levied in kind. This is usually one-sixth of 
the crop ; but in the Sibi tahsil it is two-ninths, and on the lands of the 
Shebo and Khushdil irrigation canals, constructed by the Government, the 
proportion is one third In Nasirabad the assessment per acre of the 
cultivated area varies from 8 annas to Rs. 4 according to the crops raised 
and means of water-supply. For revenue purposes each district is divided 
into tahsils, each of which is in charge of an Indian official known as a 
Tansildar, who has a Naib-Tahsildar, Kanungos and Patwaris subordinate 
to him. The revenue from all sources in 1919-20 was Rs. 20,01,948 ; and in 
1918-19, Rs. 18,49,523. 

Almost all cases in which local men are concerned are referred to 
' councils of elders ' (locally called jirga) for settlement along the well- 
tried lines of the ancient customary and tribal law. This system of 
settlement of cases forms an integral and essential part of the machinery 
for the administration of Civil and Criminal justice in Baluchistan. During 
1916 5857 cases were disposed of by Jirgahs. Appeals from, or rather 
applications for revision of, the jirga decision! when confirmed by the 
district officers, lie to the Agent to the Governor General and Chief 
Commissioner in Baluchistan. Cases in which aliens are concerned are 
settled by Regular Courts and the highest court of appeal in such cases 
is tHe Judicial Commissioner in Baluchistan. 

Regular troops are cantoned at Quetta, Chaman, Fort Sandeman, and 
Loralai, and detachments are stationed at different places, principally in the 
Zhob and Loralai Districts, for the preservation of law and order. There 
is also a police force, supplemented by levies and the Zhob militia, Makran 
and Chagai Levy Corps. The latter are recruited from the local tribes, and 
have their own leading men as officers. 

The medical work of the Province is under the Residency Surgeon and 
Chief Medical Officer, and there are Civil Surgeons at Quetta, Sibi, Loralai, 
Fort Sandemana and Chaman, and Civil Assistant-Surgeons at Quetta, Sibi, 
Kalat and Pangur, and Railway Assistant -Surgeons at Shahrig and Mach. 

The Xative States of Kaldi and Las Bela.— The leading chief of Kalat 



160 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — BALUCHISTAN 

is His Highness Sir Mir Mahinud Khan, G.C.I.E., Beglar B4gi Khan or 
Wali of Kalat, who succeeded on the abdication of his father, the late 
Mir Khudadad Khan, in November, 1893. 

The Khan of Kalat is the head of a confederacy of chiefs, but the 
extent of his control has now been considerably reduced. In all important 
matters he is amenable to the advice of the Agent to the Governor-General 
in Baluchistan, who also arbitrates in disputes between the Khan and minor 
chiefs. The area of Kalat State, including Mikran and Kharan, is 73,278 
square miles, and the population 359,086 (1911 census). 

The Khan's revenue, including the subsidies and rents for the leased 
areas paid by the British Government, amounts to about 12,00,000 rupees 
annually. The Khan has an irregular force of 301 cavalry, infantry, and 
artillery, and 12 guns. The chief towns in the State are Kalat, Mastung, 
Rhag, Gaudawa, Dadhar, Turbat, and Panjgur. 

The ruling chief of Las Bela has the title of Jim. Jam Mir Khan, the 
grandfather of the present chief, succeeded in 1840 ; Jim Ali Khan, 
his father, succeeded in 1889 ; and Jam' Mir Kamal Khan, CLE., the present 
chief, succeeded in 1896. The area of the State is 7,132 square miles ; popu- 
lation,. 61,205 (1911 census): revenue varies from 3 to 4 lakhs; military 
force. 112 infantry, 10 cavalry, and 3 guns ; military police force, 59 men. 
Before the British occupation the ruler of Las Bela was a feudatory of the 
Khan of Kalat, but in recent times the connection has almost entirely ceased. 
The State is under the control of the Political Agent in Kalat. 

General. — The most numerous races in Balfichistan are the Brahiii, 
Pathan and Baloch, 554,800. The Brahuis occupy the centre of the 
country stretching through Chagai to meet the Baloch of Western Sanjrani, 
and southwards to the Lasis and the Baloch of Makran. The Pathans are 
chiefly contained within British and administered territory. The Baloch are 
distributed through the southern regions in the Marri and Bugti country, 
the Kachhi plain, the Nasirabad tahsil, the Dombki, Umrani, and Kaheri 
country, and Makran. The Lasis (27,800), are almost wholly confined to 
Las Bela, the term Lasi being of modern invention. The other inhabitants 
are either scattered, as. the Chuttas and Saiads, or are subject races and 
occupational groups such as the Jat cultivators of the Kachhi plain, the 
Dehwar cultivators of the uplands, the Darzadahs and Naqibs of Makran, 
and the Ghulams who are of servile origin. There are also indigenous 
Hindus (15,000) living under the protection of the tribes and carrying on 
the trade of the country. 

Religion and Instruction.— The religion of the native population 
is cither Mussulman, in general of the Sunni sect, or Hindu. The Mussul- 
mans numbered (1911) 782,648 ; Hindus, 37,602 ; Christians, 5,085 ; Sikhs, 
8,390 ; others, 978. At the close of 1919-20 there were 76 Government and 
aided and unaided schools in the province ; 7 of these were for girls. Of 
the 3,634 pupils 605 were girls. Nearly half the pupils were Hindus, 
children of men from Sind and the Panjab in trade or in Government 
service. Besides these there were 201 private schools with 2,826 pupils. 

Production and Industry.— The country consists largely of barren 
mountains, deserts and stony plains ; its climate is subject to the extremes 
of heat and cold, and the rainfall is uncertain and scanty. Here and there 
the mountains are tree-clad, and cultivation is carried on wherever water is 
found. An attempt is being made to bud the wild olive trees of the 
country with buds from cultivated European olives. If the experiment 
is successful, an olive-oil industry may be subsequently established. 
The agricultural products are wheat, barley, millet, lucerne, rice, 



COMMERCE — COMMUNICATIONS 161 

maize, and potatoes ; while grapes, apricots, peaches, apples, and melons 
are grown in abundance. Paujgiir in Makran is famous for its dates. Among 
wild animals are the markhor, urial (wild-sheep), Sind ibex, ravine-deer, 
bear, and panther, and the chief domestic animals are the camel, horses, oxen 
and cows, and donkeys. 

Little is yet known of the mineralogy of the country. Iron and lead are 
found near Khuzdar ; coal is worked at Khost on the Sindh-Pishin railway, 
and in the Sor hills near Quetta. Asbestos and chromite have been found 
in Zhob, and chromite also in the Quetta Pishin district. There are oil 
springs at Khattan in the Marri couutry, but these are not now worked. 
Sulphate of iron has been found in Kalat and sulphate of aluminium in 
Chagai. Salt is manufactured in Pishin, in the Zhob district, and in the 
Kalat State. Promising deposits of salt were discovered in 1917-18 
in the Chagai district, development of which is under consideration. 
Local manufactures are unimportant. A few matchlocks and other 
weapons are made, and various kinds of ironwork for agricultural pur- 
poses. The nomad tribes make felts, rough blankets, and rugs. Brahui 
women are famous for their needle-work. Leather-work and pottery are 
manufactured in Kachhi. There is a brewery as well as a government 
distillery for the manufacture of country spirit at Quetta, and also mills foi 
grinding flour, pressing chaff, manufacturing patent coal-fuel, and ice. 
A museum at Quetta was opened in 1906. The Indian Staff College was 
opened at Quetta in 1907. 

Commerce. — The land traffic with India passes either by railway or Ly 
the routes from Kalat and Las Bela to Sind, and through the Loralai district, 
to the Punjab. The value of the trans-frontier imports (excluding purely 
transit trade between places in Baluchistan, and the trade by road 
between Karachi and Kalat and Las Bela) from Kalat and Las Bela into 
India in 1918-19 was Rs. 14,46,561, and of the exports from India to Kalat 
and Las Bela, Rs. 5,51,355. (This trans-frontier trade is regarded since 
April 1, 1919, as internal traffic, and statistics are discontinued.) The chief 
exports from the Province are fruit, drugs, fish, mats, and wool ; imports 
consist of piece-goods, chiefly of Indian manufacture, metal ware, tea, sugar, 
and canned goods. 

Over-sea trade is carried on through ports on the Makran coast with 
India, the exports consisting of dates, matting and dried fish, and the im- 
ports chiefly of piece-goods and food grains. The greater part of this trade 
is with the Bombay Presidency. 

The principal imports into Baluchistan from foreign countries, viz., 
Afghanistan and Persia, are fruit, ghee, wool, sheep, horses and ponies. 
I Piece-goods in large quantities, indigo, tea, sugar, and metals are sent to these 
i countries through Baluchistan. 

Communications. — Good roads connect the more important centres in 
rectly administered places. There are 976 miles of metalled and 
i partly metalled roads and 2,130 of unmetalled roacU and paths. 

The North- Western railway, which has the standard gauge of 51 1. 6in., 
enters Baluchistan near Jhatpat and crosses the Kachhi plain to Sibi, where 
it bifurcates, one branch going by Harnai and the other by Quetta, and re- 
unites at Bostan, whence the line runs to Chaman. A line of railwav t 
Nushki S2J miles long, which cost about 7,000,000 rupees, was opened 
for traffic in 1905, and an extension of the railway line from Nushki up 



102 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — SIKKIM 

to Duzdap on the Persian border, and also a short line from Khanai toHindu- 
bagh, a distance of about 45 miles, were completed in 1917. 

There is a complete and frequent postal service in British and adminis- 
tered territory, extending to Kalat and through Duzdapto Seistan andMeshed. 

A network of telegraph wires covers the north-eastern portion of the 
Province and extends to Kalat, and westwards via. Nushki to Killa Robat. 
where it connects with the Indo-European system, while a further line laid 
down in 1907 connects India with Persia and Europe, via Las Bela, Panjgur, 
and Nok Kundi. 

Agent to Governor- General in Batechistdn. — The Hon. Lieut. -Colonel 
A. B. Dew, C.S.I., CLE. 

Works of Reference. 

The Administration Report of the Baluchistan Agency. Annual. Calcutta. 

Accounts relating to the Trade by Land of British India with Foreign Countries. 
Annual. Calcutta. 

Census of India, 1911. Baluchistan. 

Aitchison's Treaties. 

The District Gazetteers of Baluchistan. 

Floyer (E. A.), Unexplored Baluchistan. London, 1882. 

Holdich(8\T T. H.), The Indian Borderland. London, 1901. 

Hughes (A. W.), The Country of Baluchistan. London, 1877. 

MacQregor (Sir C), Wanderings in Baluchistan. London, 1882. 

MeLeod Innes (General J. J.), Life and Times of General Sir James Browne. London, 1905. 

McMahon (Sir A. H.) and Holdich (Sir T. H.), Papers on the North-Western Border- 
lands of Baluchistan in ' Geographical Journal.' Vol. ix. pp. 392-416. London, 1897. 

Oliver (E. E.), Across the Border, or Pathanand Baluch. London, 1891. 

Bonaldshay (Earl of), Sport and Politics under an Eastern Sky. Edinburgh, 1902. 

Thornton (T. H.), Life of Colonel Sir B. Sandeman. London, 1895. 



SIKKIM. 

An Indian State in the Himalayas, bounded on the N. by Tibet, on 
the E. by the Tibetan district of Chumbi, and by Bhutan, on the S. by 
the British district of Darjiling, and on the W. by Nepal. Extreme length 
from N. to S. 70 miles ; extreme breadth, 50 miles ; area, 2,818 square miles. 

In March, 1890, a treaty was signed by the Viceroy of India and the Chinese 
representative, by which the British protectorate over Sikkim is recog- 
nised by China. The British Government hts direct and exclusive control 
over the foreign relations. The present Maharaja is H.H. Tashi Namoyai.,. 
CLE., who succeeded on December 5, 1914. His Highness and the mem- 
bers of the Council carry on the administration, full powers having been 
granted to him in April, 1918. 

Population in 1911, 87,920. The inhabitants are Bliutias, Lepehai-, 
and Nepalese, the last-named being now the most numerous. Principal 
towns are Gangtok, the capital, Rhenok, Pakyong, Rangpo, Laclnn. and 
Lachung. The State religion is Buddhism, but the majority of the people 
arc Hindu. 

The gross revenue is about 37,0002. per year. The landlords exeiuise a 
limited jurisdiction within their districts; important cases being referred to 
the Sikkim chief court. 

Sikkim produces rice, Indian corn, and other millets, cardamoms, 
oranges, apples, and woollen cloth. Fruit gardens are maintained by the 
State. There are extensive forests in the State and wide tracts of 
unoccupied waste. The principal trade route from Bengal to Tibet passes 




ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS 163 

through Sikkim. Imports into Sikkim from, and exports from Sikkim to, 
India :— 

- ,i 915 " 14 x 1915-16 1915-17 1917-18 1918-19 

£ £ 

Imports from India 108,605 110,0(7 

Exports to India 201,385 181,370 

The chief imports into Sikkim are cotton piece goods, oils, provisions, 
salt, manufactured silk, sugar, tea, tobacco, and rice ; the chief exports from 
Sikkim food grains and vegetables, hides and skins, raw wool, and timber. 

Political Officer.— C. A. Bell, Esq., C.M.G., CLE. 
References. 

A collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sanads relating to India and neighbouring 
countries. By C. C. AitcMson. Volume II. Calcutta. 

Routes in .Sikkim, compiled in the Intelligence Branch of the Qoartermaater-Gaaeral > 
Department in India. Br Captain W. P. O'Connor. Calcutta, 1890. 

Donaldson ( Florence). Lepcha Land, or Six Weeks in the Sikhim Himalayas. London, 
1900. 

Edgar (Sir John), Report on a Visit to Sikkim in 1873. Calcutta, 1874. 

FrtthJUld (D. W.), Round Kangchenjunga. London, 1903. 

Louis (J. O. H.), At the Gates of Tibet. London. 

Strakan (Lieut. -Col.), Report on Explorations in Sikkim. Dehra Dun, 1999. 

Waddell, Among the Himalayas. 

White (J. Claude), Sikkim and Bhutan London, 1909. 

ANDAMAN AND NIC0BAB ISLANDS. 

The Andaman Islands lie in the Bay of Bengal, 590 miles from the 
mouth of the Hugli, 120 miles from Cape Negrais in Burma, the nearest point 
ou the mainland. Five large islands closely grouped together are called the 
Great Andaman, and to the south is the island of Little Andaman. There 
are some 200 islets, the two principal groups being the Andaman Archipelago 
and the Labyrinth Islands. The total area is 2,260 square miles. 
The Great Andaman group is about 219 miles long and, at the widest, 
32 miles broad. The group, densely wooded, contains many valuable 
trees, the best known oi which is the po.duuk cr Andaman redwood 
(Pterocarpus dalbtrgioides) . The islands are hilly, the highest point, Saddle 
Peak, being 2,402 feet, and Mount Harriet, 1,196 feet in height. The islands 

Fs a number of harbours and safe anchorages, notably, Port Blair, 
ort Cornwallis, and Stewart Sound, the last being most favourably situated 
for forest trade. The climate is tropical, the rainfall irregular and often 
excessive. The aborigines, 1,817 (628 males and 689 females) in 1911, 
(against 1,882 in 1901), live in small groupso?er the islands ; they are savages 
of a low Negrito type. The total population ol the Andaman Islands in 
1920 was 16,316 (14,297 males and 2,019 females). In 1318-19 the forest 
sales, the result of convict and free labour, amounted to 11,84,364 rupees. 
Tea, the coconut, rubber {Herea brasilicnsis), Manila hemp {Atitsa textilis), 
and Bahamas aloe {Agave sisalana) are successfully cultivated. In 1920 there 
were 10,753 head of cattle. Wireless telegraphy with Burma was established 
in 1904. A mail steamer connects Port Blair with Calcutta, Rangoon, and 
Madras. The islands are used by the Government of India as a penal settle- 
iment for life and long-term convicts. The settlement possesses about 22,468 
lacres of cleared land and 83 square miles of reserved forest. There were, 
in 1920, 15,553 convicts (including 404 women) in the place, of whom 

u 2 



164 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

some 1,211 were on ticket-of-leave in the settlement supporting them- 
selves. Of the women, about half are on ticket-of-leave, and married to 
convicts. The Andaman Islands are under the Government of India, 
and the Officer in Charge is the Chief Commissioner. The Civil, Military 
and convict population of Port Blair in 1919 was 16,316. 

The Kicobar Islands are situated to the South of the Andamans, 75 
miles from Little Andaman. There are nineteen islands, seven uninhabited ; 
gross area, 635 square miles. The islands are usually divided into three group.-:, 
Southern, Central and Northern, the chief islands in each being respectively, 
Great Nicobar, Camorta with Nancowry, and Car Nicobar. There is a line 
land-locked harbour between the islands of Camorta and Nancowry, known 
as Nancowry Harbour. The Nicobarese inhabitants, numbering 8,818 (4,833 
males and 3,985 females) in 1911, are a variety of the Majay (more piob- 
ably Talaing* race. They are known to have eagerly pursued the coconut 
trade for at least 1,500 years. English and Hindustani are understood in 
most villages. The coconut production is estimated at 15 million nuts 
per annum, of which si me 5 mijlion are sold by barter and exported in 
small-native craft and Chinese junks in the form of copra. The climate 
is tropical and, except, perhaps, at Car, unhealthy for Europeans. The 
Government is represented by a permanent agent and an assistant agent. 
The islands are attached to the chief Commissionership of the Andamans 
and Nicobars. 

Chief Commissioner at Port Blair. — Lieut. -Col. H. C. Beador. 
OLE., LA. 

Annual Administration Reports by the Chief Commissioner.— Selections from tli« 
Records of the Government of India (Home Department) Nos. XXV. and LXXVII. 

Klott (C. B.), In the Andamans and Nicobars. London, 1903. 

LACCADIVE ISLANDS. 
A group of 14 islands (9 inhabited), about 200 miles off the west or Malabar 
coast of the Madras Presidency. The northern portion is attached to the 
eollectorate of South Kanara, the remainder to the administrative district of 
Malabar. Population 10,600, nearly all Muhammadans. The language is 
either Malayalam or Mahl. The staple product is the fibre known as coir. 

Keeling Islands. See Straits Settlements. 
Kuria Muria Island. See Aden. 

THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 
Constitution and Government. 

Thk Straits Settlements, a Crown colony, which comprises Singaportj 
Tenang (including Province Wellesley and the Dindings), and Malacca, were 
transferred from the control of the Indian Government to that of the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies on April 1, 1867. The Cocos Islands 
were placed under the Straits Settlements in 1886, and Christmas Island 
in 1889. Christmas Island was annexed to the Settlement of Singapore 
in 1900, and the Cocos Islands in 1903. 

By a proclamation dated October 30, 1906, the boundaries of the Colony 
woe extended so as to include the Colony of Labuan, with effect from 
January 1, 1907. 



AREA AND POPULATION 



165 



The administration of the colony is in the hands of a Gorernor, aided by 
an Executive Council, composed of the General Officer commanding the 
troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Resident Councillor of Penang, the 
Attorney-General, the Treasurer, and the Colonial Engineer. There is a 
Legislative Council, presided over by the Governor, of t^n official and 
eight unofficial members, nominated by the Crown. 

Governor. — Sir Laurence N. Guillemard, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

The governor is also High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States 
of Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and Pahang, High Commissioner of 
Brunei, and British Agent for North Borneo and Sarawak. 

There are municipal bodies in each settlement, the members of which are 
appointed by the Governor. 

Area and Population. 

Singapore is an island about twenty-seven miles long by fourteen 
wide, with an area of 217 square miles, separated from the sou then: 
extremity of the Malay Peninsula by a strait three-quarters of a mile in 
width. A number of small islands adjacent form part of the settlement. 
The seat of government is the town of Singapore, at the south-eastern 
point of the island. Penang is an island of 108 square miles, off the west 
coast of the Malayan Peninsula, and at the northern entrance of the Straits 
of Malacca. On the opposite shore of the mainland, distant from two to 
ten miles, is Province Wellesley, a strip of territory forming part of the 
Settlement of Penang, averaging eight miles in width, and extending 
forty-five miles along the coast, including ten miles of territory to the 
south of the Krian ; total area 280 square miles. The chief town of Penang 
is George Town. Off the coast of Perak is the small island of Pangkor, 
which, together with a strip of the mainland, is British territory, the whole 
being known as the Dindings. Malacca is on the western coast of the 
peninsula between Singapore and Penang — about 110 miles from the former 
and 240 from the latter ; it is a strip of territory 42 miles in length, 
and from eight to 24 miles in breadth. 

The population, according to the census of 1911, was 714,069 (467,374 
males and 246,695 females). The estimated population for 1918 and 1919, 
inclusive of the military, is as follows : — 





Singapore l 


Penang - Malacca 


Totals 




e* 


Females Males 

I 


Females Males 


Females 


Males 


iwi 


Europeans and i 
Americans . J 
Eurasians . . 
Asiatics . . . 


4,936 

2,6sM 

254,170 


1,941 

2,890 
103,140 


863 

tn 

184,747 


411 265 

1,02s 888 
114,165 88,800 


1,018 
57,984 


6,064 

4,410 
527,723 


2,449 

4,936 

275,289. 




261,806 


107,971 


186,438 


115,604 89,953 


59,099 


538,197 


282,674 


Totals (1913) 
Estimated 
Totals (1919) 
Estimated 


369,777 
3*7,336 


302.042 149,052 
305,739 153,008 


820,871 
846,083 


274,233 | 113,09$ 188,720 | 117,0191 92,340 | 60,668 


555,298 | 290,785 



1 Inc.usire of Christmas, Cocos-Keeling, and Labnsn Islands. 
- IncUaire of ProTinco Wsllesley and Dindings. 



166 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 



In 1918 there were in the Settlements : about 274,574 Malays ; 432,764 
Chinese, and 94,213 natives of India. 

The births and deaths in 1918 were as follows : — 



- 


Singapore 


Penang 


Endings jPro™| Ma]ac08 


Labuan 


Total 


Births . ' 9,585 
Deaths . j 15,372 


4,110 1 349 i 4,100 5,300 
6,685 i 730 5,676 1 7, (538 


249 
198 


23,702 
36,294 



Totals 1919 : births, 25,638 ; deaths, 27,957. 

In 1919 there were 70,912 immigrants from China, and 101,433 from 
Southern India. 

Education. 

Instruction, not yet compulsory throughout the colony, is partly 
supported by the Government in the case of grant-in-aid schools, and wholly 
in the case of Government English and Government Vernacular Schools. In 
Malacca, Penang Island outside Municipal limits, and Province Wellesley 
there -is compulsory attendance of Malay boys within a certain radius of a 
Malay vernacular school, where free instruction is given in their own language. 

The numbers of schools and pupils were as follows in 1918 : — 



Schools 



Government English schools . 
Grant-in-aid English schools . . . . 
Government vernacular boys' and girls' schools 
Orant-in-aid vernacular boys' schools . 

Total ....... 




26,534 



The expenditure on the schools in 1919 was 70,4462. 
There is a training college for Malay teachers in Malacca. 

Justice and Crime. 

The law in force is contained in local ordinances aud in such English and 
Indian Acts and Orders in Council as are applicable to the colony. The 
Indian Penal Code, with slight alterations, has been adopted, and there is 
a Civil Procedure Code based on the English Judicature Acts. There is a 
Supreme Court which holds assizes at Singapore and Penang every two 
months, and quarterly at Malacca, civil sittings monthly at Singapore and 
Penang, and once a quarter at Malacca. 

There are, besides, district courts, police courts and marine magistrates' 
courts. Convictions before the Superior Courts in 1918 were 604 ; before 
the other courts, 36,715 persons. Police force, 2,727 in 1919. Criminal 
prisoners admitted to the gaols in 1919, 4,235. 

Finance. 

Public revenue and expenditure for six years (1 dollar = 2s. Ad.) : — 



Tears 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


'■ Tears 


1913 


1,446,403 


£ 
1,221,338 


1917 


1916 


1,648,697 
2,021,831 


1,189,598 
1,288,741 


, 1918 
j 1919 



Revenue 



£ 
2,295,079 
8,718,901 

8,97!',:!21 



Kxpenditur< 

A 

1,326,429 
1,862,717 
4,071,811 



COMMLKCE 



167 



The leading items of revenue for 1919 were — licences, excise, and 
internal revenue not otherwise classified, 2,601,913/. ; posts and telegraphs, 
127, 643/.; fees of court or office, payments for specific serrices, and reim- 
bursements in aid, 85,948/.; rents of Government property, 144,755/. ; 
interest, 160,318/. ; land sales, 526,547/. ; and of expenditure— military 
expenditure, 509,796/.; marine, 53,108/. ; police, 140,978/. ; legal, 45, u. 
hospitals and dispensaries, 91,574/. ; medical, 33,403/.; education 
post office, 79,101/.; GoTernment monopolies, 56,561/.; public works, 
204,076/. ; pensions, 73,574/. ; war expenditure, 171,080/. 

The total assets of the colony, December 31, 1919, amounted to 
7.38S.505/., and liabilities 2,527,38'6/. The debt on December 31, 1919, 
amounted to 6,913,352/., borrowed for public works ; and 7,621,553/. war loin. 

Commerce. 

The Straits ports are free from customs duties, and their trade, centred at 
Singapore, is a transit trade. Kxcise duties are levied on wines, petroleu m, 
and tobacco. The chief exports comprise tin, pepper, nutmegs, mace, sago, 
tapioca, buffalo hides and horns, rattans, gutta-percha, rubber, gambier. 
gum, copra. The cultivation of rice is giving place to rubber and coconut*. 

Imports and exports for six years (inclusive of treasure and inclusive of 
trade with the Federated Maky States), including the trade of Labuan ami 
Christmas Island : — 



Yrs 



Exports 



»M l, 

1915 4. 
19181 g 



From 
U H. 

£ 

304, 92? 
626,814 
430.53S 
,53$, 771 
,385,0<0 



From 

Colonies, 

Ac. 

£ 

24,670,068 

30,423,400 

41,594,237 



From 
Foreign, 
Countries 



Total To U.K. 



To 
Colonies, 

to 



£ £ £ £ 

22,868,554 55,936,472 10,74". 



22,062,074 51.037 
27,191. i 

-'3 73,987 
83,554,^ 






To 

Foreign 
Countries 



ToU! 



20,512,610 
25.803,760 

ui.o-v NiMMH 
646,568 43,088,668 
,096,002 47,39S,255 

~ 



£ 

•7.4 IMM 
72,306,91S 

99,321,000 



i Exclusive of treasure down to the middle of 1919. 



Imports exclude transhipment goods. Exports do not include coal supplied to ships 
bunkers, ships' stores, telegraph cables, to., materials for building and repairing Teasels, 
and, since iyi2, they also exclude Para rubber from the Federated Malay States, tran- 
shipped in the Colony. 

Trade of the Straits Settlements during two years (inclusive of inter- 
colonial trade) : — 





Imports i Exports i 


. 


1917 


191S 1917 


1918 


Singapore . 

Fenang 

Malacca 

Labuan 

Christmas Island 

Dindings 


£ 

61,596,056 

,655 

2,713,033 

179,614 

26,581 

124,069 


£ £ 

67,219,2S5 57,382.366 

21,047,022 18,115,809 

2,285,909 5,229,993 

167,627 127,381 

137,541 

78,841 57,946 


£ 

57,940,909 

19,41' 

3,849,934 

135,575 

95,366 

69,404 



1 Exclusive of treasurt. 



108 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — THE STRATTS SETTLEMENTS 

The most important imports and exports in 1918, exclusive of inter-settle 
ment trade, were : — 



Principal Imports 



Tin Ore ... 
Rico and other grains 
Cotton Piece Goods, Yarns, 

&c 

Provisions .... 

Sugar ...... 

Tobacco,Cigars,& Cigarette. 1 
Fish, dried and salted 

Coal 

Live Animals 
Vegetables and Fruits 
Hardware <fc Ironware, in- 
cluding cooking utensils 



£ 
13,171, 
11,677, 

6,118, 

301, 

3,144. 

2,451, 

1,140, 

2,877. 

878, 

633, 



•276 
KM 

712 

720 
200 
651 

025 
915 

r,ST 
789 



;-16,460 



Principal Exports 



Tin 

Gums, including rubber;-. 

Spices, including Pepper 

Copra .... 

Hides, Raw . 

Sago 

Rattans .... 

Gambier .... 

Tapioca . 

Pineapples, preserved . 

Phosphates of Lime 



1918 

£ 

16,755,380 

18,915,842 

2,699,185 

'.•01,666 

94,287 

237,725 

399,882 

410,074 

8lc,991 

97,629 

90,000 



There may be said to be three classes of trade — passing, transit, actual ; passing trad 
being goods in vessels merely passing through Singapore for China, &c; transit trade 
goods changing bottom at Singapore, or landed and stored awaiting re-shipment. Thtsi 
two classes of trade are not included in the import and export statistics. Actual trade 
may be defined as goods brought for sale into Singapore and purchased there, eithei 
for consumption or for sale to other places whither they are said to be exported. Tht 
trade is a transit trade in the sense only that what is imported is exported withoui 
undergoing any process of manufacture. Exchange fluctuations affect the value of past 
statistical results, in times of low exchange the dollar value of goods having their origit 
in gold countries being enhanced; the same probably holding good, to a less extent, it 
the case of produce exported, but the dollar value having been fixed early in 1906 ai 
2s. 4&, this is the rate adopted since. 



The following figures are taken from the British Board of Trade Returns, 
the imports including produce from Borneo, Sarawak, and other eastern places, 
transhipped at Singapore, which is thus entered as the place of export : — 



- 


1913 
(pre-war) 


1917 


1918 


1919 


19201 


Imports(consignments) 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


* 


into U.K. from the 
Straits 

Exports of British pro- 
duce to the Straits . 

Exports of foreign and 
Colonial produce to 
the Straits 


15,799,502 
5,836,446 

169,201 


16,043,633 
4.890,268 

47,926 


10,815,006 
6,144,240 

53,755 


21,263,879 
6,288,920 

117.3S0 


17,956,959 
16,567,783 

338,974 



1 Provisional figures. 

The principal imports into the United Kingdom in 1919, were tin, 
4,750,638/. ; rubber, 7,107, 882/. ; sago and sago meal and flour, 1,320,542/.; 
Cassava powder and tapioca, 1,395,619/. ; coconut oil, unrefined, 277,932/. ; 
fruit, canned or bottled, 478,486/. ; copra, 1,S08,867Z. ; gutta percha, 
697,173/. ; pepper, 1,236,973/. ; hides, raw, 214,991/. ; gambier, 282,147/. 
The principal exports from the United Kingdom were : — cottons and 
cotton yarn, 2,612,663/. ; iron and iron and steel manufactures, 1,011,247/. ; 
machinery, 389,158/. ; soap, 95,437/. ; tobacco, 133,607/. ; spirits, 67,924/. 

Shipping and Navigation. 

The total tonnage of merchant vessels entered and cleared at the ports 
of the Colony during 1919, exclusive of native craft, was 18,885,183 tons, 



COMMUNICATIONS— MONEY, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES 1 GO 

including British, 10,081,120 tons; Japanese, 4,102,800 tons; Dutch, 
2,348,999 tons. The number of native and small craft entered and cleared 
was 63,770, with a tonnage of 2,566,091 tons. 

Communications. 

There is a railway from Singapore to "Woodlands on the Johore Strait*., 
communication between Woodlands and Johore being maintained by steam 
ferries. The Federated Malay States Railway extends from Parit Buntar 
in Krian to Kuala Prai in Province Wellesley, whence are steam ferries to 
Penang. There is a railway from Malacca to Tampin in the Negri Sembilan. 
All the railways have a gauge of one metre, and connect with the Federated 
Malay States Railway system, a continuation of which through Johore was 
opened in 1909. It is proposed to connect Singapore with the mainland by 
the construction of a causeway, carrying two lines of railway aud a 20-foot 
roadway, across the Johore Straits. Th-?re are electric tramway systems in 
Singapore and Penang. There are cables connecting Singapore, Malacca 
and Penang, and land lines from Singapore to Kuala Lnmpur and Penang, 
and from Malacca to Tampin. 

In 1919, 13,182,061 letters and other articles of correspondence were 
posted, and 9,355,950 delivered. The number of letters sent to China in 
1918 in clubbed packets was 1.011,228. The parcels posted (1918) numbered 
105,347, those delivered 76,561. 

From Labuan there are telegraph cables connecting with Hong Kong, 
Singapore, Sandakan, and the Continent. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

There are thirteen banks with establishments in the Colony. The amount 
of deposits in the Government Savings Bank on December 31, 1919, 
was 1,488,261 dollars, equivalent to 173,631/. 

The dollar, value 25. id. , is the standard coin of the Colony, and with 
the half-dollar and the British sovereign is legal tender for the payment of 
any amount. Subsidiary silver coins are 20, 10, and 5 cent pieces ; copper 
coins are cents, half-cents, and quarter-cents. On December 31, 1916, 
Government currency notes to the value of 68,394,140 dollars (7,979,316/.) 
were in circulation in the Colony and Federated Malay States. 

The measure of length in use in the Settlements is the English yard, 
with its divisions and multiples, and land is measured by the English acre. 
The native terms are, however, still in use. Commercial weights are : — 

1 Kati = 16 Tahil= 1 J lb. avoirdupois. 
1 Pikul =100 Kati = 133£ lbs. „ 

1 Koyan= 40 Pikul=5,333£ „ 

The kati of 1^ lbs. is known as the Chinese kati. Another weight, known 
as the Malay kati, and still in partial use in Penang, is equal to the weight of 
24 Spanish dollars, or 9,984 grains. This gives 142 628 lbs. as the weight 
of the pikul, and 5, 705 "143 lbs. as the weight of the koyan. The measures 
of capacity throughout the Colony are the gantang or gallon, and chupak or 
quart. 

The COCOS or Keeling Islands, a group of about twenty small coral 
islands, lie about 700 miles S. W. of Sumatra and 1,200 mile3 S.W. of 
Singapore. The estimated population in 1918 was 832. (Census population, 
1911, 749). 



170 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — FEDERATED MALAY STATES 

Christmas Island is 200 miles S.W. of Java and 700 miles E. of the 
Cocos Islands. It is 9 miles long and about 9 miles wide. The estimated 
population in 1918 was 2,180, most of the inhabitants, except the 
District Officer and his staff, being employed directly or indirectly by the 
company which works the enormous phosphate deposits which the island 
contains. Revenue, 1919, 3,051Z. ; expenditure, 1,490Z. Imports, 1917, 
26, 581 I., chiefly machinery, tools, railway material, locomotives, and lorries ; 
exports, 137,541*!. The sole source of wealth of the Island is phosphate 
of lime; 53,370 tons were exported in 1918, and 68,621 tons in 1919. 
Tonnage entered and cleared, 1919, 81,197 tons ; 1918, 71,926 tons. There 
is a railway in the island 

The island of Labuan lies about 6 miles from the north-west coast of 
Borneo, and since January 1, 1907, it has been incorporated with Singapore. 
Area 28£ sq. miles; the estimated population in 1918 was 6,848, mostly 
Malays from Borneo, with some Chinese traders and about 30 Europeans. 
Capital, Victoria, which has about 1,500 inhabitants. Revenue, 1919, 4,469/. 
expenditure, 9,5581. Shipping entered and cleared, 1919, 141,686 tons. 



THE FEDERATED MALAY STATES. 

The Federated Malay States of Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and 
Pahang, which occupy a large portion of the Malay Peninsula, are under 
British protection. The officer administering the Government of the Straits 
Settlements is ex officio H.M.'s High Commissioner for these States and the 
other Malay States in the British sphere. 

High Commissioner. — Sir Lawrence Nunns Guillemard, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

Chief Secretary to Government. — 

The following are the Rulers and Residents of the four States : — 

Ruler of Perak. — H. H. Sultan Iskandar Shah. Resident. — W. G. 

Maxwell, C.M.G. 
Ruhr of Selangor. — H.H. Sultan Sir Ala'u'd-din Sulaiman Shah, 

K.C.M.G. Resident.— A. H. Lemon, C.M.G. 
Ruler of Negri Sembilan. — H. H. Yang di-peituan Besar Sir Muhammad, 
K.C.M.G. Resident.— A. H. Lemon, C.M.G. (J. R, O. 
Aldworth, acting.) 
Rider of Pahang. — H.H. Sultan Abdullah. Resident. — C. W. C. Parr, 

O.B.E. 

In Perak, Selangor, and Sungai Ujong, which State was subsequently 
amalgamated with other States to form the Confederation of Negri Sem- 
bilan, Residents were appointed in 1874, with a staff of European officers 
whose duty was to aid the native rulers by advice, and to exercise executive 
functions. The supreme authority in each State is vested in the Slate 
Council, consisting of the Sultan, the Resident, the Secretary to the Resi- 
dent, and some ot the principal Malay chiefs and Chinese merchants. The 
Residents are under the control of the Chief Secretary and the High 
Commissioner. 

In 1883 the relations of the Straits Settlements with the small Native 
States on the frontier of Malacca were consolidated. These States were con- 
federated in 1889, under the name of Negri Sembilan (signifying Nine 
States). In January, 1895, Sungai Ujong (including Jelebu, which had been 



THE FEDERATED MALAY STATES 171 

administered by a Collector and Magistrate under the Resident of Sungai 
Ujong since 1888)and Negri Sembilan were placed nnder one Resident ; and in 
July, 1895, a treaty was signed by -which the administrations were amalga- 
mated. The new federation, which retains the ancient name of Negri Sem- 
bilan, comprises the States of Sungai Ujong, Johol, Jelebu, Rembau and five 
smaller States. In 1887, by agreement with the Raja of Pahang, the control 
of his foreign relations, sc, was surrendered to the British Government. 
This was followed by a further agreement in 1 SS8 with the Raja (now styled 
Sultan), under which Tahang was taken under British protection, on the same 
terms as the Protected Native States on the west coast of the peninsula. 
Pahang is situate on the east coast, within 200 miles by sea from Singapore. 
In July, 1896, the treaty between the four Protected Native States, Perak, 
Selangor, Pahang, and Negri Sembilan, and the British Government came 
into force by which the administrative federation of these States under a 
Chief Secretary is provided for, and the States agree to furnish a contingent 
of troops for service in the Colony should His Majesty's Government be at 
war with any foreign nation. 

The areas of these States, in square miles, are approximately: — Perak, 
7,800 sq. miles: Selangor, 3,156 sq. miles; Negri Sembilan, 2,550 sq. 
miles ; Pahang, 14,000 square miles ; total, 27,506 sq. miles. Perak, by 
agreement with Siam, has been extended by about 1,000 square miles (in- 
cluded in the figures given above). 

Population, census 1911: Perak, 494,057 (344,238 males and 149,819 
females); Selangor, 294,035 (220,939 males and 73,096 females); Negri 
Sembilan, 130,199 (87,651 males and 42,548 females); Pahang, 118,708 
(72,234 males and 46,474 females) ; total 1,036,999, (725,062 males, and 
311,937 females). The population contained 420,840 Malays, 433,244 
Chinese, 172,465 natives of India, 3,284 Europeans and Americans, and 
2,649 Eurasians. The preponderance of males over females is due to the 
number of Chinese immigrants. Estimated population, 1919, 1,315,700. 
The largest town in the States is Kuala Lumpur (in Selangor) with about 
60,000 inhabitants. Births, 1919, 32.335 ; deaths, 38,645. 

The police force, with European officers, consists of an Indian and a Malay 
contingent. In 1919 there were 93 European officers, the Indian contingent 
numbered 279 non-commissioned officers and 1,554 constables, and the Malay 
contingent numbered 285 non-commissioned officers and 1,565 constables ; 
total, 4,677 officers and men. There is also a detective branch, in charge of 
Europeans, consisting of Chinese, Tamils, Malays, ie. Finger-print regis- 
tration of all criminals in the Malayan Peninsula is carried out under the 
direction of a Federated Malay States police officer stationed in Kuala 
Lumpur. 

In Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and Pahang, in 1919, there were 
a number of English schools maintained or assisted by Government, with 
an average enrolment of 6,606 boys and 1,787 girls, and an average 
attendance of 6,143 and 1,651 respectively, and 390 (335 for boys and 
55 for giris) Malay Vernacular schools, with an average enrolment of 20,261 
scholars, and an average attendance of 16,851. The total number of 
schools (1919) was 533 with an average attendance of 27,323. There are 
several Chinese schools, but they are not under the control or supervision 
of the Education Department. Expenditure on education (excluding 
buildings) in 1919, 91.84U. 

The laws in force in each State of the Federation are contained in 
enactments passed by the State Councils, up to December, 1909, and from 
that date, where more than one State is affected, by the Federal Council. 



172 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — FEDERATED MALAY STATES 

This Council consists of the High Commissioner as President, the Chief 
Secretary, the Sultans of Perak, Selangor, and Pahang, the Yang di per Tuan 
Besar of Negri Sembilan, the four British Residents, the Legal Adviser, and 
five unofficial members, and in addition to legislation deals with the annual 
estimates of revenue and expenditure. All legislative enactments are submitted 
to the High Commissioner and the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The 
courts in the States are : — (1) The Supreme Court, comprising the Court of a 
Judicial Commissioner and the Court of Appeal. (2) The Court of a 
Magistrate of the first class. (3) The Court of a Magistrate of the second 
class. (4) The Court of a Kathi and the Court of Assistant Kathi. (5) The 
Court of a Penghulu. The Court of Appeal consists of two or more Judicial 
Commissioners, the chief Judicial Commissioner being President. There 
is a final appeal m civil matters to the Privy Council. 

The number of cases of murder, homicide, robbery, &c. , reported in 1917 
was 729, discovered 226 ; in 1918, reported 821, discovered 258. The 
number of prisoners in gaol on December 31, 1919, was 1,602. 

Efficient Government hospitals are established in all districts, with 
separate hospitals for Europeans. A very complete Institute of Medical 
Research has been established at Kuala Lumpur. 

The revenue of the States in 1919 was 8,415,7582., war tax, 562,710/., 
and the expenditure, 8,245,6452. (1918, revenue, 7,985,7002. ; expenditure, 
5,283,4732.). 

Leading items of revenue in 1919 were — licences, 2,090,861Z.; customs, 
2,102,8892.; railways, 1,745,0372. ; land revenue, 355,9532. ; fees of court or 
office, 296,6792.; interest, 595,6502. ; municipal, 242,1752.; war tax, 562 7102.; 
and of expenditure — railways, 3,082,5462. ; public works, 1,009,1132. ; 
miscellaneous service (including war contribution), 1,894,2302.; personal 
emoluments, 993,5772., other charges, 962,5002. ; interest on advances, 
105,0002. Public debt, 1919, 1,750,0002. 

The staple cultivations of the Federated Malay States are coconuts, 
rice, rubber, sugar, tapioca, pepper, gambier, and nipah palms. The 
chief industrial enterprises are the cultivation of rubber, and the mining 
of tin. The Krian irrigation works in Perak irrigate 70,000 acres ol rice (padi) 
land and supply drinking water to the district. The canal is 21 miles 
long with 16£ miles of branches and 188^ miles of distributory channels. 
The total area of rubber estates of over 100 acres at the end of 1915 
was 499,500 acres (78,284 tons were exported in 1918 and 106,453 tons in 
1919), and coconut estates, 54,800 acres (the total acreage under coconuts was 
182,000 acres). The forests produce many excellent timbeis, besides gutta- 
percha, oils, resins, and canes. In 1919 the total quantity of timber of all 
kinds taken from the forests, on which payment was made, was 955,960 
tons, in addition to a large quantity used free of royalty by the native 
Malay population and the tin miners. The gross revenue of the 
Forest Department for 1919 amounted to 213,8292. The duty on the 
export of tin forms the largest item of the revenue of the States on the West 
Coast. In 1919 the tin export amounted to 36,938 tons, and in 1918 to 
37,370 tons. Duty paid in 1919, customs, 1,160,1702., war-tax, 47,939/. 
In 1919, 16,402 ounces of gold, and in 1918, 18,309 ounces were produced 
in the Federated Malay States. Besides gold and tin, many minerals arc 
found, including lead, iron, copper, mercury, arsenic, manganese, wolfram 
(exports 1919, 430 tons), scheelite (exports 1919, 225 tons), plumbago, 
silver, zinc, and coal, but with the exception of coal, they have not so far 
been discovered in workable form. The exports of tungsten ore in 1919 
were 655 tons. The labour force engaged in mining at the end of 1919 
was 113,107. 



THE FEDERATED MALAY STATES 173 

The trade (excluding bullion and specie) was as follows in 1919 and 
1918:— 

t> i_ ' a i Nesri n . ToUl ToUl 

Perak Selangor ^^^ Pahang m , wu 



£ 4 £ £ £ £ 

Import* . 5,113,277 ' 6,500,221 1.582.7V0 670,118 18,866,412 8.720.M1 

Export* . 14,552.210 j 11,765,624 4,933,756 1,314,173 3S,565,762 20,024,400 

Chief items of import, 1919 :— rice, 3,870,066/.; opium, 330,405/. : 
tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes, 742,449/. ; cotton piece goods, 645,519/. ; 
sugar, 383,022/.; milk, condensed, 272,636/.; live animals, 473,524/.; 
spirits, 196,016/. ; petroleum, including benzine, 551,716/. ; ironware, 
254,046/. ; machinery, 495,968/. Chief exports, 1919 : cultivated rubber 
(106,453 tons), 22,059,244/. ; copra, 600,434/. ; tin and tin ore, 8,745,635/. ; 
metils, 101,903/. ; timber, 33,304/. ; hides, 24,52?/. Imports (excluding 
bullion and specie), 1919, from U.K., 1,394,000/. Exports to U.K., 
5,240.000/. Bullion and specie imported 1919, 74,742/. ; exported, 60,361/. 

Shipping, 1919 (excluding native craft) : entered, 3,545 vessels, 1,444.899 
tons; cleared, 3,538 vessels, 1,444,124 tons. Native craft, entered and 
cleared, 13,925 vessels, 372,117 tons. 

There were in the 4 States in 1919, 2,362 miles of metalled cart roads and 
1,791 miles of bridle roads and paths. There are also 700 miles of 
paths maintained by the Forest Department. The Government has made, 
purchased, leased, or is making, the railway systems of the whole 
peninsula south of the Siamese boundary, including the railway on 
Singapore Island. When the system is complete, there will be a main 
trunk line extending throughout the peninsula, diverging at Gemas in 
Xegii Sembilan into \Vest Coast and East Coast lines, and linking up with the 
Southern Siamese railway system on the Perlis-Siam and Kelantau-Siam 
boundaries respectively. The two Siamese lines converge at Ootajiao, in 
Singora, and hence a single line continues north to Bangkok. On the West 
Coast, the line is now open for traffic from Singapore as far as Padang 
Besar (Perlis Siamese boundary), a distance of 596 miles, and on the East 
Coast it is open from Singapore as far as Padang Tungka (in Pahang). 
A section in Kelantan from Tumpat to Tanah Merah (32 miles), and one 
from Pasir Alas to Golok ( Kelantan-Siam boundary) (12 miles) are also open 
for traffic. The section iu Johore, extending fioru Johore Bahru to Gemas 
(120 miles), is leased from the Johore Government. The line is of metre 
gauge. The total mileage open for traffic, including leased lines, was 
1,003 miles in 1919. The lines under construction (1920) were about 72 miles, 
besides 2 miles of Hill Railway, in Penang, and doubling of lines in Singa- 
pore Island (16 miles) and in neighbourhood of Kuala Lumpur (37 miles). 
The construction of a causeway carrying a double line of railway and a road- 
way is now proceeding (1920), connecting the island of Singapore with the 
mainland across the Johore Straits. An extensive scheme of deep-water 
wharves at Prai, on the mainland, opposite Penang, is ako in progress. 

There are (1919) 96 post offices aud 39 other places for postal business. 
In 1919, 24,025,009 postal packets (registered letters, 707,639, and parcels, 
171,718) were received and delivered. In 1919 there were 2,372 miles of 
telegraph and telephone line (12,000 miles of wire) under the Post Office 
department. The net revenue collected by the department amounted to 
151,587/., and expenditure to 145,512/., Savings Banks, 10,270 de- 
positors, and 106,061/. deposits on December 31, 1919. The current 



1 74 THE BRITISH EMPIRE | — NON-FEDERATED MALAY STATES 

money consists of Straits Settlements dollars with subsidiary silver and 
copper coins. In February, 1906, the value of the dollar Avas fixed at 
2s. Ad. or 60 dollars = 71. Currency notes and bank notes also circulate, 
and the sovereign is legal tender for any amount at the above rate. Weights 
and measures (as well as currency) are as in the Straits Settlements. 



THE MALAY STATES NOT INCLUDED IN THE 
FEDERATION. 

The Malay States not included in the Federation are five in number, 
namely, Johore, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Trengganu. 

The relations of Johore with Great Britain are defined by a treaty dated 
December 11, 1885 ; and, by an amendment to this treaty made on May 12, 
1914, the Sultan agreed to accept, and to act upon the advice of, a British 
officer called the General Adviser. The Sultan is assisted in the administra- 
tion of the State by an Executive Council, and by a Legislative Council 
consisting of official and unofficial members. 

The rights of suzerainty, protection, administration and control of the 
other four States were transferred from Siam to Great Britain by the Anglo- 
Siamese treaty of March 10, 1909. In all four States the Rulers are assisted 
in the administration by State Councils. In Kedah, Perlis, and Kelantan 
the Ruler has the assistance of a British Adviser appointed by the British 
Government. 

In these States the currency, weights and measures are the same as in the 
Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States. Their trade is almost 
entirely carried on with the Straits Settlements. 

The religion of the Malays is Muhammadanism. 

Johore (area 7,500 square miles, population in 1911, ISO, 417, of whom 102,219 were 
Malays, 63,405 Chinese, and 5,659 Indians) lies at the southern extremity of the Malav 
Peninsula. Births registered (1919), 9,320; deaths, 9,807. There were (1919) 3 1 
schools and 71 vernacular schools, and an fclnglish College (with 75 boys in residence). 

Revenue (1919), 11,052,777 dollars; expenditure, 8,228,862. the public debt of 
3 millions was extinguished in 1918. Imports (1919), 29,524,700 dollars (foodstuffs, drinks, 
and narcotics, 20,9u5,ll7 ; raw materials, 2,699,281 ; manufactured articles. 5,1 17,919 ; 
coin and bullion 52,561 dollars). Exports 71,279,930 dollars (rubber, 53.203,400 ; gambier. 
1,719,200 ; pepper, 385,775 ; copra, 4,834,609 ; areca-nuts, 3,817,700 : tin, 2,638,600 ; tapioca, 
2,322,228; forest produce, 876,100 dollars). Rubber output . tons. 

The military force of the State consists of 400 Malay infantry, 100 Pathan artillery, 
and nearly 100 bandsmen. In addition there is a Volunteer Corps of Europeans and 
Malays (400). The Police force, which is armed, numbers 23 officers and 701 rank and 
Me (1919). 

During 1919, 20 additional miles of road were opened to traffic, and 44 miles were 
under construction. At the beginning of 1920 over 400 miles of metalled road bad been 
constructed. The railway from Pewyng.to Singapore traverses Johore for a distance el 
120 miles. The Johore section .has been leased to the federated Malay states Govern- 
ment for a term Of years. Rubber estates are situated on either side along practically the 
whole length, and tlms, with the help of roads and narlgtble rivers, good eominuuir-.it inn 
is available A tight) railway rum-; from Munr for 14 miles .southwards through Malay 
holdings, which are thus afforded an easy outlet for their products. 

An efficient rued and eight public alntajned by the 

Government , 

The I'u.-.l ; I'.H'u VOS LBS, Letters, parcels, Ac, received. 

Iluler. — His Highness SultSO Ibrahim, (i.C.il.C, li.li.K. 

Qeneral Udviter. — J. F. Owen (Aetiug). 

Kedah, on the west coast of the Peninsula, and north of Province Wellosley and 
i'erak, has an area of 3,800 square miles. Tho population (census 1911) Is 245,986, of 
whom 195,411 were Malays, 38,746 Chh 8tame»». and «,074 Indians. Tim esti- 

mated population In 1920 was :S25,ooo. in oapttad is Alor Star ou the kedah liiver, 



NON-FEDERATED MALAY STATES 175 

about sixty miles from Peuang by sea. Owing to the Sultan's ill-health, the hud of the 
Government is the Regent. There are (1920) 39 Europeans in the Government service, 
principally in the Public Works, Survey and Police Department*. The police force, 
distributed in 50 stations, had a strength (December, 1920) of 698 men (principally Malays). 
There were at the end of 1920, 63 Government schools (about 6,000 pupils), 10 telegraph 
offices, and 17 post offices. A telephone system extends throughout the State, the wire 
mileage in 1920 being 1,144. The railway connecting the Federated Malay States and 
Siam passes through the State. A metalled road (39 miles) connects Alor Star with 
Perlis, and witn Singora frontier (Siam), and a metalled road (43 miles) connects it with 
Province Wellesley. Another metalled road (45 miles) connects Baling with Upper Perak 
in one direction and with Province Wellesley in the opposite direction. 160 miles of 
canal were maintained in 1920. The revenue of the State for the year 19-20 (M uhamii.adan 
year 13"S) was 6,050,000 dollars, including Chandu mono ",006; export duty. 

756,000; lands, S19.000; and liquors, 5^4.000 dollars; and the "xpenditure, 4.305,000 
dollars. The principal produce of North Kedah is rice. There are rubber (output 
mil coconut, and tapioca estates in South Kedah. About four or five 
steamei • between Penang and the various ports of Kedah. Kedah-Penang 

trade (191?)^ irnport*. 4,104,810 dollars ; exports. 6,980,384 dollars. Postal and telegraph 
revenue, 1920, 63,378 dollars; expenditure, 99,116 dollars. Postal art:cles dealt with, 
l,tM9,0O0. 

Ruler— H.H. Sultan Sir Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, K.C.M-G. (succeeded in 1381). 

Regent.— H.H. Tun ku Ibrahim. 

British Adviser.— )l. S. H. McArthnr. 

Perlis, on the west coast of the Peninsula and north of Kedah, has an area of about 
316 square miles and a population (1911 census) of 32,746. Malays numbered 29.4"7 of 
the population, Chinese 1,<527, and Siamese 1.3S8. Police force, 1919, 58 n.c.o.'s and 
men. Fourteen schools were maintained in 1920; average attendance, 1,100. The principal 
products are rice, tin, and coconuts. There are tin (output of tin-ore in 1919, 113 tuna) 
and guauo deposits. There are 17 miles of metalled, 11 miles of gravelled road, and 21 
miles of earth road in the State. The revenue for 1920 was 443,441 dollars, and the 
expenditure 277,994 dollars. Public debt, 1920, 495,394 dollars. 

Ruler.— H.H. Syed Alwi. 

Britith Adviser. — Z. \V. N. Wyatt (Acting). 

Kelaatan, on the east coast of the Peninsula, has an area estimated at 5,870 square 
miles and a population (1911 census) of 286,751, including 5,355 Siamese and 9,844 
Chinese. Kota Bharu, the capital, has a population of about 12,000. There axe 16 
Government elementary schools in the State. The High Court, the Central Court, and 
the Small Court are at Kota Bharu, and there are District Courts at Kuala Krai, Pas:r 
Puteh, Pasir Mas, and Tumpat respectively. The revenue of the State in 191? amounted 
to 1,141,444 dollars (licences, excise, tc, 407,203 dollars ; customs, 340.875 dollars ; bad 
revenue, 266,137 dollars), and the expenditure to 1,066,012 dollars. Public debt (1919) 
948 dollars. 

The chief industry is agriculture. About 343.33S acres were under cultivation in 
1919. Chief products : rice (153,739 acres), coconuts (60,087 acres), betel-nuts, rubber 
($5,346 acres), resin and gharu, rattan, bamboo, pepper, tapioca, sugar-cane, and maize. 
A large part of the State is covered with jungle comprising numerous kinds of 
serviceable timber. The State supports cattle (estimated at 120,000 head), burfaloes 
(25,000), sheep, goats, and poultry. The almost unworked mineral resources aie 
believed to comprise gold, galena, pyrites, and tin. Large planting and mining 
concessions are held by British companies. The principal manufacturing industries 
are silk-weaving, boat -building, and brick-making. In 1919, total experts, 5,467,424 
dollars; total imports, 3,876,679 dollars (191$, 3,615,079 aiui loUats respec- 

tively). Chief exports, 1919 : Cattle, sheep, and goa • '.ollars; betel-unts, 

107.797 dollars; fish, 222,131 dollars; copra, 1,093,666 dollar*; Para rubber. 3,577.127 
dollars. Chief imports, 1919 ; cattle, 24,S60 dollars ; fish. 25,715 dollars : rice, 3,691 
dollars; wheat an i Boar. 46,389 dollars; m '.ollars; sugar, 122. 2S$ dollars; 

tobacco, 140,704 dollars; salt, IS, SO 4 dollars ; gambier, 30.0S9 dollars; petroleum, 193,344 
vlollars ; cotton goods, 953.S05 dollars ; :>er. 3 ',972 dollars : 

cement, 04,. >6S dollars ; machiii liars. 

Tonnage of steamships inwarls and out 16 tons (73,577 tons in 

1?1S). Over 5,905 are registered. Ther-. >:eamsliip communication with 

Bangkok and Singapore. Roads (except for t'..e Kota Bharu-Pasir Puteh road, 26 miles) 
extend only a few miles from the capital ; communication inland is by the rivers. There 
is bi-weekly connection by rail and steamer between Tumpat and Kuala Lebir On miles up 
Kota Bharu is in direct telegraphic communication with Bangkok and Penang, 
and possesses a telephone service. There were ^1919) 4 post officesand 2 sub-post office* in 
the State. 

Ruler.— H.H. Sultan Mohammed IV., K.C.M.G. 

British Adviser. — H. W. Thomson. 



176 THE BRITISH EMPIRE .'—NON-FEDERATED MALAY STATES 

Trengganu, with an area of about 6,000 square miles, and a population, at the 
census, 1911, of 154,037, lies on the east coast between Pahang and Kelantan. The capital 
is Kuala Trengganu, with a population of 14,000. There are four Malay schools and 
one Chinese school. Trengganu was the last British possession to tolerate slavery 
for debt. The practice has been abolished by an enactment passed in 1919. 
Police force, 1919, about 240. There are about 11 miles of metalled cart road at 
the capital, and a telephone exchange, but no trunk roads, railways, or telegraphs. 
Communicati n with the interior is by rivers, and good native paths. Steamers 
connect regularly with Singapore and Bangkok, and locally-built motor-boats main- 
tain passenger services along the Trengganu coast. The industries are similar to 
those of Kelantan, and the country is of the same general character. Revenue, 1919, 
762,453 dollars ; chiefly from farms, 94,133 dollars ; chandu, 337,944 dollars ; export duty 
on tin and wolfram, 93,096 dollars; other export duties, 141,911 dollars. Expenditure, 
1919, 756,977 dollars. Debt, 1919, 15,000 dollars. The total imports in 1919 were 
1,911,014 dollars, and the total exports about 3,816,670 dollars. Chief exports, 1919: 
dried flsh, 1,044,966 dollars; tin ore, 828,966 dollars; copra, 455,322 dollars; black 
pepper, 185,873 dollars ; wolfram ore, 611,670 dollars. Chief imports : Rice, 624,462 
dollars; cotton piece goods, 419,340 dollars; tobacco, 106,723 dollars; petroleum, 
120,054 dollars; sugar, 45,582 dollars. The above figures relate to trade with Singa- 
pore only. 

Ruler. — H.H. Sultan Muhammad bin Zenalabidin. He is assisted by a State Council 
on the Johore model. 

British Adviner. — J. L. Humphreys. 

Books of Reference concerning the Malay Peninsula. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London. 

Blue Book for the Straits Settlements. Annual. Singapore. 

Annual Reports on the Federated Malay States. London. 

Manual of Statistics of the Federated Malay States. 

Annual Report on the Cocos Islands. London. 

Federated Malay States Year Bouk for 1919. Kuala Lumpur, 1920. 

Federated Malay States. General information for intending settlers. Issued by the 
Emigrants' Information Office, Westminster. 

Federated Malay States Civil Service List. Kuala Lumpur, 1911. 

Perak Handbook and Civil List. Singapore. 

Papers relating to the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands. London. 

Andrews (C. W.), A Monograph on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London, 1900. 

Anthonisz (J. O.), Currency Reform in the Straits Settlements. London and Singapore, 
1915. 

Beljield (H. C), Handbook of the Federated Malay States. 3rd. ed. London, 1907. 

Boulger (D. C.) Life of Sir Stamford Raffles. London, 1899. 

Cerrutt (Capt. G. B.), My Friends the Savages. Cano, 190S. 

Clifford (H.), In Court and Kampong: Native Life in Malaya. London, 1903.— In » 
Corner of Asia. London, 1899.— Studies in Brown Humanity. London, 189S.— Further 
India. London, 1904. 

Denny* (N. B.), A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya. London, 1894. 

Fasciculi Malayenses. Anthropology. Pt. I. London, 1908. 

Qraham (W. A.), Kelantan, A State of the Malay Peninsula, Glasgow, 190S. 

Harriton (C. W.), Illustrated Guide to the Federated Malay Statos. London, 1910- 
The Magic of Malaya. London, 1916. 

Ireland (Alleyne), The Far Eastern Tropics. London, 1 

Jackson (H. M.), Federated Malay Statos. Report on Survey Department for 1911. 

Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Singapore. 

Lucas (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. (2nd ed.) Vol. I. Oxford, 
1906. 

McNair (P.), Perak and the Malays. Sarong and Kris. London, 1878. 

TSdkepeac* (W.), and others, 100 years of Singapore. London, 1931. 

Martin (R.), Die Inlandstainme der Malayischen Ilalhlnsel. Jena, 1905. 

Maxwell (George), In Malay Forests. Edinburgh, 1908. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. II. Loudon. 1911. 

Ilathbone (A. B.), Camping and Tramping in Malaya. London, 1898. 

Rotiiason (H. C.) and Klou (0. B_), Tne Natural History of Kedah Peak. 1918. 

Slcent (W. \\\), Malay Magic. [Folklore and Religion.] Loudon, 1900.— Tribes of the 
Malay Peninsula. 2 vols. London, 1904. 

Skeat (\V. \V.) and Blagden (C. O.), Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. 2 roll. 
London, 1000. 

Sirrltenham (F. A.), Malay Sketches. London, 1895. The Real Malay. London, 1- 
British Malaya. London, 1906. 



WEIHAIWEI 177 

Wallace (A. R. ), Ma.ay Archipelago. London, 1869. 

IPt'JWnjon (R. J.) [edited by], Papers on Malay 8ubjecti. Tarts 1—1 J. Kuala Lujnpnr, 
F.M.3. 

Wright (A.) and Beid (T. H.), The Malay Peniniula. London 1912. 



WEIHAIWEI. 



Weihaiwei, in the Chinese province of Shantung, with the adjacent 
waters was, by a Convention with the Chinese Government, dated July 1, 1898, 
leased to Great Britain. The territory leased comprises, besides the port and 
bay, the island of Liu Kung, all the islands in the bay, and a belt of land 10 
English miles wide along the entire coast-line of the bay. The boundary has 
been demarcated and regulations settled for the management of frontier affairs. 
The area of about 285 square miles contains (1911 census) 147,177 inhabitants, 
including 3,000 on the island of Liu Kung. The native city of Weihaiwei 
is a walled town with about 2,000 inhabitants. Within the limits of the 
territory Great Britain has sole jurisdiction, except that within the walled 
city Chinese officials may exercise such jurisdiction as is not inconsistent 
with the defence of the territory. In addition, within a zone extending east 
from the meridian 121° 40' east of Greenwich, and comprising an area of 1,500 
square miles, Great Britain has the right to erect fortifications or take any 
measures necessary for the defence of the territory, and to acquire sites neces- 
sary for^vater supply, communications and hospitals. There Chinese adminis- 
tration is not to be interfered with, but only Chinese or British troops shall be 
allowed. Chinese war vessels retain the right to use the waters, and within 
the territory such lands as may be required by Great Britain for public pur- 
poses shall be bought at a fair price. 

Under an Order in Council of July 24, 1901, the territory is administered 
by a Commissioner. Legislation is by Ordinances. The seat of government 
is at Port Edward on the mainland. There is a High Court for both civil and 
criminal cases, subject to appeal to the Supreme Court at Hong Kong, and 
provision is made for courts of district magistrates. There are 4 European 
inspectors of police. There are 8 Chinese sergeants, 4 corporals and 105 
constables (1918). In the numerous villages the headmen system is main- 
tained. At the Government Free School there were in 1918 78 pupils, 
and about half-a-dozen Mission schools have 172 pupils. There is also a 
private school (50 pupils in 1918) in which the sons of Europeans are 
educated. There are many Chinese schools within the territory. About 
6 per cent, of the inhabitants can read and write. 

Revenue is derived from (1) a land tax and a road tax ; (2) junk registra- 
tion, shipping dues, wine monopoly ; (3) fines and miscellaneous sources. 
For 1919-20 the revenue was 176,450 dollars, 1 and the expenditure was 
207,141 dollars, the deficit being met from savings. For 1918-19 the 
amounts were 150,723 dollars and 184,600 dollars respectively. The grant 
in aid for 1918-19 was 4.000Z ; and for 1919-20, 7,900?. 

The station is used as a Hying naval base and as a depot, exercising 
ground, and sanatorium for the China squadron, which assembles at Wei- 
haiwei during the summer. No troops are stationed in its territory, the 
Chinese regiment having been disbanded. 

The leased territory, consisting of rocky hill ranges with fertile valleys, 
is most picturesque ; it is well populated, and the inhabitants are in 
general well-to-do. Cereals, vegetables and fruits (apples, grapes and 

1 The value of the dollar (Mexican) fluctuates considerably. In September, 1915, it 
was equivalent to 1* Tjd , in September, 1910, to i<. lfj., in September, 1917, to 
3«. 6Jd., in September, 1918, 3*. Sd., and in September 1919, 4«. TJd. 



178 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — ASCENSION ISLAND 

apricots) are grown, and oak-fed silk is produced. Seedlings of fir trees, 
acacias, willows, and plane trees have done well. Those of the inhabitants 
who are not farmers are mostly fishermen. Some rope and line making, boat 
building, and stone-cutting are carried on. The territory contains gold. 
The trade is carried on by junks and steamers. In 1919, 512 steamers of 
487,528 net tons entered the port, exclusive of Admiralty colliers and 
government transports. 4,535 junks entered and cleared, as against 2,483 
in 1918. The chief imports, 1919: cotton jam, 120,910?. ; raw cotton, 
84,640?. ; groundnut kernels, 168,610?. ; piece goods, 61,895?. ; sugar, 
23,520Z. ; Chinese wine, 22,590?. ; paper, 22,340?. ; flour, 46,068?. ; salt, 
52,670?. ; kerosene, 17,580?. ; gunny bags, 24,910?. ; treasure, 57,590?. 
Chief exports, 1919, groundnut kernels, 308,810Z. ; fish, 18,720Z. ; sugar, 
19,780Z. ; groundnut oil, 12,780Z. ; salt, 104.520Z. Total value of imports 
by junk and steamer, 1919, 1,074,828?. ; exports, 547,134Z. 1918, imports, 
788,038?. ; exports, 572,936?. Weihaiwei is a duty-free port. 

Good roads have been made round the coasts and into the interior of the 
Territory. The value of land is rising, which is a sign of the increasing pros- 
perity of the place. There is a regular weekly mail service to and from 
Shanghai. Many Europeans visit the place in summer on account of the 
excellence of the climate, which is unsurpassed in the Far East. 

Commissioner. — Sir J. H. Stewart Lockhart, K.C.M.G. 

Books of Reference. 9 

Annual Report on Weihaiwei. 

Bruce-Mitford (C. E.), The Territory of Weihaiwei. Shanghai, 1902, 
Johnston (R. F.), Lion and Dragon in Northern China. London, 1910. 
hueas (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. Vol. I. 2nd ed. Oxford 
1906. 






AFRICA. 



ASCENSION ISLAND. 

Ascension is a small island of volcanic origin, of 34 squart miles, in 
the South Atlantic, 700 miles N.W. of St. Helena. It is entirely 
under the control and jurisdiction of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty and is fortified. There is an excellent sanatorium up Green 
Mountain (2,820 ft.) for crews of ships visiting the island, whose health is 
impaired from service on the coast. There are 10 acres under cultivation, 
producing vegetables and fruit for the garrison. The population was estimated 
(August 1, 1918) at about 250, consisting of officers, their wives and 
families, seamen and marines, kroomen, members of the staff of the Eastern 
Telegraph Co., and servants. Garrison station, Georgetown, on north-we6C 
coast. 

The island is the resort of the sea turtle, which come in thousands to lay 
their eggs in the sand annually between January and May. In 1914, 113 wore 
taken from 500 to 800 lbs. in weight ; they are stored in ponds, and eventually 
killed and distributed among the people, a few being sent to the Lords Com- 
raissionera of the Admiralty. Rabbits, wild goats, and partridges are more or 
less numerous on the island, which is, besides, the breeding ground ot the 
sooty tern or " wideawake," these birds comiug in vast numbers to lay their 
eggs about every eighth month. The island is included in the Postal Union, 
and is connected by the Eastern Telegraph Company with St. Helena, St. 
Vincent, Sierra Leone, and Buenos Aires ; with England and with the Cap* 
of Good Hope by telegraph. 

Commandant.— Major H. G. Grant, R. M.L.I. 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 179 

References. 

<Jt'H(Mrs. D.), Six Months In Ascension. London, 137S. 

Johntton (Sir Harrvi, The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1S99. 

Oxford Surrey of the British Entire. Vol. III. London, V.-14. 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA. 

British East Africa consists of a large area on the mainland, together with 
the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. For details as to international agree- 
ments, &c, with regard to the British sphere in East Africa, see the 
Statesman's Yeak Book for 1907, pp. 216 and 217. 

KENYA COLONY AND PROTECTORATE. 

Government. — The Kenya Colony and Protectorate extends from the 
Uniba to the J uoa River, and inland as far as the borders of Uganda. Kenya 
Protectorate (so named by Order in Council dated August 13, 1920) includes 
certain mainland dominions of the Sultan of Zanzibar, viz. , a strip, extending 
10 miles inland along the coast from the German frontier to Kipini, the 
islands of the Lamu Archipelago, and au area of 10 miles round the fort 
of Kismayu, these territories having been leased to Great Britain for an annual 
rent of 17.000J. Tne colony and protectorate were formerly known as the 
Africa Protectorate. On April 1, 1905, this was transferred from the 
authority of the Foreign Office to that of the Colonial Office. By au Order 
in Council dated November 9, 1906, the Protectorate was placed under the 
control of a Governor and Commander-in-Chief. By Order in Council th> 
Protectorate (except the Sultan of Zanzibar's dominions) was annexed to the 
Crown, as from July 23, 1920, under the name of the Kenya Colony, ana 
thus becomes a "Crown Colony." An Order in Council of October 22, 1906, 
constituted an Executive and a Legislative Council, the former consisting 
of 1 members, in addition to the Governor, the latter of 8 official and 4 
unofficial members. Under an Ordinance of July, 1919, the Legislative 
Council is to cousist of 11 elected representatives of the European community, 
three nominated members, two representing the Indian population and one the 
Arabs, and a sufficient number of official members to give a majority in thi: 
Council. Legislation is by Ordinances made by the Governor witli the advice 
and consent of the Legislative Council. In 1908 foreign consular jurisdiction 
in the Zanzibar strip of coast was transferred to the British Crown. There 
are S provinces and a tract oi territory partially organised lying to the north. 
The provinces are as follows : Seyidie (capital Mombasa), Ukamba (capital 
Nairobi), Tanaland (capital Lamu), Jubaland (capital Kisniayu), Kenya 
(capital Nyeri), Naivasha (capital Naivasha), the Nyanza Province capital 
Kisumu), Northern Frontier District (capital Moyale). For administrative 
purposes the Colony is to be divided into white-settled areas under Resident 
Magistrates, and native reserves under Native Commissioners. 

Area and Population. — The territory has an area of 246,822 
square miles ; population estimated at 2,807,000, including 5,362 
Europeans and 17,000 Asiatics. On the coast the Arabs and Swahilis 
predominate : further inland are races speaking Bantu languages, 
and non- Bantu tribes such as the Masai, the Somali, and the 
Gallas. Mombasa is the largest town ; population about 30,000, 
of whom 130 are Europeans. The harbour is situated on the eastern 
side of an island of the same name, and is the terminus of the Uganda 
Railway. Kilindini harbour on the south-western side of the island is 
the finest land-locked and sheltered harbour on the east coast of Africa 
and is accessible to vessels of deep draught. There is good warehouse 
accommodation and a pier connected with the Uganda Railway. The two 

>- 2 



180 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — KENYA 



firincipal rivers in the North are the Tana and Juba which flow into the 
ndian Ocean. They are both navigable for about 400 miles by shallow- 
draught steamers. Nairobi, the capital and the headquarters of the 
administration, has 14,000 inhabitants, of whom about 800 are European 
and 3,000 Indian. There are also 400 European farmers and 50,000 natives 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Nairobi. 

Religion, Instruction, Justice.— The prevailing religious beliefs 
are Pagan ; but on the coast Mohamedanism has made great progress. 
There are many Christian mission societies, British, French, German, 
Italian, Swedish, and American, two being Roman Catholic. There are 
Government schools at Nairobi, Mombasa, Nakuru, and Uasin Gishu. 
The High Court is at Mombasa and sessions are held at Nairobi, Naivasha, 
Kisumu, and other places. District Courts presided over by magistrates are 
held in each district. In native cases local ideas and customs are considered. 
The legal status of slavery has been abolished throughout East Africa. 

Finance. — Revenue and expenditure for 6 years : — 



Tear 


Revenue lExpenditure 


Tear 


Revenue 

£ 
1,368,329 
1,548,703 
3,192,327 


Expenditure 


1913-14 
1915-16 
1916-17 


& £ 
1,123,798 1,115,899 
1,165,561 1,072,917 
1,533,783 1 1,197,396 


1917-18 
1918-19 
1919-201 


k 

1,490,571 
1,570,705 
3,192,327 



1 Estimates. 

In 1917-18 the expenditure included 140,951?. for Protectorate share of 
war expenses ; grant-in-aid, nil. Of the revenue for 1917-18, customs inland 
accounted for 170, 510?. ; licences and internal revenue, 335,622?. ; Govern- 
ment railways, 650.941Z. ; rents, 33,236?.; posts and telegraphs, 62,216?. ; 
fees of court and other fees, 43,870?. Public debt, 552,674?. 

Agriculture and Mining. — The agricultural products ot the lowlands 
are essentially tropical, and include rice, maize, various native grains, 
casava, cocoanuts, etc. The cultivation of sisal hemp and Ceara rubber is 
now being undertaken on an extended scale. Cotton growing is receiving 
attention on the banks of the Juba River. Other plants of economic value 
are being experimented with. In the highlands almost all crops of the 
temperate zone are grown, viz. : oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, all European 
vegetables, beans, peas, linseed, etc. There is now a large acreage under 
wheat. Maize culture is rapidly extending, and a large export in this 
commodity is likely to be developed. Many coffee plantations are established. 
The growing of black wattle is becoming one o! the principal industries of 
the country and suitable land commands a high price in the market. 
Ostrich tanning has practically become an established industry. Sheep 
farming is pioving very profitable, and many pure-bred merinos have been 
imported. Dairying is also proving a profitable branch of farming. 

The forest area extends over 3,200 square miles, of which the tropical forest 
covers about 183 square miles, the remainder being upland or highland, con- 
taining valuable timber trees. Near the coast aie mangroves, aud various 
rubber trees, besides ebony, copal, and other trees. The Taveta forest is sup- 
posed to contain useful timber. The Scrub forest which covers a large lowland 
area is capable of being turned to useful purposes. The Tana aud Juba rivers 
are bordered by trees of tropical growth, and the Witu forest timber trees and 
furniture woods. But the valuable forests are within the highland area to the 
west and north of Nairobi. The Kenya forests of about 625 square miles contain 
cedar, yellow woods, camphor, jarrah, cork, iron-wood, pillar-wood, olive, 



COMMERCE, SHIPPING, COMMUNICATIONS, ETC. 181 

ami many other useful species. The Aberdare forests (about 750 square 
miles) contain abundance of similar trees. The Mau forest (about 1,200 
square miles) is incompletely surveyed, but is known to contain many ex- 
cellent timber trees. The forest on Mount Elgon (about 50 square miles) is 
little known. 

The mineral resources are not yet fully explored, but do not appear to be 
very extensive. There are large deposits of natrou in the Rift Valley, particu- 
larly at Lake Magadi. Diatomite also occurs in large quant. ties in the 
same region. Gold has been discovered in S. Kavirondo, but not in 
sufficient quantities to warrant mining. Graphite and marble are 
found in the metamorphic rocks in various localities, and limestone 
is worke<l at various places for building purposes. Manganese is found 
in the sandstones near the coa*t ; opals have been found in some 
of the streams on the west side of the Rift Valley, but up to now 
have not been considered of commerr ial importance. 

Commerce, Shipping, Communications, &c— Imports (excluding 

government stores and treasure) and exports (including those also of Uganda 
and the Congo), and the gross tonnage entered and cleared (excluding coasting 
trade) : — 



Years Import* 


Exports 

£ 
1,482,876 
1,004.796 
1,469.210 
1,613,853 
1,741,939 
2,493,574 


Customs Tonnage entered 
and cleared 


£ 
1913-14 2,147,937 
1914-15 1,469,210 
1915-16 1,708.333 
1916-17 3,024,123 
1917-18 2,809,681 
1918-19 3,397,810 


196,197 3,565,795 
145,545 2,362,317 
185,249 1,635,457 
311,496 1,441,877 
254,256 1,170,472 
270,561 922,653 



In 1918-19 the chief imports were : cotton piece goods, 912,467/.; pro- 
visions, 125,814/. ; building materials, 45,531/. ; machinery and parts thereof, 
114,044/.; spirits, wines, ale and beer, 218,155/.; haberdashery and wearing 
apparel, 68.379/.; hardware and cutlery, 31,030/.; iron and steel manufac- 
tures, 41,827/. ; leather and leather mauufactures, 33,639/.; grain and flour, 
386,755/.; sugar, 104,614/.; vehicles and parts thereof, 101,952/.; tobacco, 
cigars, and cigarettes, 184,242/.; oil, petroleum, 64,799/.; soap, 59,968/.; 
bags ami sacks, 69.773/ : implements, agricultural. 83,246/.; cotton manu- 
factures, unenumerated, 58,863/ ; matches, 14.345/. 

Of imports, 1918-19, 1,619,993/. came from the United Kingdom; 
1,062,245/. from British Possessions ; 242,411/. from the United States 
of America ; 65,215/. from Japan, and 57,190/. from Holland. 

Chief exports, 1918-19 (including those from Uganda, and the Congo): 
cotton, 1,100,980/. (mostly from Uganda); hides and skins, 150,012/.; car- 
bonate of soda 269,258/.; fibres, 234,814/.; coffee, 365,872/.; grain and oil 
seeds, 37,870/. ; wool, 33,067/. 

Of exports, 1918-19, 1,335,582/. went, to the United Kingdom ; 939,591/. 
to British Possessions ; 58,507/. to Italy ; 94.902/. to Japan. 

The shipping to this coast has been, during recent years, depend- 
ent on such ships as could be spared fmm time to time by the Ministry 
of Shipping, but arrivals from and sailings to Bombay by British India 
steamers have been fairly regular. Communication between the ports of 
Kenya kept up by small steamers owned by Messrs. Cawasji Dinshaw 
Brothers at Aden. 

The Mombasa- Victoria (Uganda) Railway is a State railway, length 



182 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — TANGANYIKA TERRITORY 

618 miles, gauge 39 '33 inches. The construction cost to March 31, 1919, 
was 6,523,5552. A line is projected from Nakuru to Nasin Gishu, a 
settlement 100 miles north of the main railway line. There is a tele- 
graph along the line, and ten steamers on the Lake in connection with 
the railway. In 1918-19, 237,976 tons of goods, exclusive of railway 
material, and 521,434^ passengers were carried; revenue, 645.468Z. ; expen- 
diture, 493,213Z. The country is fairly well provided with roads and tracks. 

The Post Office of the Colony (exclusive of the Uganda Post Office, 
which is worked by the Kenya Post Office) received and despatched 
5,850,686 letters, packets, &c, and 502,278 telegrams during the year 
1918-19. The telegraph system has 3,415 miles of wire (exclusive of 
Uganda). A cable connects Mombasa with Zanzibar. The currency is 
the Indian rupee, but the British sovereign is also legal tender. An East 
African Currency Board is to be established in London to maintain a stable 
rate of sterling exchange. The Board will issue a new local rupee currency 
in coin and notes, in place of the existing currency. The rupee has been 
fixed at 2s. The florin has been introduced and standardised at 2s. There 
are subsidiary nickel coins. Notes issued in Zanzibar are not interchange- 
able with those issued in Kenya nor are German rupees, in use in tho late 
German East Africa, legal tender. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. — Major-General Sir E. Northey, 
K.C.M.G,, C.B. 

Chief Secretary to the Government. — Sir C. C. Bowring, K. B.E., C. M.G. 

TANGANYIKA TERRITORY (LATE GERMAN EAST AFRICA). 

German East Africa was conquered in 1918. As the conquest of 
the territory proceeded Civil Administration was established pari 
passu, and the whole Colony passed under the effective control of 
the present Administration in the beginning of 1919, when the forces 
engaged in military operations were finally evacuated. The country has been 
divided between the British and Belgians, and is to be administered under 
mandates approved by the League of Nations. The official designation of the 
sphere under British occupation is now "Tanganyika Territory " with head- 
quarters at Dar-es-Salaam. The Belgian sphere of occupation includes the 
provinces of Ruanda and Urundi, bordering on Lake Tanganyika, and is 
administered under the " Commissaire Royal du Gouvernement Beige," 
whose headquarters are at Kigali. 

Under an Order in Council, dated July 22, 1920, the chief official in the 
British sphere is to be styled Governor, and he will have the help of an 
Executive Council, all of whose members will be Dominated. There is ad 
provision for the representation of white settlers, but the tlovernor is enjoined 
to respect native laws and custom unless they are opposed to justice or 
morality. Rights in or in relation to any public lands vest in the Governor, 
but the Secretary of State for the Colonies may appoint, if he sees lit, 
another trustee or trustees to exercise such right. 

The country has a coast line of about620 miles ; estimated area, 384,180 
square miles. The Sultan of Zanzibar's rights over the narrow strip of coast 
territory were acquired by Germany in 1890 for a payment of 4,000,000 
marks. The coast line extends from the mouth of the Uniba to the month 
Of tin* Rovuma Kivor. Dar-es-Salaam is the capital. 

The native population, consisting mostly of tribes of mixed Bantu race, 
numbered, ae, 'online, to official returns on January I, 1913, 7,659,898. The 
number included in the area under British administration is approxij 
8| million. The coloured population (other than native) was 14,898. 
According to German law every native born after 1905 is free, but a mild 



TANGANYIKA TERRITORY (LAT* GERMAN EAST AFRICA) 183 

serfdom continued in the protectorate under German rule, and it is estimated 
that there were about 185,000 serfs in German East Africa. The total white 
population was 5,336 in 1913. 

Education is not compulsory. In 1913 there were 109 Government 
schools, including 4 for handicrafts, with 18 European and 159 native 
teachers and 6,177 pupils. Five Protestant and three Catholic missionary 
societies hail schools with 108,000 pupils. 

Near the coa»t forests of mangrove, coco-palm, baobab, tamarind, kc. ; in 
the higher regions the acacia, cotton-tree, sycamore, banian, and other trees. 
Government forests, 652,067 acres. There are a number of plantations of 
coco-palms, coffee (on the higher lands), caoutchouc, sugar, cotton, 
cardamom, cinchona. Fibre plants, especially sisal, are successfully 
cultivated. In 1912 there were 43,617 cattle, 41,647 sheep and goats in the 
sion of Europeans, and 3,950,250 cattle and 6,898,800 sheep and goats 
in the possession of natives. Minerals known to exist within the Protectorate 
are coal, iron, lead, copper, mica, and salt. Agates, topaz, moonstones, 
tourmalin, and quartz crystals are found, and garnets in large quantities. 

The chief seaports are Dar-es-Salaam, Bagamoyo, Saadani, Pan. 
Kilwa, Lindi, Mikiudani, and Tanga, but few of these are acc< 
to ocean-going vessels, thongh gradual improvements are being intro- 
duced. Wide, well-kept roads (on some of which rest-houses and stores 
are provided) run all through the colony. There are two railway lines 
in the Protectorate — the Usambara railway from Tanga to New Mosni (220 
miles), commenced in 1905 and completed in February, 1912, and the Central 
Railway (780 miles) from Dar-es-Salaam to Kigoma, completed in February, 
1914. There are also Government coasting and lake steamers. Dares-Salaam 
is in telegraphic communication with the coast towns, Zanzibar, Mombasa, 
and many inland centres. There are 62 post offices and telegraph 
stations. Three Battalions of the King's African Rifles are stationed in 
Tanganyika Territory. 

The revenue of German East Africa for the year 1914 was put at 
825,500/., and the expenditure 1,188,500/. Tanganyika Territory estimates; 
1920-21 : revenue (ordinary), 671,620/., extraordinary (grant-in-aid), 
830,000/., total, 1,001,6201. : expenditure, 1,111,809;. Approximate excess 
of assets over liabilities on March 31, 1920, 140,250/. ; on March 31, 1921, 
80,063/. 

Imports and exports for 6 years : 



Year 


Import 8 


Exports 


Year 


Imports 


Exports 


1911 
1912 

1013 


2,294,582 
2,515,458 


1,121,888 
1,570,919 

1.777,552 


I 

1917-1S 
1918-191 
1919-2',i 


1,109,000 
l.OOS.OOO 
1,158,000 


595,000 

700,000 

1,426,000 



1 At 15 rupees per £. 
Chief exports 1919-20: Sisal (16,744 tons, 436,000/.), cotton (1,629,851 
Hbs., 62,000/.), hides (78,890 cwts., 227,000/.), skins (4,897 cwts., 29,000/,), 
jcopra (106,615 cwts., 105,000/.), coffee (78,530 cwts., 187,000/.), ghee (11,051 

cwts., 40,000/.), wax (5,481 cwts., 24,000/.), ground nuts (16,485 cwts., 
(18,000/.), grain (231,624 cwts, 91,000/.), simsim (33,076 cwts., 85,000/.), 
Irubber (2,141 cwts., 6,000/.), ivory (257 cwts., 13,000/.). Chief imports 
11919-20: cotton piece goods (554,000/.), rice (51,000/.;, other foodstuffs 
j(149,000/.), kerosene (39,000/.), cigarettes (32,000/.), tobacco (27,000/.), 
jspirits, wine and beer (55,000/.). The trade is chiefly with Zanzibar, the 

Colony of Kenya and India. In 1919-20 59 steamers (exclusive of coastal 



184 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — THE UGANDA PROTECTORATE 

boats) of 193,440 tons, and 1,792 vessels (dhows) of 46,157 tons, entered the 
various ports from places beyond the territory 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. — Sir H. A. Byntt, K.C.M.G. 

Chief Secretary.— A. C. Hollis, C.M.G., C.B.E. " 

THE UGANDA PROTECTORATE. 

The territories now comprised within this Protectorate came under British 
influence in 1890, and a portion of them was for a time administered by the 
Imperial British East African Company. In 1894 a British Protectorate was 
declared over the kingdom of Uganda and some of the adjoining territories. 
The present Limits are approximately as follows . — On the north, the Uganda- 
Sudan boundary ; on the east, aline drawn down the middle of Lake Rudolf, 
and along the west boundary of the Colony of Kenya anil the eastern 
shores of Lake Victoria ; on the south by Tanganyika Territory (late 
German East Africa) ; and on the west by the eastern boundary of the 
Belgian CoDgo. Within these boundaries lie part of the Victoria Nyanza, 1 
part of Lake Edward, the whole of Lake George, half of Lake Albert, 
the whole of Lake Kioga, the whole of Lake Salisbury, part of Lake 
Rudolf, and th? course of the Nile from its exit from Lake Victoria to 
Nimule, where the Egyptian Sudan commences. Total area 110,300 
square miles, including 16,377 square miles of water. For adminis- 
trative purposes it is divided into 5 provinces : (1) the Eastern Province, 
comprising the districts of Busoga, Bukedi, Teso, Lango, Karamoja, 
and Lobor ; (2) the Rudolf Province, comprising the districts of Turkwel, 
Turkana, and Dabossa (this province is at present only partially adminis- 
tered) ; (3) the Northern Province, comprising the districts of Bunyoro, Gulu, 
Chua, and West Nile ; (4) the Western Province, comprising the districts 
of Toro, Ankole, and Kigezi ; and (5) Buganda Province, with islands in 
Lake Victoria, comprising the districts of Mengo, Masaka, Mubendi, and 
Entebbe. Owing to sleeping sickness the islands of Lake Victoria have 
been entirely depopulated, and the inhabitants, numbering about 20,000, 
settled on the mainland in fly-free districts. 

With the exception of the Rudolf Province and the districts of Kara- 
moja and Lobor, the whole Protectorate is now under direct administration; 
but the native kings or chiefs, whose rights are in some cases regulated 
by treaties, are encouraged to conduct the government of their own 
subjects. The province of Buganda is recognised as a native kingdom 
under a "Kabaka," with the title of "His Highness"; the present 
Kabaka being H.H. Daudi Chwa, grandson of the celebrated Mutesa. He 
is assisted in the government by three native ministers and a Lukiko, 
or native assembly. In Buganda, and in Bunyoro, Ankole and Toro, also 
ruled over by native " Kings," purely native matters are dealt with by the 
various Lukikos, but in serious cases there is an appeal to higher court-. 
For Europeans and non-natives justice is administered by his Majesty's 
courts. The principal British representative is the Governor, who makes 
Ordinances for the administration of justice, the raising of revenue, and 
other purposes. 

There are local and special courts of justice, and a High Court with civil 
and criminal jurisdiction. The appeal court consists of the judges of 
the High Courts of the Colony of Kenya, Uganda, Nyasaland, and 
Zanzibar. In 1919, there were 2,601 criminal cases tried, 135 of which 
were cases of serious crime. There is an armed constabulary force, under, 
a British Commissioner of Police and British officers. There is also a 
volunteer reserve of Europeans. 

1 Nyanxa = Lugauda equivalent fur lake. 



THE UGANDA PROTECTORATE 



185 



The total population of Uganda (March 31, 1919) was estimated as 
3,318,000, composed as follows: Natives, 3,314.000; Asiatics, 3,500; 
Europeans, 847. Among the natives approximately 785,000 belong to the 
intelligent, civilised Baganda, a race converted to Christianity by British 
and French missionaries. Educational work is undertaken by the various 
Missionary Societies, who receive grants amounting to 2,2252. towards 
scholarships, &c, for students and teachers. The attendance at the 
Mission Schools in 1918-19 was 51,000 boys and 28,000 girls. About 
1,700,000 natives speak Bantu languages ; there are a few Congo pygmies 
living near the Semliki river ; the rest of the natives belong to the Masai, 
Nilotic, and Sudanese groups. 

Cotton is the piincipal product, and i* grown a'most entirely by na; 
The area under cultivation in 1920 is estimated at about 155,000 acres, and 
a crop of at least 50,000 bales is expected. Other products are coffee, Para 
rubber, cocoa, oil-seeds. There are valuable for<- 

In 1918-19 total exports, 1,247,457/. ; 1919-20, 1,828,5372. ; the import 
figures are now merged in those of the Colony of Kenya. The export trade, 
which is incrta>ing, is mainlv in cotton, 1,209,6632., in 1919-20: coffee, 
161,7142. ; chillies, 10,2512. foil seeds, 57,8682. ; rubber, 25,9922. ; ivory, 
65,9522. ; hides and skins, 270,4722. The trade is chiefly with Great 
Britain, the United States, and India. 

The revenue and expenditure for 6 years (ending March 31) were : — 



Tear 


Revenue 


Grant-in- 
aid 


Expenditure ; Year 


Revenue 


Grant-in- 
aid 


Expenditure 


1913-14 
1915-16 
1916-17 


£ 
256,559 

315,45i 


35,000 


4 
290,180 1917-18 
2S5.072 | 1918-19 
289,305 1919-20 


£ 

ste,SM 

351.S34 
495,548 




£ 

1 ^'13 
323.691 
465,117 



In 1919-20 the poll-tax amounted to 247,3712., and customs to 90,8492. 
Debt, 282,9312. 

The headquarters of the British administration is at Entebbe ; the native 
capital of Buganda is at Mengo, Kampala. Nile steamers from Khaitnm 
ply to Rejaf, which is about eight days march from Nimule, the Sudan port of 
the Lake Albert Marine Service. A regular steamer service is maintained by 
the Uganda Railway Administration between Kisunm, the railway termiuns, 
and Entebbe, Port Bell, and Jinja, the principal Uganda ports on Lake 
Victoria. The Busoga Railway Marine, which, with the Busoga Railway/is 
controlled by the Uganda Railway, deals with the traffic on Lake Kioga. There 
are two steamers aud a large number of lighters on that waterway. An 
additional steamer and subsidiary craft ply on Lake Albert and the Nile 
between Butiaba, Nimule and the Belgian Port of Kasenye at the South of 
Lake Albert. The Busoga Railway of the same gauge as the Uganda 
Railway, 62 miles in length, runs from Jinja (on Lake Victoria) to 
Namasagali, a point on the Nile below the rapids. It was formally 
opened for business on January 1, 1912. This railway was built to deal 
with the cotton output in the regions round Lake Kioga, and connects 
that lake with Lake Victoria There is a railway from Port Bell to Kam- 
pala, 7| miles in length. There is a fleet of government motor vans. 

In June, 1912, East Africa received a loan of 500,0002. from the Imperial 
Government. Uganda's share amounted to 125,0002. and was devoted to 
the construction of the P<>rt Bell- Kampala railway, and to the improvement 
of communications in the Eastern Province, with a view to dealing more 
effectively with cotton transport. 



180 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — ZANZIBAR 

Mail services by motor and relays of runners radiate from Entebbe, Kam- 
pala and Jinja. Money and postal orders and parcel post exchange systems 
are working in most districts. The Sudan-Egyptian telegraph and telephone 
system is established to Rejaf. The Uganda telegrapn line is extended 
to Mutir and to Nimule, 89 miles from Rejaf. The length of telegraph 
line in the Protectorate is (1919) 1,225 miles, with 24 telegraph pffices. 
Telephone exchanges are installed at Entebbe, Kampala, and Jinja 

The currency was based on the rupee (originally valued at l.v. id. , but in 
1920 at 2s,), and consisted of silver rupees, with a subsidiary coinage of silver 
50 and 25 cent pieces, and nickel 10 cent, 5 cent, 1 cent, and \ cent pieces. 
The florin has been introduced, 8Dd standardised at 2,s. Both florins 
and rupees are current for the present at the same value. E. Africa Govern- 
ment currency notes of 500, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, and one florin, are 
also in circulation. New cental coins were issued during 1907-08. 
See also under Kenya, p. 182. The Savings Bank had 7,711/. deposits 
and 618 depositors on March 31, 1920. The National Bank of India 
(Limited) has branches at Entebbe, Kampala, Jinja, and the Standard 
Bank of South Africa has opened branches at Kampala and Jinja. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. — Sir R. T. Coryndon, KG. M.fJ. 

Chief Secretary. -— E. B. Jarvis, C.M.G. 



ZANZIBAR. 
Situation and Area. — The Island of Zanzibar is situated in 6* S. 
latitude, and is separated from the mainland by a channel 22h miles across 
at its narrowest part. It is the largest coralline island on the African coast, 
being 48 miles long by 15 broad, and having an area of fi40 square miles. 
To the north-east, at a distance of some 30 miles, lies the Island of Pemba 
in 5° S. latitude. It is smaller than Zanzibar, being 40 miles long by 10 
broad, and having an area of 380 square miles. 

Constitution and Government —The Sultan, Seyyid Khalifa bin 
Harub, K.C.M.G. (Hon.) K.13.E. (Hon.) (born 1879), succeeded on the abdi- 
cation of his brother-in-law, Ali bin Hamoud bin Mahomed, December 9, 
1911. The Government is administered by a High Commissioner and a 
British Resident, who are appointed by commissions under His Majesty's 
Sign Manual and Signet, and exercise their functions under the Zanzibar 
Ocder-in-Council, 1914. 

Legislation consists of certain British and Indian Statutes and also of 
Decrees of His Highness the Sultan, which latter are binding on all persons 
when countersigned by the British Resident under the Ordcr-in-Council. 

There is a Council for the Protectorate, which exercises functions of an 
advisory and consultative nature, and consists of his Highness the Saltan as 
President, the British Resident as Vice-President, and three official and 
four unofficial members. 

It was during the sixteenth century that the Arabs of the East Coast 
sought the assistance of the Imams of Muscat to drive out the Portuguese. 
On the ruins of the Portuguese power arose that of the Imams of Muscat. 
The allegiance to Muscat, however, was of a more or less nominal character 
until Seyyid Said, after having subdued his enemies on the mainland, 
transferred his capital to Zanzibar in 1832. On his death in 185fl the 
African possc-sions were, under an nihitration by Lord Canning (then 
Governor-General of India), declared, independent pf the parent state. In 
1890 the supremacy of the British interests in the Island was recognised 



POPULATION, RELIGION, EDUCATION — JUSTICE 187 

by France and Germany, and it was declared a British Protectorate in 
accordance with conventions by which Great Britain waived all claims to 
Madagascar in Favour of France and ceded Heligoland to Germany. In the 
same year the mainland possessions which extended over the coast of East 
Africa, Warsheikh in 3" N. latitude to Tunghi Bay 10° 42* S. latitude, were 
ceded to Italy, Great Britain, and Germany, respectively, Great Britain and 
Italy paying rent for the territories under their protection, while Germany 
acquired the by the paymnnt of a sum of 200,00".'. At ;i 

later date Italy al>o acquired similar rights by payment of a sum of 144.000J. 
In 1891, a eat was formed for Zanzibar with a British 

representative as fir>t minister. In 1906 the Imperial Government assumed 
more direct control over the Protectorate and re-organised the Government. 
Ou April 20, 1914, the co; Protectorate was transferred from the 

Foreign Office to the Colonial Office. In July, 1920, the Sultan's coast 
dominions were nnmed ' Kenya Protectorate.' 

Population, Religion, Education. &c— The population of Zanzibar 

and Pemba. according to the Census of 1910, was 196,733. Zanzibar, 
113,624 ; Pemba, 53,109. The registered birth rate in 1919 was 185 per 
1,000. The Arabs, about 10,000, are the principal landlords and employers 
of labour. The black population is mostly Swahili, but there are re- 
presentatives of nearly every African tribe. There are nearly 200 Europeans 
most of whom are English ; about 10,000 British Indian subjects, through 
whose hands almost the whole trade of East Africa passes. Zanzibar towu 
has a population of 35,000. 

Most of the natives are Mohammedans (Sunnis of the Shafi school), the 
Sultan and relatives are of the Ibadhi sect. There are 3 Christian Missions : 
The Universities Mission to Central A? h of England), the Catholic 

Mission (Roman Catholic), and the Friends' Industrial Mission. 

There are Government schools mainly for Moslems, with a course of in- 
struction extending over seven years. Education is voluntary and free. 
There are a number of mission schools, Indian schools supported by different 
communities for the children of their sects, private schools and a non- 
sectarian school. The total number of children attending these schools in 
1919 was 1,920. 

There are two Government hospitals, one for Europeans and one foi 
Government subordinate employees and poor natives, in Zanzibar, and one 
in Pemba. 

Justice. — For the administration of justice in Zanzibar, one Court, his 
Britannic Majesty's, consisting of a Judge and one or more Assistant 
Judges, deals with all actions to which a British, or British protected, 
person or the subject of a foreign Power is a party, and others, the 
Sultan's Local Courts, deal with cases in which the subjects of the Sultan 
are alone concerned. The total number of cdbvictions in 1919 was 1,682 
(1,518 in 1918). 

Appeal lie* to H.M.'s Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa, many of the cases tried being 
cases affecting British Indians, in whose hands is a large proportion of the trade of 
Zanzibar. The British Court has also certain Admiralty jurisdiction by virtue of the 
Zanzibar Order in Council, 1014. 

The Sultan's Courts, tinder the peneral superintendence of H.M. Judge, administer 
justice in the town of Zanzibar -::ates assisted by Arab Kathis. 

In Pemba. ami the coun: . criminal or civil cases are tried by a Magistrate 

or a District Commissioner, or .\ vict Commissioner. The final" appeal, in all 

cases, lies to the Britis li. . „ as sultan's J .idge. 



188 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — ZANZIBAR 



Finance. — The revenue and expenditure for 6 years were as follows 



Tear 


Revenue 

from 
Customs 


Total 

Revenue 

(excluding 

loans) 


Expenditure 


Tear 

1917 
1918 
1919 


Revenue 

from 
Customs 


Total 

Revenue 

(excluding 

loans) 


Expen- 
diture 


1913 
191ft 
1916 


£ 
167,363 
162,284 
156,935 


£ 
275,126 
21)7,405 
281,162 


£ 

248,356 
203,968 
280,203 


£ 

152,620 

222.442 
225,044 


£ 
297,746 
387,371 
407.505 


£ 

259,961 
271,874 
323.418 



Besides Customs, the chief sources of revenue in 1919 were: interest 
on investments, 27,069/.; railway and electricity department, 14,060/.; 
agricultural department, 22,723/. ; court fees, fines, etc., 61,192/. ; rent, 
British East Africa, 11,000/.; shipping, 24,380/.; rent of Government pro- 
perty, land and houses, 10,129/. The chief heads of expenditure in 1919 
were: public works department, 47,522/. ; shipping, 18,690/. ; police and 
prisons, 14,294/.; railway and electricity department, 15,773/.; judicial 
department, 12,105/.; agricultural department, 19,446/. 

Public debt at end of 1919, 100,000/. ; sinking fund, 59,098/. 



Production and Industry. — The clove industry is by far the most 
important in the Protectorate, the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba yielding 
the bulk of the world's supply. It is estimated that there are in both 
islands about 52,000 acres under cloves and about 4f million trees in bearing, 
the average output of recent years being 14 million lbs. The output in 
1919-20 was about 29,000,000 lbs., the largest on record. The large planta- 
tions are chiefly owned by Arabs, but many natives possess small holdings. 
The coconut industry ranks next in importance after cloves, the conditions 
in both islands being favourable to the growth of the tree and its nut- 
bearing properties. It is estimated that there are about 48,000 acres under 
cultivation and 1\ million trees in both islands. The export of copra, 
which is steadily increasing, Amounted in 1919 to 14,177 tons. Much 
is produced by the small grower or trader, neither of whom possesses proper 
drying facilities, with a result that the quality of the product compares 
unfavourably with that of Cochin and Ceylon. 

The manufactures are pottery, coir fibre and rope, soap, oil (coconut and 
simsim), jewellery, and mats. There are no mines in the Protectorate. 



Commerce. 

were : — 



-The total imports, exports, and shipping for 6 years, 





Imports 

(Including bullion 

and specie) 


" Exports 
(Including bullion 
and specie) 


Shipping entered (gross tonnage) 




British 

Tons 


Total 




& 


£ 


Tons 


1918 


1,103.848 


1,048,866 


585,581 


1,602,920 


1915 


808,877 


791,016 


442,952 


650,044 


1916 


1,259,820 


1,052,167 


358,576 


647,543 


1817 


1,760,094 


1,848,792 


314,224 


465,186 


1918 


2,866.390 


2,183,597 


250,668 


378,895 


1919 


1,934,169 


2,444.011 


396,619 


682,805 



SHIPPING AND COMMUNICATIONS 

Chief articles of import and export : — 

Imports Import* Export* 

(1918) (1919) (1918) 



189 



Bags and Kanda 

Coal . 

Dried Fish 

Flour . 

Groceries and Trovisions 

Giiee . 

Hardware . 

Live •itock 

Sugar 

Tobacco 

Cloves 

Copra . 

Grain . 

Ivory . 

Petroleum . 

Piece goods 

Rice . 

Specie 



£ 
21,044 

2,4.56 
20,257 
33,407 
81,061 
30,309 
20, 290 
14,608 
50,998 
71,372 

68,715 
50,500 

10,481 
13,747 
974.197 

157,1 A 

3,048 



£ 
26,968 
4,104 
20,246 
45,2S3 
73,764 
48,330 
31,422 

71,^54 
03,009 

120.875 
70.663 
19,911 
44.923 

580,523 



4,346 



151,387 

9,657 

32,279 

673,474 

3-: BM 

333 



Export* 
(1919) 



M 

10,578 

96 

18,344 

17,-10 

63,026 

16,485 

13,976 

207 

19,914 

39,992 

759,295 

442,11' 

24.300 

30,487 

22.99S 

518,372 

33,714 

4,193 



The distribution of trade was as follows : — 





Import? 


Imports 




(1918) 


(1919) 


?rom or to — 


£ 


£ 


United Kingdom 


839,602 


492,791 


British India and Burma . 


509,181 




British East Africa 


M 


150,975 


Netherlands 


19,896 


14,100 


France 


33,485 


4.934 


U.S. America 


48,605 


41,129 



Exports 


Export* 


(1918) 


(1919) 


£ 


* 


12,»77 


078,i , a4 


467,632 


589,144 


109,929 


148.796 


— 


933 


103.501 


347,069 


44 : 350 





Imports iuto the United Kingdom from Zanzibar (British Board of Trade 
Returns) 1919, 577,423/., including 31,970/. raw hides, 154,083/. nuts and 
kernels; 314.269/. spices. To tal imports, 1920, 957.000/. Exports of British 
domestic products to Zanzibar, 289,079/., including 150,265/. cottons, 5,227/. 
apparel, 5,228/. soap, 33,795/. tobacco, 4,744/. iron and iron and steel 
manufactures ; chemicals, 6,645/. ; machinery, 5,051/. ; spirits, 11,140/. 
Total exports, 1920, 392,000/. 

Shipping and Communications, &c. — The port of Zanzibar is one of 

the finest in Africa and was for long a mam centre of commerce between 
India, Arabia, and the mainland. Of late years, however, the importance 
of Zanzibar as a port of transhipment and distributing centre has largely- 
decreased owing to the development of the mainland, to the opening up of 
the coast ports to direct steamship service with Europe, and to the transfer 
to Aden of the seat of trade with the Benadir Coast. Recent figures, 
nevertheless, tend to indicate that the Island will continue by reason of its 
geographical position to retain control of the local traffic. 

The British India Steam Navigation Company and the Union Castle 
Steamship Company maintain monthly services between London-Zanzibar- 
Durban and Southampton-Zanzibar- Durban respectively, the Clan-Ellerman- 
Ilarrison Line, between Glasgow-Liverpool-Zanzibar-Beira (cargo only), 
the Compagnie des Messageries Maritime* between Marseilles-Zanzibar- 



100 THE BRITISH EMPIRIC: — ZANZIBAR 

Madagascar, the Italian Royal Mail Service (fortnightly) between Genoa- 
Zanzibar-Durban, and vice versa, and the Portuguese Government (periodical 
services) between Lisbon and their East and West African Colonies, via Suez 
Canal and the Cape. The British India Steam Navigation Company also 
maintain a service twice a month between Bombay-Zanzibar-Durban, and 
there are local services between Zanzibar-Mombasa-Aden and the Benadir 
Coast. The Government possesses two steamers which maintain regular 
weekly connection with Pemba, as well as making calls at Mombasa, Tanga, 
Dares-Salaam, and Mafia. 

Ocean-going shipping dealt with in 1919, 440,737 tons (104 vessels) ; 
coastwise, 59,734 tons; dhows, 82,334 tons. 

There is cable communication with Europe either via Aden or via Durban. 

There are 75 miles of roads throughout the Island of Zanzibar suitable 
for motor traffic. A light railway runs north from the town to Bububu 
seven miles distant. 

The Government maintains wiieless stations in Zanzibar and Pemba, 
and a telephone system in the town of Zanzibar, which is connected with 
the District and Agricultural stations in the country. There are seven post- 
offices in the two islands. Total number of articles dealt with at the post 
office in 1919 was 565,648 (letters, 324,792) ; in 1918, 665.580 (404,720 
letters). The Post Office Savings Bank was started in 1907. At the end of 
1919 there were 1,817 depositors, with 8,426Z. on deposit. 

The British Indian rupee is universally current ; currency notes of 5 to 
500 rupees are in circulation. The value of notes in circulation on December 
31, 1919, was 35,57,490 rupees. Seyyidieh copper pice are legal tender 
up to 64 pice (= one rupee). A frasla (or frasila) of cloves is equivalent 
to 351bs. av. 

High Commissioner. — Major-General Sir Edward Northey, K.C.M.G., 
C.B. 

British Resident.— -^l^ox F. B. Pearce, C.M.G. 

Books of Reference concerning British East Africa. 

Correspondence and Further Correspondence relating to Zanzibar. London, 188(i 

Annual Reports of the Administrator of East Africa. London. Reports of II. M. 
Commissioner in Uganda. Reports on the Mombasa-Victoria Railway. Precis of Infor- 
mation concerning the British East Africa Protectorate and Zanzibar, revised in the 
Intelligence Division of the War Office. London, 1902. Report by Mr. A. Whyte on his 
Travels along the Coast-Belt of the British East Africa Protectorate (Africa. No. 3. 19U3). 

Report by J. Parkinson on the Geology and Geography of the Northern Part of the 
East Africa Protectorate (Cmd. 729). London, I<120. 

East African Slave Trade, Reports, Sic, 1870-71, 1872-78, 1887-88, 1890-91 ; papers 
and correspondence 1892-96, 1897-99. London. 

Despatch relating to Native Labour (Cmd. 878). London, 

Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series. London.— Colonial Office Reports, Annual 
Series. London. 

Hertslet's Treaties and the Map of Africa, by Treaty. 2ndcd., Vol. II. Loudon, 1897. 

Handbook for East Africa, Uganda, and Zanzibar. Mombasa. 

Drumkey' s (Y. S. A.), Year Book for British East Africa. Bombay. 

Government Lands in British East Africa and Uganda. London. 

An$orge (W. J.), Under the African Sun. [In Uganda.] London, 1899. 

Arkell-Hardwtek (A.), An Ivory Trader in North Kouiu. London, 1903. 

J$h*(liev. II. P.), Two Kings of Uganda. 2nded. London, 1897. 

Austin (Major 11. IL), Among Swamps and Giants in Equatorial Africa. London 
— With Macdonald in Uganda. London, 1903. 

i:iand-8utton(J.), Man and Beast in Eastern Ethiopia. London, 1911. 

Broun (A. S.) f and Brown (G. G.), Editors: The Guide to South and East Africa. 
London, 1916. 

Calvert (A. F.), German Ea»t Africa. London, 1917. 

Churchill (Rt. Hon. W. Spencer), My African Journey. London, 1908. 
lColvilU(Hir IL), The Land of the Nile Springs. London, 1895. 

Cranworth (Lord), Profit and Sport in British East Africa. London, 1919. 






BOOKS OF REFERENCE 1H1 

('raster (J. E. E.), Pcmba : The Spice Island of Zanzibar. London, 1913. 

C r aw fo rd (E. M.), By the Equator's Snowy Peak. London, 1918. 

Cunningham (J. F.), Uganda and its Peoples. London, 1905. 

Dracopoli (I. X.), Through Jubaland to the Lorian Swamp. London, 1914. 

Eliot (Sir C. N.). The East Africa Protectorate. Loudon, 1905. 

Emin Pasha, his Life and Work, compiled from his Journals by G. Schwartzer. 2 vols. 
London, 1898. 

FittQerald (W . W. A.), Travels in the Coastlands of British Bast Africa. London, 1808. 

Fonek (H.), Deutsch-Ostafrika Berlin, 1909. 

: ral information as to the Uganda Protectorate. H. M. Stationery Office. H'lO. 

Gregory (J. W.), The Great Rift Valley. London, 18%.— The Foundation of British 
East Africa. London, 1901. 

Grogan ( E. S.) and Sharp (A. H.), From the Cape to Cairo. London, 1900. 

Hiiidt (S. L. and H.), The Last of the Masai. London, 1901 

H indlip (Lord), British Last Africa. London, 1905. 

Hohnel (Lieut, von), Discovery of Lakes Rudolf, Ac. 2 vols. London. 1893. 

ffo/H.'(A. C), The Masai : Tlie'h Language and Folklore. London, 1905. 

Jack (E. M.), On the Congo Ironr.cr : Kxploration and Sport. London, 1914. 

Jo'hon(¥. S.), The TaDganyiku Territory. 

Johnston (Sir Harry), The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. — The Uganda 
Protectorate. 2 vols. Loudon. 1902. 

Kearton (C.) and Barnes (J.), Through Central Africa from East to West. London, 1915. 

Keltic (J. Scott), The Partition of Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1895. 

Kmu,'l;e (R.), Quer durch Uganda. Berlin, 1913. 

Kollmaim (P.), The Victoria Nyanza: the Land, the Races, and their Custom*. 
London, 1900. 

I.!oyi> '(A. B.), Uganda to Khartoum. London, 1906. 

Lor inter (>.*>., By the Waters of Africa. Loudon, 1917. 

Lyne (R. S.), Zanzibar in Contemporary Times. Loudon, 1905. 

Lugard (Capt. F. D.), The Rise of our East African Empire, t vols. Londo:i, 1893. 
British East Africa and Uganda. London, 1892. — The Story of Uganda. London, 1900. 

MeDermotKV. L.), British East Africa. London, 1895. 

M acDonald (J. R. L.), Soldiering and Surveying in British East Africa. London, 1897. 

Meyer (Hans), Across East African Glaciers. [Translation contains Bibliography on the 
subject.) London, 1891. 

Mullitu (J. W.). The Wonderful Story of Uganda. London, 1904. 

Newman (H. 8.), Banani : The Transition from Slavery to Freedom in Zanzibar and 
Pcmba. London, 1898. 

Ortrot (F. Van), Conventions Internationales concernant 1' Afrique. Brussels, 1898. 
Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. III. London, 1914. 
Pearee (Major Francis B., C.M.G.), Zanzilmr : Past and Present. London, 1920. 
Peters (Dr.), New Light on Dark Africa. [Narrative of the German Emin Pasha Ex- 
pedition.) London, 1891. 

Playne (Somerset), East Africa (British). London, 1910. 
Porta7(Sir G.), Mission to Uganda. London, 1894. 
Powell-Cotton (P. H. G.), In Unknown Africa. London, 1904. 

Purvis (J. B.), British East Africa and Uganda. — Through Uganda to Mount Elgon. 
London, 1909. 

Rolin (— ), Le Droit de l'Uganda. Brussels, 1910. 
Roseoe (J.), The Northern Bantu. Cambridge, 1910. 
Scott-Elliott'Q. F.), A Naturalist in Mid-Africa. London, 1896. 
Smith (A. Donaldson), Through Unknown Africau Countries. London, 1897. 
Smuts (J. C), Germau East Africa, Geographical Journal, March, 1918. 
Stanley (H M.), Through the Dark Continent. 2 vols. London, 1878. 
Stigand (C. H.), The Land of Zinj. Being an Account of British East Africa. 
London, 1913. 

Strandet (J .), Die Portugiesenzeit von Deutsch undEnglisch Ost-Africa. Berlin, 1909. 
Uganda Handbook. Annual. 

Wallis (H. R.), The Handbook of Uganda. London, 1920. 

Ward(H. F.) and Milligan (J. W.), Handbook on British East Africa. Nairoba ami 
London. 1912. 

White (A. Silva), The Development of Africa. London, 1890. 
Travels of Burton, Speke, Grant; Baker and Junker. 

Gambia, Gold Coast, LagOS. See West African Colonies. 
Maohonaland, Matabeleland. See Rhodesia. 



192 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — MAURITIUS 



MAURITIUS 

Constitution and Government. 

Mauritius, acquired by conquest in 1810, was formally ceded to Great 
Britain by the Treaty of* Paris of 1814. Under Letters Patent of 1885, 
1901, 1904, and 1912, partially representative institutions have been estab- 
lished. The government of the Colony, with its dependencies, Rodrigues, 
Diego Garcia, &c, is vested in a Governor, aided by an Executive Council, 
consisting of the officer in command of His Majesty's troops, the Colonial 
Secretary, the Procuretir-General, the Receiver-General, and of such other 
persons holding office in the service of the Government of the Colony as the 
Governor, through instructions from the Secretary of State, may from time 
to time appoint. There is also a Council of Government, consisting of the 
Governor and twenty-seven members, ten being elected under a moderate 
franchise, eight ex-officio, and nine nominated by the Governor. The 
official councillors comprise the four Executive members, the Collector of 
Customs, the Protector of Immigrants, the Director of Public Works and 
Surveys, and the Director of the Medical and Health Department. 

Governor of Mauritius. — Sir H. Hesketh Bell, K.C.M.G. ; salary, 
Rs. 60,000. 

Area, Population, &c. 

Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean, 500 miles east of Madagascar, has 
an area of about 720 square miles. According to the census of 1911, the 
population of the island, including Dependencies (6,690), Military (1,602), 
was 377,083, consisting of general population, 115,146, Indian population, 
258,251, Chinese population, 3,686. 

Estimated population (Dec. 31, 1919) 364,493 (inclusive of military). 
Birth-rate (exclusive of Indians) in 1919, 33 '2, Indian birth-rate, 35 '6 per 
thousand; death-rate (exclusive of Indians) in 1919, 64 7 (there was an 
influenza epidemic in 1919), Indian death-rate, 64*9 per thousand. Immi- 
grants in 1917 (Indian), nil ; emigrants, 301. Population of Port Louis, 
the capital, 40,106 (1919) with its suburbs. 

In 1911 there were 122,424 Roman Catholics, 6,946 Protestants. State 
aid is granted to both Churches, amounting in 1918-19 to Rs. 152,636 ; 
the Indians are mostly Hindus. 

The greater part of Port Louis has in recent years passed from European 
to Indian or Chinese hands. 

Primary education is gratuitous but not compulsory. At the end 
of 1919, there were 51 Government and 91 aided schools. Average at- 
tendance at Government schools, 1919, 6,198 (9,700 on roll) ; at State-aided 
schools, 8,884 (13,925 on roll, of whom more than three- fourths in Roman 
Catholic schools). For secondary education there is a Royal College (with 
many scholarships and exhibitions) with (1919) 321 pupils, and 18 aided 
secondary schools (or boys and girls, 1919. The total Government ex- 
penditure in 1918-19 on education was Rs. 679,649. 

The total number of convictions at the inferior courts in 1919 was 17,323, 
and at the Supreme Court 12. 



FINANCE — DEFENCE — COMMERCE — SHIPPING, ETC. 



103 



Finance. 

(Rupees converted at rate of 15 = 1/.) 





1913-14 
(pre-war) 


lato-ofl 


liMo-17 


1917-18 


1918-10 


Revenue 
Expenditure. 


£ 

74 


£ 
865,003 
760,063 


£ 

J. 037 
874,551 


£ 
903,: 
857,359 


£ 
920,871 

980. 



Principal sources of revenue 1918-19 : — Customs, 249,042/. ; railways, 
196,9742. ; licences, excise, &c, 291,810/. 

The debt of the Colony on June 30, 1919, was : — Government De- 
benture Inscribed Stock Debt, 1,249,990/., mainly for public works, 
Municipal debt of Port Louis, (1919) Rs. 1,596,221. 

Defence. 

Port Louis is fortified. The Colonial contribution to the military ex- 
penditure is estimated at Rs. 797,666. (1920-21). 

Commerce. 

i Rupees converted at rate of 15 = 1/.) 



Total Imports 



Total Export* 



I 





£ 


1913 (pre-war) 


2,466,8S0 


1915 


3,204,241 


1916 


3,597,791 


1917 


2,813,280 




2,861,417 


1919 


3,135,S02 



£ 

2.241,084 
3,74.3,011 
4,954,003 

3,715.445 

a,524,l<;4 



The value of imports is given as they lie in the port of entry (C.I. F.), including freight 
and exchange. The valae of exports for the principal local produce (about 69 per cent, 
of the total export trade) includes the shipping charges. For the other exports the 
market value only is given. 

Staple exports, sugar, S,340,213Z. in 1919 ; aloe fibre, 52,152/. ; coconut 
oil. 7,943/. The trade is largely with the United Kingdom, South Africa, 
Australia, India, France, and Madagascar. The sugar crop in 1920-21 is 
estimated at 250,000 metric tons, against 242,000 in 1919-20. 

Imports in 1919 from United Kingdom, 761,523/. ; exports to United 
Kingdom, 6,424,158/. 

Imports into the United Kingdom from Mauritius ( British Board of Trade 
Returns) 1919, 7,233,951/., including unrefined sugar, 6,192,413/. ; refined 
sugar, 923,074/. ; hemp, 67,200/. Imports, 1920, 7,025,000/. British exports 
to Mauritius, 1919, 843,075/., including cotton goods, 247,6/0/. ; coal, 5,695/. ; 
machinery, 43,392/. ; iron and steel, and manufactures, 117,050/. ; manures, 
116,874/. ; soap, 51,657/. ; woollen piece goods, 5,554/. ; tobacco, 18,444/. ; 
medicines, 22,000/. ; painters' colours, 15,209. Exports, 1920, 2,745,000/. 

Shipping and Communications. 

The registered shipping January 1, 1920, consisted of 22 sailing vessels 
of 2,613 tons, and 4 steamers of 1,203 tons ; total, 26 vessels of 3,816 tons. 
Vessels entered in 1919, 173 of 321,525 tons (134 British of 255,558 tons), 
and cleared 174 of 326,833 tons (132 British of 253,759 tons). 

There are railway lines of 119 '65 miles, 24 miles narrow gauge. Railway 



194 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — MAURITIUS 

receipts in 1915, Its. 3,291,109, including work done for Government Depart- 
ments valued at Rs. 310,269 ; expenditure, not including charge on debt, 
Rs. 3,555,607. 

Of telegraphs and telephones there were (1919) 665 (including block 
telegraph for the railway) and 142| miles of line respectively ; there is cable 
communication with Zanzibar, Australia, Reunion, Madagascar, and Durban. 
In 1919 the Post Office dealt with 1,517,017 letters, 281,643 postcards, 
1,712,375 newspapers, 11,604 parcels, and 445,475 telegrams. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

On June 30, 1919, the Government Savings Bank held deposits 
amounting to Rs. 3,726,724, belonging to 31,691 depositors. 

All accounts are kept in Indian rupees. The metric system is in force. 

Dependencies. 

Rodrigues (under a Magistrate). — 18 miles long, 7 broad. Area, 4 
square miles, is about 320 miles east of Mauritius. Population (census 
1911),'4,829 ; estimated end of 1918, 6,315 ; births (1918), 285 ; deaths, 54 
Revenue (1916-17), 857Z. , and expenditure, 5,195?. ; imports (1919), 
Rs. 868,550 ; exports, Rs. 478,263. Two Government schools had (1917) 
166 pupils in average attendance. Savings Bank (June 30, 1919), 91 de- 
positors and Rs. 29,552 deposits. 

The Lesser Dependencies are Diego Garcia, Six Islands, Peros Banhos, 
Solomon Islands, Agalega, St. Brandon Group, Farquhar Island, Trois 
Freres. The nearest island is 230 miles from Mauritius, and the most remote 
about 1,200 miles. Total population of the lesser dependencies, ctnsus 1911, 
1,861 (1,097 males, 764 females). 

Diego Garcia (the most important of the Oil Islands Group), in 7° 20' S. 
lat., 72" 26' E. long., is 12J miles long, 6£ miles wide, with 517 inhabitants 
(census 1911), a large proportion negro labourers from Mauritius. 884,423 
litres of coconut oil were exported in 1919 from the Lesser Dependencies. 
Other exports are coconuts, copra, guano, and salted fish. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Mauritius. 

Annual Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and 
British Possessions. London. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London. 

Gleadoio (P.), Report on the Forests of Mauritius, 1904. 

Reports on Mauritius, and on Rodrigues, in Colonial Reports. Annual. Loudon. 

Statistical Abstractfortheseveralcolonial and other possessions of the United Kingdom. 
Annual. London. 

Mauritius Blue Book. Annual. 

Mauritius Royal Commission 1909. 

Jnder$on(3. P.), The Sugar Industry of Mauritius. London, 1899. 

DecotttrCS.), Geographic de Maurice etde ses Dependances. Mauritius, 1891. 

Keller(C), Madagascar, Mauritius, and other Past African Islands. London, 1900 

Macmillan (A.), Mauritius Illustrated. London. 

Mauritius Almanac. Mauritius. 

The Mauritius Civil List. Mauritius. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. III. London, 1914. 

Bae(Vf. C), Handbook on the Constitution, Practice, and Proceedings of the Coqbch 
of Government. Mauritius, 1901. 

Walter (A.), The Suj;ar Industry of M'"iitins. London, 1909. 



NYASALA1CD PROTECTORATE 195 

NYASALAND PROTECTORATE (BRITISH). 

The Nyasaland (until 1907 British Central Africa) Protectorate, con- 
stituted on May 14, 1891, lies along the southern and western shores 
of Lake Nyasa, and extends towards the Zambezi. It is administered 
under the Colonial Office by the Governor and Commander-in Chief, assisted 
by aa Executive an'l a Legislative Council, both consisting of nominated 
members, and the Governor having the right of veto (Order in Council of 
September 4, 1907). The Laws consist of local Ordinances duly enacted, 
with such British Acts as are of general application. 

Area, 39,573 square miles, divided into fifteen districts, each ad- 
ministered by a Resident and his assistants. Population, 1920, 1.015 Euro- 
peans (mostly in the Shire Highlands), 515 Asiatics, and 1,202,208 
natives. The chief settlement is Blantyre, in the Shire Highlands: 
others are Zomba (the seat of Government), Port Herald, Mlanje, Limbe ; 
on Lake Nyasa are Fort Johnston, Kota-Kota, Bandawe, Chintechi, Nkata, 
Likoma, and Karonga. Good roads are being made in all directions, and 
life and property are safe. There are no Government schools, native educa- 
tion being undertaken by various missionary societies. Eleven Christian 
missions are at work ; in 1918-19 there were 1,991 schools, with about 110 
European teachers, 125,159 pupils and 77,952 in average attendance. Ten 
of the missions divide 1,000Z. Government aid for their schools. 

Justice is administered in the High Court, which has jurisdiction in civil 
and criminal matters, and also as a Court of Admiralty. Subordinate courts 
are held by magistrates and assistant magistrates in the various districts. 
Appeals from decisions of the High Court are heard in H B. M's. Court of 
Appeal for Eastern Africa, sitting at Mombassa. In 1918-19, 3,041 offences 
were reported, 18 being cases of serious crime. 

Within the Shire province coffee is cultivated ; in 1916-17, 131,390 lbs.; 
in 1917-18, 2,774 lbs.; in 1918-19, 188,865 lbs.; in 1919-20, 112,055 lbs. 
were exported. Tobacco exported, after local deir.ands were supplied, in 
1916-17, 4,304,124 lbs.; in 1917-18, 2,025,372 lbs.: in 1918-19, 5,805,396 
lbs. ; and in 1919-20, 4,815,045 lbs. The area under tobacco in 1919 was 
6,027 acres. Cotton cultivation is very promising. Crop in 1915-16, 
3,065,248 lbs.; in 1916-17, 3,462,500 lbs. ; in 1917-18, 1,779,200 lbs.; in 
1918-19, 2,670,834 lbs.; and in 1919-20, 930,048 lbs. Tea-growing is tried 
on estates aggregating about 4,433 acres ; in 1915-16, 88,3411bs. ; in 1916-17, 
420,685 lbs. ; in 1917-18, 155,338 lbs.; in 1918-19, 700,455 lbs.; and in 
1919-20, 801,890 lbs. were exported. 1 Cattle (1919), 84,338 ; sheep, 40,369 ; 
goats, 148,681 ; pigs, 21,403 ; horses, mules, and asses, 253, mostly belonging 
to the natives. 

The trade ports are Port Herald (Lower Shire), Kota-Kota, Karonga, and 
Fort Johnston (Lake Nyasa). 



1913-14 
(pra-war) 



1919-20 



£ ' £ £ £ £ 

Imports 3 . 189,201 216,(500 356,116 323,265 648,979 

Exports 3 . 200,734 19S.606 ; 289,268 144,747 504,739 

Revenue . 124,849 , 137,911 148,284 144,239 187,645 

Expenditure 133,106 j 125,606 . 12S,27i 143,639 150,198 



£ 
599,890 

429,086 
1S6.266 
217,696 



1 The decrease in the cultivation and export of cotton, tobacco, coffee, and tea in 

, 1917-18 was due to (o) scarcity of native labour owing to the bulk of the adult male 

i population having been employed throughout the year as military carriers: (6) lack of 

^hipping space on ocean steamer* ; (e) prohibition of • importation of tea into the 

I Kingdom. 2 For years ending March 31 of tlmse stated 

* Excluding specie and goods in transit. 

O 2 



196 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — NYASALAND PROTECTORATE 

Direct imports from Great Britain, 1915-16, 167,669?.; 1916-17, 285,894/.; 
in 1917-18, 197,201*. ; in 1918-19,328,902*. ; in 1919-20, 370,704*.; direct 
exports thereto, 202,877*. in 1915-16 ; 286,335*. in 1916-17 ; 132,402*. in 
1917-18 ; 482,055*. in 1918-19.; 391,102*. in 1919-20. 

The imports (1919-20) consist chiefly of manufactured articles (408,477*.), 
provisions (82,479*.), raw materials (30,279*.); the principal exports are 
tobacco (309,979*.), cotton (65,878*.), tea (33,479*.). 

The revenue is derived from Customs (62,582*. in 1918-19), licences 
(6,037*.), land tax (8,006*.), &c, and from a hut-tax, yielding in 1915-16, 
76,679*.; in 1916-17, 78,478*. ; in 191 7-18, 75,448*. ; and in 1918-19, 79,304*. 

Public debt, March 31, 1919, 3,190,800*., including 2,998,000*. War 
advances. 

There are military, volunteer reserve, and civil police forces. A European 
police force is being created (1920). There is a Marine Transport Depart- 
ment on the Upper Shire River and on Lake Nyasa, consisting of three 
vessels. For ordinary traffic there are small steamers, besides small sailing 
vessels. 

There is communication with the coast at Chinde by river steamers. 
Chinde is situated on the only navigable mouth of the Zambezi, and the 
Portuguese Government has granted a small piece of land, called the 
' British Concession,' where goods in transit for British Central Africa are 
free of customs duty, and in addition a large area for residential purposes 
styled ' the Extra Concession. ' 

There are 27 post offices through which, in 1915-16, 2,174,405 postal 
packets passed. A postal savings bank was opened on July 1, 1911. Depositors 
at end of 1918, 522; deposits, 14,490*. A railway, of 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, from 
Chinde on the Zambezi in Portuguese East Africa to Blantyre has been 
constructed (174 miles) and an extension made to the Zambezi River. 
A railway thence to the Port of Beira in Portuguese East Africa is to be 
constructed. There is a telegraph line through the Protectorate to 
Tanganyika and Ujiji connecting with Cape Town, with a branch to Fort 
Jameson. At Zomba there is a water-power electric light installation 
which provides for the whole settlement. 

At Blantyre and Zomba there are branches of the Standard Bank of 
South Africa and of the National Bank of South Africa. The currency 
consists of British coin, gold, silver, and bronie. There is no note circulation. 

Governor and Comviander-in-Chief. — Sir George Smith, K.C.M.G. 

Chief Secretary. — R. S. D. Rankine, C.M.G. 

References. 

Colonial Office Reports on Nyasaland Protectorate. 

Nyasaland Handbook. Published by Messrs. Wyman it Sons, London. 

Precis of Information concerning the British Central Africa Protectorate. By C. B. 
Vyvyan. London, 1 '.Hi I. 

Caddick (Helen), A White Woman in Central Africa. London, 1900. 

Duff (H. L.), Nyasaland under the Foreign Office. 2nd ed. London, 1906. 

Foa (B.), Da Cap au Lac Nyasse. Paris, 1807. 

Johntton (Sir H. U.), British Central Africa. London, 1897. 

Keltie(J. Scott), The Partition of Africa. 2ndedition. London,189*. 

Moore (J. H. S.), The Tanganyika Problem. London, 1903. 

Ortroc(F. Van), Convent inns intci nationales concernautl'Afrique. Brussels, 1898. 

Rankin (D. J.), The Zambezi Basin and Nyasaland. London, 1893. 

Sharju (Sir Alfred), The Geography and Economic Development of British Central 
Africa. Geographical Journal. January, I.' 

Simpton (Samuel), lit port on the Cotton-growing Industry in British Central Africa 
Protectorate. London, 1900. . 



ST. HELENA 



197 



ST. HELENA. 

Governor.— Lieut. -Cul. K. F. Peel. 

St. Helena, of volcanic origin, is 1,200 miles from the west coast of 
Africa. Area, 47 square miles. Population, 1911 Census, 3,520. Estimated 
civil population, Dec. 31, 1919, 3,468. Births, 1919, 124; deaths, 29; 
marriages, 27. Emigrants, (1919), 198 ; immigrants, 33. Four Episcopal, 
4 Baptist, 1 Roman Catholic chapels. Education, 8 elementary schools 
(of which 3 are Government schools), with 699 pupils in 1919 ; aud one 
private school. Police force, 5 ; cases dealt with by police magistrate, 76 
in 1919. A detachment of the Royal Marine Artillery is stationed on 
the island. The port of the island is called Jamestown. 

The following table gives statistics for St. Helena : — 



Revenua l . 
Expenditure 


1913 

(Pre-war) 
£ 

11,411 
10,632 

7,568 
43,394 


1916 

£ 

20,625 
11,9824 


1917 

£ 

9,808 
15,966 


1919 

£ £ 
15,630 12,169 
12,548 11,432 


Exports s . 
Imports* 


24,636 
46,514 


54,830 
51,301 


68,502 30,878 
49,487 44,084 



i Including Imperial grants (2,000/. in 1013, 13.67SJ. in 1916, 2,200/. in 1917, 8 000/. in 
1918, 3,800/. in 1919). 

2 Including specie, 1,550/. in 1912 : 720/. in 1913; 1,188/. in 1914 ; MM. in 1016. 

s Including specie, 500/. in 1913; 1,000/. in 1915; 2,000/. in 1916; and 4,000/. in 1917; 
but excluding go rem ment stores. 

* Excluding extraordinary military expenditure (6,263/. in 1916). 



The revenue from customs in 1919 was 2,8382. 

Public debt, nil. But the Colony's liabilities at December 31, 1919, 
exceeded the assets by 1,3652. 

The principal export in 1919 was fibre and tow, 27,1082. for 603 tons. 

Savings-bank deposits on December 31, 1919, 16,680i. , belonging to 
163 depositors. 

Fruit trees, Norfolk pines, eucalyptus, and cedars flourish in St. Helena. 
Cattle do well, but there is no outside market for the meat. The flax 
{phormium) industry is now established, and a Government mill com- 
menced operations in 1908. In 1919 the exports of fibre and tow were 603 
tons. Two private mills produced 410 tons of fibre and 115 tons of tow 
in 1919. At the fonr mills 183 males and 59 females were employed at the 
end of 1918. The area of land under flax is estimated at 1,000 acres (1918). 
A lace-making industry has been started. The number of vessels that 
called at the Island in 1919 was 28 (26 British), with a total tonnage of 
89,548. 

The Post Office traffic from St. Helena in 1917, 26,415 letters and post- 
cards, besides books, papers and parcels. The Eastern Telegraph Company's 
cable connects St. Helena with Cape Town and with St. Vincent. There are 
telephone lines, with 40 miles of wire. 

St. Helena is an Admiralty coaling station. About two of the Cape ol 
Good Hope Squadron visit St. Helena every year. 



198 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — SEYCHELLES 

Tristan da Cunha, a small group of islands in the Atlantic, half-wav be- 
tween the Cape and S. America, in 37* 6' S. lat. 12° 1' W. long. Besides 
Tristan da Cunha and Cough's Island, there are Inaccessible and Nightingale 
Islands, the former two and the latter one mile long, and a number of rocks. 
The population consists mainly of the families of shipwrecked sailors and 
wives from St. Helena, and numbered 105 at the end of 1916. There is no 
form of government. Education is almost totally neglected. Potatoes 
grow well, but grain crops are destroyed by rats. Apple and peach trees 
are productive. Bullocks, sheep, and geese are reared. Fish are plentiful. 

References. 

Colonial Report. Annual. London. 

Report (written in 1£S4) upon the Present Position and Prospects of the Agriculture 
Resources of St. Helena. By D. Morris. Reprinted in 1906. London. 

Brooke's History of St. Helena. 

Barrow (K. M.l, Three Years in Tristan da Cunha. London, 1911. 

Deberain (H.), Dans l'Atlantique. Paris, 1912. 

Ellis (A. B. ), West African Islands. London, 1885. 

Jackson (E. L.), St. Helena : The Historic Island. London, 1903. 

Melliss's Physical and Topographical Description of St. Helena. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. III. African Territories. London, 1914. 

Correspondence and Further Correspondence relating to the Island of Tristan da Cunha. 
London, 18S7, 1897, 1898-1903, and 1906. 



SEYCHELLES. 



Seychelles and its Dependencies consist of 90 islands and islets with 
a total estimated area of 156 square miles. The principal island is Mahe 
(554 square miles), smaller islands of the group being Praslin, Silhouette, La 
Digue, Curieuse, and FeTicite. Among dependent islands are the Amirantes, 
Alphonse Island, Bijoutier Island, St. Francois, St. Pierre, the Cosmoledo 
Group, Astove Island, Assumption Island, the Aldabra Islands, Providence 
Island, Coetivy, and Flat Island. The Seychelles were formerly administered 
from Mauritius, but in 1888 the office of Administrator was created, an Execu- 
tive Council of 2 ex-ojficio members and 1 nominated member was appointed 
and a Legislative Council of 3 official and 3 unofficial members, the Adminis- 
trator being president of both Councils and having an original and casting vote 
in the Legislative Council. In 1897 the Administrator was given full powers 
as Governor, and in November, 1903, he was raised to the rank of Governor. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. — His Excellency (Lt. -Col. ) the Hon. 
Sir Eustace Fiennes, Bart. 

The population at December 31, 1919, was estimated to be 24,653 
(12,396 males and 12,257 females) ; census of April 2, 1911, 26,000 (13,146 
males and 12,854 females). The death-rate for 1919 was 1684 ; the 
birth-rate 25*19; marriages, 74. Number of births, 619; deaths, 414. 
The capital is Victoria, which has a good harbour and a coaling station. 
There were in 1919, 20 grant-in-aid schools. In addition, there is a secondary 
school for boys with a preparatory branch, and a Government free school. 
There is a Catholic secondary school for boys, and one for girls. Total 
number of children attending school in 1919 was 2,226 ; average attendance, 
885. In 1919, 425 persons were convicted in the Supreme Court. The 
police force numbers 86 of all ranks (1919). 



SEYCHELLES 199 

Revenue, expenditure and debt for 6 years : — 

Year. Revenue. Expenditure. DeM. 



1913 (pre-war) 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 



£ 


£ 


£ 


37,144 


37,245 


13.26^ 


25,419 


31,196 


12,006 


27,998 


80,160 


11,348 


31,10:! 


29,038 


10,692 


27,206 


29.416 


9,978 


38,243 


41,790 


9,265 



The surplus funds invested on December 31, 1919, amounted to 12,s491. 

Chief items of revenue, 1919 : Customs, 13,834/. ; Crown lands, 1,357/. 
licences, excise, and internal revenue, 3,9747. ; taxes, 2,952/. 

Chief products, coconuts (over 23,000 acres under cultivation : 26,000,000 
coconuts produced in 1919) and vanilla (4 tons exported in 1919) ; about 
184,000 plants of Paia rubber are growing ; on some islands mangrove-bark 
is collected and phosphate deposits are worked. A good deal of attention is 
being given to the distillation of oil from the leaves of the cinnamon tree, 
which grows profusely in the island. Live-stock at end of 1919 : Cattle. 
1,000 ; goats, 500 ; sheep, 200 ; horses, 150. Fishing is actively pursued, 
chieflv for local supply, but will probably be extended. 

Imports 1919, 75,021/. ; 1918, 65,662.'. Exports, 1919, 140,093/. ; 
1918, 41,500/ Principal imports, 1919 : Rice and other foodstuffs 27,400/. ; 
cotton goods, 14,400/. ; haberdashery, 870/. ; spirits, beer and wine, 2,490/. 
The chief exports, 1919. were copra, 96,382/. : vanilla, 2,342/. ; c conut oil, 
0.257/. Total imports from United Kingdom, 1919, 17,027/. ; India, 
35.977/. ; exports to France, 74,253/. ; United Kingdom, 47,028/. ; Mauritius, 
7,039/. 

Shipping entered and cleared (1919), 132,734 tons, mainly British. The 
British India steamers call once a month from Bombay on their way to 
Mombassa. There is fairly regular communication between the islands. 

There is a good road system in Mah£, and further road-making is in 
progress in Mahe and in Praslin and La Digue. In 1919 the post office 
despatched and received 73,000 letters and postcards, 57,500 news- 
papers, Arc, and 2,050 parcels. There is telegraphic communication with 
Mauritius and Europe, but no internal telegraph service. 

On December 31, 1919, the Savings Bank deposits amounted to 
6,772/. to the credit of 41*5 depositors. 

Current money in the islands consists of rupees. 

References. 

Anuual Reports on the Seychelles. London. 

Belcher (Sir Edward), Account of the Seychelles. 

Fauvel (A. A.), Ribliographies des Sevchelles. Published by the Seychelles Govern- 
ment. 1908. 

Gardiner {J. Stanley) The Seychelles. Geographical Journal, Vol. XXVIII., and also 
proceedings of the Linnaean Society. 

Lucas (Sir C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. 

Murat (M.), Gordon's Eden, orthe Sevchelles Archipelago. 

North (Miss), Leaves from a Happy Life. 

Sierra Leone. See West African CoLONise, 
Sokotra. See Aden. 



200 THE BRITISH EMPIRE j — SOMALILAND PROTECTORATE 

SOMALILAND PROTECTORATE. 

The Somali Coast stretches from Lahadu, west of Zeyla, to Bandar 
Ziyada 49° E. long. After 1884, when Egyptian control ceased, the terri- 
tory was administered by the Government of India, but was taken over by 
the Foreign Office on October 1, 1898, and was transferred to the Colonial 
Office on April 1, 1905. 

By an arrangement with Italy in 1894 the limits of the British Pro- 
tectorate were defined ; but in 1897, by an arrangement with Abyssinia, 
a fresh boundary as required by that country was determined, and about 
15,000 square miles were ceded to Abyssinia. An agreement for the regula- 
tion of Anglo-Italian relations in Somaliland was concluded on March 19, 
1907. The area is about 68,000 square miles ; population about 300,000 — 
Mohammedan, and entirely nomadic, except on the coast, where con- 
siderable towns have sprung up during the British occupation. 

The chief town, Berbera, had, at the 1911 census, 30,000 inhabitants 
in the trading season ; Zeyla, 7,000 ; and Bulhar, 7,300. There are 3 
Government schools : average attendance, 1919-20, 127. Police, 510 officers 
andmen on March 31, 1920. Convictions in 1919-20, 738. The revenue in 
1919-20 was 81,870Z. (54,498Z. in 1918-19), mainly from customs duties 
(71,446/. in 1919-20) ; the expenditure, 322,989/. (147,328/. in 1918-19). 
The grant in aid for 1919-20, 199,000/. (83,000/. in 1918-19). Imports 
(1919-20), Zeyla, Berbera, and Bulhar, 503, 213/. (324,947/. in 1918-19), 
exports (1919-20), 231,011/. (221,838/. in 1918-19). Bullion and specie are 
excluded. The imports are chiefly rice (170,646/. in 1919-20), textiles, 
dates (82,703/.), sugar (28,710/.), and specie ; the exports skins and hides, 
gum and resins, ghee, cattle and sheep, and specie. Tonnage entered 
in 1919-20, 48,278; cleared, 48,913. The rupee is the basis of the cur- 
rency, and is of the same value as in India. Bank of England and Govern- 
ment of India notes are also in circulation. Transport is by camels ; there 
are no porters. Besides ordinary telegraphs there are wireless telegraph 
stations at Berbera, Burao, Bulhar, Hargeisa, and Las Dureh. A wireless 
station in Aden is also maintained from Protectorate funds. 

The Protectorate forces now comprise a Camel Corps of 400, including 1 
Indian Company, and 500 Police. 

Governor and Commande/r-in-Chitf, — His Excellency Sir G. F. Archer, 
K.C.M.G. Appointed May, 1914. 

Books of Reference. 

Drake-Brockman (R. E.), British Somaliland. London, 1917. 

Hamilton (A.), Somaliland. London, 1911. 

Jennings (J. W.), With the Abyssinians in Somaliland. London, 1905. 

MacNtill (Capt. M.), In Pursuit of the "Mad" Mullah. London, 1902. 

Motse (A. H. E.) My Somali Book. London, 1913. 

Pta.se (A. E.), Somaliland. 3 vols. London, 1902. 

Peel(0. V. A.), Somaliland. London, 1'dOS. 

Smith (A. Donaldson), Through Unknown African Countries. London, 1897. 

Swayne (H.G. O-KBevehteenTripsfchrough'SomalilaM, 2 Kd. London, 1900. 

Vannutelli (L.), and C{<erni'(C), ScoondaSpedizioneBottego. Milan. 1991 

Correspondence relating to Affairs in Somaliland [Cd. 7,066|. Loudon, 1*13. 



SOUTH AFRICA — BASUTOLAND 201 

SOUTH AFRICA. 

BASUTOLAND. 

Basutoland, an derated but rugged plateau, forms an irregular 
parallelogram on the north-east of the Cape of Good Hope Province. The 
prorinces of the Orange Free State, Natal, and the Cape of Good Hope 
form its boundaries. Area, 11,716 square miles. The territory, which 
is well watered and has a fine climate, is stated to be the best grain- 
producing country in South Africa, and the abundant grass enables the 
Basutos to rear large herds of cattle. 

Basutoland has been directly under the authority of the Crown since 1884. 
The Paramount Chief is Griffith, brother of Letsie, the late chief. Griffith 
was installed on April 11, 1913. The territory is governed by a Resident 
Commissioner under the direction of the High Commissioner for South 
Africa, the latter possessing the legislative authority, which is exercised by 
proclamation. The country is divided into seven districts, namely : Maseru, 
Leribe, Mohale's Hoek, Berea, Mafeteng, Quthing, and Qacha's Nek. Each 
of the districts is subdivided into wards, mostly presided over by hereditary 
chiefs allied to the Moshesh family. 

In 1891 the population consisted of 578 Europeans and 218,324 natives. 
The census of 1911 gave a total of 403,111 natives and 1,396 Europeans. Euro- 
pean settlement is in general prohibited, and is more or less limited to the 
few engaged in trade, government, and missionary work. Maseru, the capital 
and largest town, has a population of (approximately) 1,200 natives and 300 
Europeans. A fresh census is being arranged to take place on May 3, 1921. 

The productions are wool, wheat, mealies, and Kaffir corn. There are 
indications of iron and copper, and coal has been found and is used in some 
parts. Stock, &c. (1911): 433,000 cattle, 86,600 horses, 22,800 ploughs, 
1,722 waggons. 

There were 390 native elementary schools with over 30,000 pupils at the 
end of December, 1919 ; expenditure in connection with education amounted 
during the year ended March 31, 1919, to 23,8622. There are some Normal 
and Industrial schools (aided). There is also a. large and well-fitted Govern- 
ment native industrial school at Maseru. There are 7 white schools with 133 
pupils. 

The police force numbered, 1918, 12 white officers and 7 European con- 
stables, 3 native officers, and 293 men (natives), also 191 special natives 
police for Border work. 

The imports consist chiefly of blankets, ploughs, clothing, iron and tin 
ware, and groceries, and the exports of stock, grain and wool. Basutoland 
is in the South African Customs Union. The total trade in recent years was : 
Imports, 1916, 666,979/.; 1917, 901,3322. ; 1918, 882,3392.; 1919, 1,137,0372. 
Exports : 1916, 825,949/.; 1917, 812,0312. ; 1918, 1,007,6122. ; 1919, 1,380,1192, 

The currency is exclusively British. The revenue arises mainly from 
the Post Office, native tax, licences, and customs rebate from neighbouring 
territories. Under the new Native Tax Law every adult male native pays 
12. per annum, and if he has more than one wife by native custom he pays 
12. per annum for his wives up to a maximum of 32. 

1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 

£ £ £ £ 

Revenue . . 161,417 176,202 177,821 175,029 191,429 199,885 
Expenditure . 203,461 156,190 171,438 173,193 180,881 202,441 



1913-14 


1915-16 ; 


£ 

161.417 
203,461 


£ 
176,202 
156,190 



202 THE BRITISH EMPIRE J — BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE 

Native tax yielded 107,291?. in 1919-20, and customs, 63.281Z. Balance 
of assets over liabilities, March 31, 1920, 129,000Z. 

There are no navigable waterways, the rivers being low in winter and 
generally flooded in summer. The roads in the country are now in fair 
condition for any kind of transport. 

There are telegraph offices at the various magistracies in connection with 
the systems of the Cape Province and Orange Free State. 

A railway built by the C.S.A.R., 16 miles, connects Maseru with the 
Bloemfontein-lN'atal line at Marseilles Station. 

Resident Commissioner. — Lieut. -Col. E. C. F. Garraway, C.M.G. 

References. 

Colonial Report. Annual. London. 

Despatches (1869-70), Correspondence, Further Conespondence, and other Papers 
respecting Basutoland (1880-1887). London. 

Barkly (Mrs.), Among Boers and Basutos. 4th ed. London, 1900. 
Bryce (J.), Impressions of South Africa. 3rd Edition. London, 1899. 
EUenberger (Rev. D. F.), History of the Basuto. London, 1912. 
Johnston (Sir Harry), The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. 
Lagden (Sir G.), The Basutos. 2 vols. London, 1909. 
Martin (Minnie), Basutoland : Its Legends and Customs. London, 1903. 
Norris- Newman (C. L.), The Basutos and their Country. London, 1882. 
Widdieombe'J.), Fourteen Tears in Basutoland. London, 1892. 



BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE. 

The Bechuanaland Protectorate comprises the territory lying between 
the Molopo River on the south and the Zambezi on the north, and extending 
from the Transvaal Province and Matabeleland on the east to South- West 
Africa. Area is about 275,000 square miles ; population, according to the 
census taken on the 7th May, 1911, 125,350, of whom 1,692 were Europeans. 
The most important tribes are the Bamangwato (35,000), under the chief 
Khama, whose capital is Serowe (population 17,000) 40 miles west of the 
railway line at Palapye Road ; the Bakhatla (11,000) under Lenchwe : 
the Bakwena (13,000) under Sebele II. ; the Bangwaketse (18,000) under 
Tshosa, acting paramount chief during minority of Bathoefi, a boy of 
12 years of age, the eldest son of the late chief Gaseitsiwe ; the Batawana 
under Mathibe ; and the Bamalete (4,500) under Seboko Mokgosi, who 
assumed the Chieftainship on July 9, 1917. In 1885, the territory was 
declared to be within the British sphere ; in 1889 it was included in t lie 
sphere of the British South Africa Company, but was never administered 
by the company ; in 1890 a Resident Commissioner was appointed, and in 
1895, on the annexation of the Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland to 
the Cape of Good Hope, new arrangements were made for the administration 
of the Protectorate, and special agreements were made in view of the exten- 
sion of the railway northwards from Mafeking. Each of the chiefs rules 
his own people as formerly, under the protection of the King, who is repre- 
sented by a Resident Commissioner, acting under the High Commissioner. 
The headquarters of the Administration are in Mafeking, in the Cape Pro- 
vince, where there is a reserve for Imperial purposes, with ample buildingB, 
There are assistant commissioners at Gaberones in the southern, and 
Francistown in the northern portion of the Protectorate. There is a tax 
of 11. on each hut and 3."!. for a Native Fund established by virtue of Pro- 
clamation No. 47 of 1919, for education, &c. Licences for the sale of spirits 
are granted only at certain railway stations. 

Cattle-rearing, and agriculture to a limited extent (production of maize 
and Kaffir corn), aro tho chief industries, but the country is more a pastoral 
than an agricultural one, crops depending entirely upon the rainfall. Cattle 



BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE 



203 



numbered on May 7, 1911, 323,900 head, sheep and goats, 358,000. During 
the year 1919-20 23,569 head of cattle were exported. The police force 
consists of 58 Europeans and 116 Basutos, and 86 local natives aa messengers. 
Education is provided (there were 8 European, 1 coloured, and 59 native 
schools, 1919-20), with Government assistance (2,250/. being granted in 
1919-20), in the London Missionary Society (Church of England), Dutch 
Reformed Church, and other schools. There are schools for Europeans, 
subsidised by the Government, at Francistown, Serowe and Magalapye, and 
at Lobatei, Hildavale, Pitsani, and Molopolole. Total Government expen- 
diture on education, 1919-20,1,880/. 

Gold and silver to the total value of 7,349/. were mined in 1919-20. 

Revenue and expenditure for six years : — 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Tear 

U 1917-18 

!i 191?-19 
II 1919-20 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1913-14 
1915-16 
1916-17 


£ 
65,139 
70,225 
69,348 


t 
60,74? 
68.622 
65,077 


£ 

71,409 
80.282 
M.563 


£ 

67,439 
76,716 
91,611 



Revenue exceeded expenditure for the first time in 1915-16. 

Chief items of revenue, 1918-19: customs, 19,3S3/. ; hut-tax, 40,750/. ; 
licences, 5,133/. ; posts, 7,555/. ; export duty on cattle, 3.321/. Chief items 
of expenditure, 1918-19: Resident Commissioner, 5,869/. ; district admini- 
stration, 5,864/. ; posts, 3,846/.; Police, 33,590/.; public works (extraordinary 
and recurrent), 5,961/. ; veterinary, 4,833/. There has been no Imperial 
grant-in-aid since 1911-12, when the grant amounted to 10,000/. 

There is no public debt. Excess of assets over liabilities on April 1, 
1920, 13,664/. 

The Protectorate was within the South African Customs Union, and when 
the Union of South Africa was completed, an agreement was made with 
the Union Government under which duty on all dutiable articles imported 
into the Protectorate is collected by the Union Customs Department and 
paid into the Union Treasury, a lump sum representing a certain portion 
of the annual Customs Revenue of the Union being paid over to the Pro- 
tectorate. Under this arrangement figures relating to imports and exports 
are not available. 

The telegraph from the Cape of Good Hope to Rhodesia passes through the 
Protectorate and is owned by the British South Africa Company. Similarly 
the railway extending northwards from the Cape of Good Hope traverses 
the Protectorate. It is the property of the Rhodesia Railways, Limited. In 
the Protectorate are 13 post offices ; receipts, in 1919-20," 7,555/. ; expen- 
diture, 3,846/. Postal business, 1919-20. 337.765 letters, 5,980 post- 
cards, 4,472 newspapers, 2,184 book packets, samples, and circulars, and 
1,196 parcels. 

The currency is British money. There is no bank in the Protectorate. 

Resident Commissioner. — J. C. Macgregor, C.M.G. 

Government Secretary. — J. Ellenberger. 

References. 

Annual Report on the Protectorate. London. 

Reports by and Instructions to Major-General Sir Charles Warren, K.C.M.G., a 
Special Commissioner to Bechuanaland, 1864-86. Correspondence and Further Corre- 
spondence respecting Bechuanaland, 1887-98. London. 

Htpburn (J. D.), Twenty Tears in Khama's Country. London, 1895. 



204 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — RHODESTA 

Johntton (Sir Harry), The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. 
Lioj/d(E.), Three African Chief*. London, 1895. 

Mackenzie (W. D.), Life of John Mackenzie, South African Missionary and Statesman, 
London, 1902. 

MaeNab (Frances), On Veldt and Farm, 2nd ed. London, 1900. 
Pas»arge (Fr.) Die Kalahari. Berlin, 1904. 



RHODESIA. 

Under the title of Rhodesia is included the whole of the region extending 
from the Transvaal Province northwards to the borders of the Congo State 
and the late German East Africa (now Tanganyika Territory), bounded on 
the east by Portuguese East Africa, Nyasaland. and the Tanganyika 
Territory, and on the west by the Congo State, Portuguese West Africa, 
and Bechuanaland. The whole territory is under the administration of the 
British South Africa Company, which holds a Royal Charter dated October 
29, 1889. The region south of the Zambezi (Matabeleland aud Mashonaland) 
is called Southern Rhodesia ; that north of the Zambezi is known as Northern 
Rhodesia. 

The administrative system of the Company in Southern Rhodesia 
is prescribed by Orders in Council, the last dated 1916. To assist the 
Company's Administrator there is an Executive Council consisting of not 
less than three members appointed for three years by the Company with 
the approval of the Secretary of State. There is also a Legislative Council, 
which consists of the Administrator (president), six nominees of the Company 
approved by the Secretary of State, and twelve members elected by the 
registered voters. Women have the vote. The duration of each Legislative 
Council is three years, unless it be sooner dissolved. Ordinances passed by 
the Legislative Council when assented to by the High Commissioner take 
effect immediately, but within a year may be disallowed by the Secretary 
of State. There is a Resident Commissioner appointed by the Secretary 
of State, with a seat on both the Executive and Legislative Councils, 
but without a vote. For the administration of justice there is a High 
Court with civil aud criminal jurisdiction. In the districts there are 
Magistrates' Courts. There is a chief Native Commissioner, with subordinate 
Superintendents of Divisions, Native Commissioners and Assistant Native 
Commissioners, and, except with respect to anus, ammunition, and liquor, 
natives and Europeans are under the same conditions. 

Land has been set apart for tribal settlements, the mineral rights being 
reserved ("native reserves") to the Company. It has been decided that 
the ownership of the unalienated land vests in the Crown, but the Company, 
so long as it is responsible for the government of the country, may dispose 
of such land in the due course of administration. 

Southern Rhodesia has an area of 149,000 square miles. According to 
the census taken on May 7, 1911, the European population was 23,606, 
but at the end of 1919 it was estimated to be about 38,000. The native 
population of Southern Rhodesia iaestimated (1910) at about 770,000. There 
are also approximately :5,000 Asiatics and other coloured persons. The chief 
towns are Salisbury (the capital of Southern Rhodesia), Bulawayo, Victoria, 
Umtali, Gwelo, Enkeldoorn, Melsetter, Hartley, Selukwe, Gwauda, and 
Gatooma. 

The schools in Southern Rhodesia for Europeans numbered, at 
the end of 1919, 77 public and 4 aided. The pupils in 1919 numbered 
4,674, and the total expenditure on education was 12f>,5fl4/. There were also 



RHODESIA 205 

iJl private schools, with 107 pupils in 1919. In addition there were 696 native 
schools, the number of pupils enrolled being 39,381. 

The country is rich in gold reefs and other minerals, and is well 
adapted for agriculture and European settlers. Live stock (1919) : cattle, 
1,326,000 ; sheep, 367,000 ; goats, 761,000. Acreage under crops (1919): 
European, 210,000; native, 1.204,000. Tobacco acreage (1919): 4,197: 
yield, 1,468,000 lbs. estimated. Large fruit orcbards have been 
planted, and nearly all fruit trees thrive, the cultivation of oranges and 
lemons constituting a rapidly expanding industry. Regular shipments of 
oranges are now being made to the United Kingdom, and have realised 
eminently satisfactory prires. In March (1920) the British South Africa 
Company completed the constru'tion of an important dam across the Mazoe 
River, the storage capacity of which, in a normal mm is approximately 
4,000 million gallons, equivalent to 15,000 acre feet, or sufficient to supply 
6,000 acres with 24 feet of water ]>er acre per anuuin. An adequate supply 
of water will be assured for the irrigation of the Company's orange groves on 
the Mazoe Estate, and negotiations are at present taking place with regard tt) 
the sale of surplus water to other landowners in the Mazoe Valley. The sale . 
of dairy produce is a profitable industry in the neighbourhood of the towns. 
Creameries, a bacon factory, an oil-expressing plant, and a meat-canning 
factory have been successfully established. 

A Land Bank makes loans to settlers on easy terms of repayment, for the 
purpose of improving and developing their agricultural holdings, and numerous 
companies have been formed with the purpose of developing land and 
minerals. 

The total output ot gold from 1890 to December 31, 1919, is valued at 
45,227,793/. The gold output (1919) was 593,222 oz., valued at 2,499,498/. 
(1920), 552,497 oz., 3,056,549/. The output of other minerals in 1919 
was: silver, 172,000 oz., valued at 34,099/.; copper, 3,012 tons, valued at 
207,470/. : chrome ore, 35.2S2 tons, valued at 142,541/.; coal, 510,040 tons 
raised, value 189,188/.; asbestos, 9,799 tons, valued at 425,240/.; iron stone, 
2,500 tons, value 312/. Small amounts of wolframite, scheelite, antimony, 
and arsenic, together with 3S5 carats of diamonds, were also produced. The 
total mineral output for 1919 was valued at 3,519,375/. Manganese nickel, 
tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, tantalum and zirconium also exist. 

The total value of imports into Southern Rhodesia in 1919 was 
0,206,853/., the chief being: living animals, 86,692/.; food and drink, 
492,299/. ; textile goods, wearing apparel, boots, etc., 785,045/.; machinery, 
128,368/.; railway and tramway materials, 317,374/. The value of the 
exports of South African produce, exclusive of gold, was 1,935,603/., the chief 
being: asbestos, 240,210/. ; maize. 241,328/. ; blister copper, 449,699/. ; animals, 
284,112/.; hides and skins, 141,641/.; tobacco, 82,613/. Gold exports, 
2,499,498/. Imports of merchandise from the United Kingdom (1919), 
1,309,807/. 

The Rhcdesian Railway system begins at Yryburg in the Cape Colony, 
and extends northwards to the Congo State border, a through communica- 
tion from Cape Town to the Congo border (2,149 miles), and north-east from 
Bnlawayo to Salisbury, and thence to the port of Beira on the Indian Ocean. 
There are also several branch lines in Southern Rhodesia. The total mileage 
of the Rhodesian Railway Systems (including the Beira Railway) at the end 
of 1919 was 2,468. 

On December 31, 1919, there were in Southern Rhodesia 105 post offices, 
36 of which are money order and savings bank offices. During the year 
ended December 31, 1919, 6,159, S58 letters and post-cards were despatched. 



206 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — RHODESIA 

The total of newspapers, books, and parcels despatched was 1,964,410, and 
registered articles 91,032. The postal revenue for the year was 56,9102., 
and the expenditure, 43,7052. Telegraphic revenue, 57,1912., expenditure, 
56,3212. 

On January 1, 1905, a Post Office Savings Bank was established, and 
on December 31, 1919, the deposits amounted to 108,1692. 

On December 31, 1919, the mileage of the Rhodesia telegraph system 
was 8,093. There were 116 telegraph offices open. In Southern 
Rhodesia during the year 1919, 348,019 telegrams were received and 
despatched. There is an extensive telephone system in operation. 

Administrative revenue of Southern Rhodesia, 1918-19, 961,6712. 
(mainly from customs and excise, 298,0922.; native tax, 238,3672.; posts and 
telegraphs, 100,5052.; stamps and licences, 69,5272.; income tax and excess 
profits duty, 60,2782.); administrative expenditure, 858,0632.; (mainly 
administration, 224,9542.; defence, 196,0822.; posts and telegraphs, 77,8012.; 
education, 110,8922.; hospitals, 77,5952.; agriculture and veterinary, 
58,6432.). Administrative revenue, 1919-20, 1,050,3792. ; expenditure, 
, 1,309,8.072. 

Northern Rhodesia.— By an Order in Council, dated May 4, 1911, the 
two provinces of North-Eastern and North-Western Rhodesia were amal- 
gamated under the title of Northern Rhodesia, the amalgamation taking 
effect as from August 17, 1911. The limits of the territory, as defined by 
the Order in Council, are ' the parts of Africa bounded by Southern 
Rhodesia, German South-west Africa (now South-west Africa), Portuguese 
West Africa, the Congo Free State, German East Africa (now Tanganyika 
Territory), Nyasaland, and Portuguese East Africa.' 

Northern Rhodesia has an area of about 291,000 square miles, and 
consists for the most part of high plateau country, covered with thin 
forest. Much of the country is suitable for farming and contains large 
areas carrying good arable and grazing land. The permanent European 
population was estimated at 2,945 in 1919. The native population is 
estimated at about 928,000. The territory is divided into ten magisterial 
districts. The administrative headquarters are at Livingstone, on the 
Zambezi. The most important centres are Fort Jameson, Fife, Abercom, 
Fort Rosebery, Broken Hill, Ndola, and Lealui. The police force, called 
the Northern Rhodesia Police, is composed of natives, with European officers 
and non-commissioned officers. 

Agricultural products are maize, cotton, tobacco, wheat, and European 
fruits. Rubber is also produced. There is plenty of timber of various kinds. 
There are gold, copper, zinc, and lead mines in the territory ; and coal has 
been discovered. (Lead mined in 1919, 14,174 tons, 226,7772.). 

The trunk line of the Rhodesian railway system traverses Northern 
Rhodesia from Livingstone to the Congo border. The Zambezi, Kafue, 
Chambcsi, and other rivers of Northern Rhodesia are navigable for a con- 
siderable portion of their extent. 

In Northern Rhodesia there are 39 post offices, 12 being money order 
offices. There is a telegraph line alongside the railway from Livingstone 
to the Congo border. The African Transcontinental telegraph system ex- 
tends to Abercorn, Fife, and Fort Jameson. 

The Northern Rhodesia Order in Council (May 4, 1911), provides for the 
appointment of an Imperial officer, styled the Resident Commissioner, who 
may be the officer holding the same position in Southern Rhodesia, and of 
an Administrator appointed by the British South Africa Company with 
the approval of the Secretary of State. The Administrator has an Advisory 



fcEFKRENCES 207 

Council of fire members, chosen by the white settlers, for consultative 
pnrpg • 

Revenue, 1915-19, 152,099/. (native tax, 83,485/. : customs, 36,421/. ; 
posts and telegraphs, 9,679/. ; stamps and licences, 7,571/.; medical, 6,547/.; 
fines and fees, 2,764/.) ; expenditure, 199,170/. Revenue, 1919-20, 
149,792/. ; expenditure, 215,288/. Imports, exclusive of specie. 19] 9, 
434,354/. ; exports, 454,366/., including living animals, 70,852/., copper ore, 
etc., 26,821/.; pig lead and ingot, 208,045/.; corn, grain, and flour, 63,305/. ; 
hides, skins, and horns, 17,333/. 

The capital of the Company was originally 1,000,000/. ; in 1908 it 
amounted, by successive additions, to 9,000,000/. ; amount issued and paid 
up at March 31, 1917, 8,937,533/.; debentures (5 per cent, free of tax), 
1,250,000/. 

Administrator of Southern Rhodesia. — Sir Drummond Chaplin, 
K.C.M.G. 

Acting Administrator of Northern Rhodesia. — EL C. Marshall, C. M.G. 

Resident Commissioner. — C. Douglas Jones, C.M.G. 

References. 

Annual Reports and other publications of the British South Africa Company. — In- 
formation for Settlers. — Handbooks for Tourists and Sportsmen (latest editions) 

Papers respecting the, Treaty between Great Britain and Portugal, signed June 11, 1891. 
[Manica Arbitration.] London, 1S97. — Award of H.M. the King of Italy, respecting the 
Western Boundary of the Barotse Kingdom, 1005. London, 1905. — Papers -respecting 
Native Reserves in -Southern Rhodesia. London, 1917 and 1920. — Papers relating to the 
Commission appointed to take an account of the amount due to the Biitish .South 
Africa Company in certain eventualities. London, 19XL 

Bent(J.Th.), The Ruined Cities of Mashonaland. London, 1893. 

Bertrand (A.), Au Pays des Ba-rotsi. Paris, 1898. [Also Eng. Trans. London, 189S.] 

Brown (A. S. and G. G.), Guide to South Africa. London. Annual. 

Brotcn (W. H.), On the South African Frontier. [Mashonaland and Matabeleland]. 
London, 1S99. 

Brunton (J. D.), Big Game Hunting in Central Africa. London, 1913. 

Bryee(l.). Impressions of South Africa. London. 

Coillard ( F.), Sur le Haut Zambeze. Paris, 1S97. [Eng. Trans. On the Threshold of 
Central Africa. Missionary Work. London, 1897.] 

Darter (A.), The Pioneers of Mashonaland. London, 1914. 

Fo«(E.), Du Cap an LacNvasse. Paris. 1897.— La Traversee de l'Afrique. Paris, 1900 

Fyfe (H. Hamilton), South Africa To-Day, with an Account of Modern Rhodesia. 
London, 1911. 

GoiUdsbury (Cullcn) and Shtane (Hubert), The Great Plateau of Northern Rhodesia. 
London, 1911. 

Guide to Rhodesia : For the Use of Tourists and Settlers. Bulawavo, 1914. 

Hall (R. N ), and Seal (W. G ), The Ancient Ruins of Rnodesia. London, 1902. 

HarrU(J. H.), The Chartered Millions. London, 1920. 

Hensman (H.), Historv of Rhodesia. London, 1900. 

Sertoli (Sir E.), The Map of Africa by Treaty. 2 Ed. London, 1897. 

Hone (P. F.X Southern Rhodesia. London, 1909. 

Hutchinson (G. T.), From the Cape to the Zambezi. London, 1905. 

Johnson (J. P.), The Mineral Industry of Rhodesia. Londun, 1011. 

Johnston (Sir Harry). A History of the Colonisation of Africa bv Alien Races. London 
1899. 

Keane (A. H.), Africa. Vol. II., South Africa. 2ndedition. London, 1904.— The Gold 
of Ophir. London, 1901. 

Keltie(3. Scott), The Partition of Africa. 2 Ed. [Contains Bibliographical Appendix ol 
works on Africa.] London, 1895. 

Laing(D. T.), The Matabele Rebellion, 1896. London, 1897. 

Lucas (C. K.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. Vol. IV. Oxford, 1S97. 

Haclver (D. R.), Mediaeval Rhodesia. London, 1906. 

Melland (F. H.), and Cholmeley (E. H.), Through the Heart of Africa. London, 1912. 

iliehell (Sir Lewis), Life of the Right Hon. Cecil J. Rhodes. London, 1910. 

Native Races of South Africa (issued by South Africa Native Races Committee). 
London, 1901 

Ortroz (F. Van), Conventions Internationales Concernai t l'Afrique. Brussels, 1S9S. 



208 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — SWAZILAND 

Purvis (Vf. F.), and Biggs (L. V.), South Africa, its People, Progress, and Problems. 
London, 1896. 

Rolin (H.), Les Lois et 1' Administration de la Rhodesie. Brussels and Paris, 1915. 

SeJous(F.C), Traveland Adventure in South-East Africa. London, 1893. Sunshine 
and Storm in Rhodesia. London, 1896. 

Smith (Rev. E. W.), and Dale (A. M.), The Ua-spoaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia. 
1920. 

IVieal(G.MacCall), South Africa. 4 Ed. London, 1897. 

ZViom»on(H. C), Rhodesia and its Government. London, 1898. 

roit(S. J. du), Rhodesia Past and Present. London, 1897. 

White (A. Silva), The Development of Africa. London, 1890. 

Willoughby (Sir J. C), A Narrative of Further Excavations at Zimbabye (Mashonaland). 
London, 1894. 

Wihnot(H.on. A.), Monomotapa: its Monuments and History. London, 1896. — Story of 
the Expansion of South Africa. London, 1894. 

TTor»foZd (W.B.), South Africa : a Study in Colonial Administration. 2 Ed. 4 London, 1897. 
—The Union of South Africa. London, 1913. 



SWAZILAND. 

Swaziland, at the South-eastern corner of the Transvaal, was, by the 
Convention oi 1894, placed under the administration of (but not incor- 
porated with) the South African Republic ; the British Government has now 
the control of the territory. The paramount chief, Sobhuza, son of the 
late paramount chief Bunu, is about twenty-one years of age, and the chief 
regency is in the hands of his grandmother, Nabotsibeni, widow of Mbandeni. 
On June 25, 1903, an Order in Council was issued conferring on the Governor 
of the Transvaal authority over Swaziland, and by Order in Council of 
December 1, 1906, this authority was transferred to the High Commissioner 
for South Africa. The numerous mineral and land concessions and mono- 
polies granted by Mbandeni, many of which earned exemption from customs 
dues or invested private individuals with powers properly exercisable 
by the Crown, rendered any satisfactory form of Government difficult. 
A Proclamation, therefore, provided for the constitution of a Commission to 
inquire into the question of these concessions. Under this Proclamation 
the High Commissioner has exercised the power to expropriate monopolies 
conferring exclusive rights, compensation for which has been made out of 
loans raised for the purpose. The agricultural and grazing rights of natives 
have been safeguarded, and delimited ; a general survey of the territory in 
connection with concession claims has also been carried out. 

Gold is subject to a tax of 10 per cent, on profits ; base metals to a 
loyalty of 2\ per cent, on output, in addition to any rentals now payable, 
plus 5s. in the £ Excess Profits Tax. 

A Special Court, having the full jurisdiction of a Superior Court, and 
Assistant Commissioners' Courts have been established. A local Swaziland 
police force was created in 1907. Authorised strength (1920) 24 Europeans 
and 161 natives. During the year ended March 31st, 1920, there were 1,939 
summary convictions, and 80 convictions in the Superior Court. 

Native chiefs continue to exorcise jurisdiction according to native law and 
customs in all civil matters between natives, subject to a final appeal to the 
Resident Commissioner. 

The present seat of the administration is at Mbabane ; altitude 4,000 
feet. 

Area, 6,678 square miles ; population (1911), 99,959, of whom 98,783art> 
natives (of Zulu type), 143 other coloured persons, and 1,083 whites 
The European population in now (1920) about 1,800. The Government 
maintains 11 European schools at different centres, and 1 native school at 



SWAZILAND 



209 



Zombode, the kraal of the Regent. The Government also subsidises other 
native schools and a school for coloured children. 



Revenue 
Expenditure 



1013-14 
(pre-war 

£ 
64,248 
63,967 



1015-16 1010-17 1917-1* ' 1918-1» 19l9-tl> 



£ 
68,354 



71,401 



£ 
7i.t,005 



£ 
70,342 
82,006 



£ 
87,054 



Chief items of revenue, 1919-20 : Native tax, 35,1162 ; sales and leases 
of Crown lands, &c, 13,45:*/. ; concession rents, 2,628/. ; licences, 2,524/. ; 
dog tax, 2,935/. Chief items of expenditure, 1919-20: Police, 17,121/. : 
establishments, 15,140/. ; public works, 5,113/. ; East Coast Fever Veteri- 
nary, 7,945/. : medical, 4,731/. ; education, 3,866/.; justice, 5,087/. 

Since 1904 177,412/. has been sjvent on the expropriation of 
monopolies and in connection with the Swaziland Concessions Commis- 
sion and the Partitions of Concessions. The public debt of Swaziland 
amounts (1820) to 92,500/. 

The agricultural products are tobacco, maize (the staple product), millet, 
pumpkins, ground nuts, beans, and sweet potatoes, grown in insufficient 
quantities for local supply. Attempts are being made to introduce cotton- 
growing. Stock numbers approximately (1920) : horses, 600 ; cattle, 230,000 ; 
native sheep and goats, 250,000; pig*, 9,000. Approximately 300,000 sheep 
axe brought into Swaziland from the Transvaal each year for winter 
grazing. The territory is reported to be rich in minerals, but it has not yet 
been systematically prospected. Alluvial tin is being mined and shipped. 
In 1919-20 the output of tin *as 449 tons, valued at 66,676/. There are 
several gold mines, but only one was worked in 1919-20, the output being 
337 oz. valued at 1GS/. By agreement (dated June 30, 1910; with the 
Union of South Africa, Swaziland is treated for customs purposes as part 
of the Union and receives a pro rata share of the Customs dues collected. 
During the year 1919-20 this share amounted to 11,376/. Separate returns 
of Swaziland imports and exports are not available. The exports consist 
almost entirely of cassiterite tin. 

There is tri- weekly communication by motor between Bremersdorp, 
Mbabane and Carolina. Elsewhere communication is by small carts or 
runners. Post offices working in 1919-20, 14. There arc telegraph offices 
at Mbabane, Pigg's Peak. Bremersdorp, and Ezulweni. Post Office Savings 
Banks deposits, 2,311/. on March 31, 1920, belonging to 204 depositors. 

The currency is British coin and coins of the late South African Republic, 
which are of similar denomination to the British. The National Bank of 
Soutli Africa, Ltd., has branches at Mbabane and Hlatikulu, and sub- 
branches at Mahamba and Bremersdorp. The deposits on March 31, 1920, 
amounted to 64,052/. This bank also conducts savings bank business — 
111 depositors, 1920, total deposits 1,981/. 

Resident Commissioner. — D. Honey, C.M.G. 

Deputy Resident Commissioner and Government Secretary. — B. Nicholson, 
D.S.O., MLC. 



210 THE BRITISH EMPIRE :— UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

Constitution and Government. 

rrh tt • „f Qm.rt Africa is constituted under the South Africa Act, 
1QOQ it Edw 7 C 9] ^p^edb; the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 
SelmbS 1909 1. ulSr the terms of that Act the self-governing Colonies 
September ^O.iyuy.u Transvaal, and the Orange River 

of the Cape of Good Hope, JNat a legislative union under one 

for the Union and members of the executive Council. 

be a session of ParBa«aent_ •"J*/**,. Jor ten yeara aIte r the estab- 

The Senate .consul . o ^^i ™inl, to their acquaintance 

"•' ft SSTnTlS Sec?r wa, nal hl rI„rt°o the ttaoli'shrnent of 

Division, in numbers as follow. :-The Cape o G . 1 op , 61 .^ ■ £ 

Transvaal, 49 i Orange Frco State, 17. 1 1 >r nam cut arj 

qualifications a. existing in the several colonies a 11 11; , 

L* electoral district in each provmoc ,c »»»»'■ ."'"". ^, ls ,,. r ,., l vol( , r , 

a British subject of European .lesce.iual^ < a a ■ ^ 

S^XT^'*^*" fil U o7?t. noting -to'. 

™-> «■;--* **g-*js*u c &5 fti: 

Allegiance. A member of one tiOMe^noi i» o( 

but a Minister of State may «t ^and .peak, but not ™te *u ^ 
which he is not a member lo ho J ™ °™J I ^y „,- ,.;„„„ 

^.^arfSSU ■'JSrSraBl^. Certain disaoibu,, I 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 211 

which members of Parliament had, or might have, become subject in assist- 
ing in Naval and Military operations during the war were made the subject 
of special legislation in 1915. 

The House of Assembly, not the Senate, must originate money bills, but 
may not pass a bill for taxation or appropriation unless it has been recom- 
mended by message from the Governor-General during the Session. Restric- 
tions are placed on the amendment of money bills by the Senate. Provision 
is made for adjusting disagreements between the Houses, and for the Royal 
Assent to bills to be given or reserved, and for laws assented to by the 
Governor-General being disallowed. 

The first Parliamentary election under the South Africa Act was held on 
the 15th September, 1910. The position of the various parties after the 
general election of February, 1921, was : — South African Party, 79 ; 
Nationalists, 45 ; Labour Party, 9 ; Independents, 1. 

Pretoria is the seat of government of the Union, and Cape Town is the 
seat of Legislature. 

Governor-General. — H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Connaught, K.G., K.T., 
G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., C.B., A.D.C. (salary £10,000 per annum). 

The Executive Council is constituted as follows : — 

His Excellency the" Governor-General. 

Prime Minister and Minister of Native Affairs. — General The Right 
Honourable J. C. Smuts, P.C., C.H. (3,500/.). 

Minister of the Interior, Public Health and Education. — The Honourable 
Patrick Duncan (2,500/.). 

Minister of Mines and Industries. — The Honourable F. S. M alan (2,500/. ). 

Minister of Railways and Harbours. — The Honourable — Jogger (2, 500/.). 

Minister of Finance. — The Honourable H. Burton, K.C. (2,500/.). 

Minister of Justice.— The Honourable N. J. de Wet, K.C. (2,500/.). 

Minister of Defence. — Colonel The Honourable H. Mentz (2,500/.). 

Minister of Posts and Telegraphs and of Public Works. — The Honourable 
Sir Thomas Watt, K.C.M.G. (2,500/.). 

Secretary for Agriculture. — The Honourable Sir Thomas Smartl. 

Minister of Land*. — The Honourable Colonel Reitz. 

In each province there is an Administrator appointed by the Governor- 
General for five years, and a Provincial Council eleoted for three years, each 
council having an executive committee of four (either members or not of 
the council), the administrator presiding at its meetings. Members 
of the Provincial Council are elected on the same system as members of 
Parliament, but the restriction as to European desoent does not apply. The 
number of members in each Provincial Council is as follows : — Cape of 
Good Hope, 51 ; Natal, 25 ; Transvaal, 49 ; Orange Free State, 25. The 
provincial committees and councils have authority to deal with local 
matters such as provincial finance, education (elementary), charity, municipal 
institutions, local works, roads and bridges, markets, fish and game, and 
penalties for breaches of laws respecting such subjects. Other matters may 
be delegated to these Councils. All ordinances passed by a Provincial 
Council are subject to the veto of the Governor-General-in-Council. 

The first Provincial elections for the Cape of Good Hope and the Trans- 
vaal were held on the 15th September, 1910 ; those for Natal and the Orange 
Free State on the 12th October, 1910. 

There is a provincial Revenue Fund in each province. The old colonial 
papitals are the capitals of the provinces. 

A Harbour and Railway Board of not more than three commissioners 
ippointed for five years, with a Minister of State as chairman, have the 

9 2 



212 THE BRITISH EMPIRE :~UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA. 



management of the railways, ports, and harbours. There is a Railway and 
Harbour Fund for the Union and into it are paid revenues from the admini- 
stration of railways, ports, and harbours, and such Fund is appro- 
priated by Parliament. Into a Consolidated Revenue Fund is paid all 
other money received for the purposes of the Union. On this fund the in- 
terest on debts of the colonies forms a first charge. To the Union has been 
transferred the public property, real and personal, of the colonies. 

The English and Dutch languages are both official. The administration 
of native affairs and affairs specially or differentially affecting Asiatics vests 
ill the Governor-General-in-Council. It is provided that the British South 
Africa Co.'s territories may be received into the Union, and the government 
of native territories may be transferred to the Union Government. 

High Commissioner in London. — Sir E. Walton. 

Area and Population. 

The total area of the Union is 473,096 square miles divided between the 
Provinces as follows :— Cape of Good Hope, 276,966; Natal, 35,291 ; Trans- 
vaal, 110,450 ; Orange Free State, 50,389. 

The census taken in 1904 in each of the four Colonics which subsequently 
(in 1910) were incorporated in the Union was the first simultaneous census 
taken in South Africa. While comparisons are possible in respect of the 
numbers of the population of separate Provinces for earlier periods than 1904, 
full comparison is only possible in respect of the whole area of the Union for 
the years 1904 and 1911 — the latter being the year in which the first Union 
census was taken ; and for the year 1918 as to the European population only. 

The following tables give the returns of population at the various censuses, 
classified according to race and sex : — 















Year 


All Race? 


White 


Coloured 


■■ Total 

.-),175,S24 
5,973,394 


White 

1,116,806 
1,276,242 


Coloured 

4,059,018 
4,697,152 


Males 

635,117 
685,164 
728,866 


Females 


Males Female.-. 


1904 . . 
1911 . . . 
1918 . . 


481,689 

591,078 


2,047,118 2,011,900 
2,384,228 2,812,924 



Estimated Population, 1920: White, 1,504.000; coloured, 5,801,000 
Total, 7,305,000. 

Of the coloured population in 1911, 4,019,006 were Bantu, 152,309 
Asiatic, and 525,837 of other races. 

Principal towns (inoluding suburbs) in the Union classified according to 
the number of inhabitants of white race, 1911 and 1918 : — 





Province 


r .filiation, 1811 


Population, 




White 


Coloured 


Total 


i g 1 6 

White 


Over 20,000— 

1. Johannesburg 

2. CapeTovrn 

3. Durban . 

4. Pretoria . 

5. Fort Elizabeth 


Transvaal 
Cape 
Natal . 
Transvaal 
Cap* 


119,953 

85,44'.' 
34,880 
85,942 
20,007 


117,151 
76,187 
-.lis 
81,78S 
IV, 050 


161,759 

57,674 
37,0ti3 


137,lfli> 

4S, 113 

41.W0 



RELIGION 



213 



Population, 1911 



White , Colour- 1 Total 



Popnlritinn. 

1918 

White 



Over 10,000 and less 
than 20,000— 

6. Pietermaritzburs . 

7. East London 
S. Benoni . 
9. Kimberley 

10. Genniston 

11. Bloemfontein 

12. Krngersdorp 
13 Boksburg 



N'atat 

. 
Transvaal 
Cape 

Transvaal 
Orange Free State 
Transvaal 
Tr.insvaal 



14,899 I 
$,639 , 
17,507 
15,579 : 
14,720 
13,132 i 
11,529 I 



38.746 
IS, MS 

32,0a9 



M ■-.: 
5o, 1 44 
48,628 



17,6*3 

16,196 
15,631 
13.603 



Occupations. — The census returns for 1911 showed the occupations of the 
people to be as follows : — Professional, 59,721 ; domestic, 290,560; commercial, 
81,627; agricultural, 192, 424 ; industrial, 143,255; indefinite, K 
dependants, 492,959 ; unspecified, 4,951. There were 26,258 white persons, 
of whom 294 were females, who were engaged in the general or local 
government or the defence of the Union of South Africa. There were some 
842,000 persons of all races employed in the mining industry of the 
Union ; of these 47,000 were Europeans. 

Migration. — 1919. Arrivals, 27,106, departures, 24. 7 

Vital Statistics. — The following table gives the total numbers of mar- 
riages, births and deaths registered in the Union for recent years for all 
races : — 



Year 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Year 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


1913 
1915 
1916 


23,760 

22,630 
24. $12 


102,234 
10G.091 


64,466 

t'4,711 


1917 
191S 
1919 


25,533 
23,796 


102,369 


66,117 



The following table shows the marriage, birth and death rates (based on 
revised estimates of population, according to census of 1918) of white 
persons, per 1,000 of the white papulation only : — 



1913 
1915 
191ii 



Marriage 
rate 



9 08 
8-34 
843 



Birth rate 



31 -6S 

20-33 
20-33 



i;.:th ran 




Death 
rate 

10-26 
17 17 
11-90 



Religion. 

Religions. — The results of the European oensus of 1918 as regards religious 
are as follows : —Europeans : Dutch Churches, 800,178 ; Anglicans, 265,149 ; 
Presbyterian, 60,471;' Congregationalists, 13,176: Wesleyans, 91,199; 
Lutherans, 20,320: Roman Catholics, 55,552; Baptists, 15,507; Jews. 
58,741 ; others and unspecified, 41,495: total, 1,421,731. Non-Europeans 
as at the census of 1911 ; Dutch Churches, 204,702 ; Anglican, 276,849 ; 
Presbyterians, 72.114; Independents (Congregationalists), 173,982; \Yesle\- 
ans, 456,017; African Methodist Episcopal, 59,103 ; Lutherans. 195,308; 



214 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



Roman Catholics, 37,242 ; Hindus, 115,701 ; Buddhists and Confucians, 
1,783 ; Mahomedans, 45,842 ; no religion, 3,012,648 ; others and unspecified, 
45,861 ; total, 4,697,152. 

Instruction. 

Under the South Africa Act, for a period of five years after the establish- 
ment of the Union and thereafter subject to decree of Parliament, control of 
education other than higher education was granted to the four Provincial 
Administrations. This arrangement still obtains. For practical purposes 
it has been provisionally determined that all post-matriculation instruction 
shall be deemed to constitute Higher Education, 

Higher Education. — By legislation enacted in the Session of 1916 three 
Universities, with teaching and examining functions, were established in the 
place of the University of the Cape of Good Hope, provision being made for 
the conversion of the South African College into the University of Cape 
Town, of the Victoria College into the University of Stellenbosch, and of 
the University of the Cape of Good Hope into a federal University, styled 
the University of South Africa, with the remainder of the University 7 Colleges 
as constituent colleges, the names of which, with appropriate details, will be 
foun.l in the table hereunder. The actual establishment of the three new 
Universities took place on April 2, 1918. 

The University Acts of 1916 also established two Boards, one consisting of 
representatives of the three Universities (South Africa, Cape Town and 
Stellenbosch), the Provincial and Union Education Departments, and of 
the teachers of public and private secondary schools, which is charged with 
the conduct of the matriculation examination, and the other for the conduct 
of the professional examinations in law and surveying. 

General statistics in regard to teaching universities and constituent colleges 
of the University of South Africa, 1918, and totals for 1919. 



College 


Year of 
Foundation 

and 
Incorpora- 
tion 

1829 
(Incorpora- 
ted 1837)1 

1866 
(Incorpora- 
ted 1881) « 

1918 3 

1855 


Normal 
Expen- 
diture 
for vear 
1918 


No. of 
Pro- 
fessors 


No. of 
Lec- 
turers 
and 
Assis- 
tants 

49 
28 


No. of Students, 
1918 




Male 


Female 


Total 


University of Cape/ 

University of Stoll j 
enbosch . . . "i 

University of Soutln 
Africa: Const ltu-J 
ent Colleges — . J 


£ 

87,50 

22,500 


26 

21 


531 
41 


121 

129 


652 
548 


Grey University Col-j 
lege, Bloemfonteini 

Hraaenot College,) 
Wellington . . .j 

Rhodes University} 

College, Giahams- 


(Incorpora- 
ted 1910) 
1874 

(Incorpora- 
ted )'.)07 

1904 


11,100 
5,300 
15,000 


8 
8 
12 


9 

4 
12 


100 

8 

69 


29 

48 

72 


129 
141 



1 As tlic South Africnn College— constituted the University of Cape Town on April 2, 

1918. 

2 As the Victoria College— constituted the University of Stellenbosch on April 2, 1913. 
s On the dissolution of the University of the Cape of Good Hope (founded 1873) 



INSTRUCTION 



215 



Tear of 
Foundation 
Co'.lege and 


Normal 
Ex pen- 
Alton 


So. of 

Pro- 
few ■: - 


Xo. of 
Lec- 

• rer- 
and 

Assis- 
tants 


No. of Students, 
1918 


! Incorpora- for rear 
tion 1918 


Kale 

240 
45 

153 


Female 


Total 


Transvaal University -^ ^ 
College, Pretoria .( ltf0!> , 1».S°0 13 

Xatal Universitv) 
College, Pieterma-[ 1909 I 7,000 7 
ritzburg . . , . ' 

University College of, S3 500 20 
Johai "■ u 


13 
3 
19 


37 
42 

26 


l»4 


Totals, 1018 ... — 

Totals 1919 . . . 


150,900 115 
— 125 


137 

145 


1,565 


504 


2,069 



■» Also l.CK) in evening classes. 

Stair and Slate-aided Education, other than Higher Education. — Subject 
to final control of the Provincial Administration the central direction of 
public education in each Province is exercised by the Provincial Education 
Department, the permanent head of which in the Cape of Good Hope is the 
Superiiitendent-General, in Natal the Superintendent, in the Transvial and 
the Orange Free State in each case the Director. 

Union — Statistics of State and State-aided education other than higher 
education. 





Number of Schools 


ber of Scholars 






Tear 


F.>r white 
scholars 


For 
coloured 
scholars 


White Coloured 


teaches 


Expe 


1913 
1915 
1916 
1917 

iais 

1919 


4.286 

4.S7S 
4.945 
4,846 


2.363 
2.501 
2.595 
2,670 

•:.-:: 

2,980 


20J421 167,708 
229,667 181841 
•-M7.394 192,055 
259.076 201,419 
233,149 220,104 
294,161 220." 


13,279 
14,817 
15,363 
17,&71 
18,301 
19,698 


£ 
2,268,026 

2,600,644 

3.169.8S9 
3,631,40S 

4,4(5" 



Private schools, 1919 : number, 292 ior white pupils, 133 for coloured ; 
22.423 white scholars, 5,001 coloured ; 1,558 teachers. 

Number of schools and expenditure on education other than higher 
education of white scholars in each Province. 1918. 



Province 


Primar) 


Xumber of Schools 

Inter- Secon- 
mediate dary 


Total 


Training 
colleges 

and 
schools 


Special 
schools 


Expendi- 
ture 


Cape of Good Hope 
Xatal . 
Transvaal 
Orange Free State 


1 

171 
973 


110 


101 
10 
24 
21 


t,TMr! 

m 

997 
ITS 


11 

1 
6 
1 


4S 

3 

1 


a 

418,265 

i,ns,n a 

514,521 


Union . 


4,573 


117 


156 


4,8462 


19 


M 


3,641.946 



1 Including 043 private farm schools. - Excluding 143 farm schools. 



216 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Justice. 

The Common Law of the Union is the Roman-Dutch Law, that is, the 
uncodified law of Holland as it was at the date of the cession of the Cape in 
1806. The sources of the law are the Dutch Commentaries and text-books 
of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries. The Law 
of England as such is not recognised as authoritative, though by Statute the 
principles of English Law relating to mercantile matters — e.g., companies, 
patents, trademarks, insolvency and the like, have been introduced. In 
shipping, insurance, and other modern business developments English Law 
is followed, and it has also largely influenced civil and criminal procedure. 
In all other matters, family relations, property, succession, contract, &c, 
Roman-Dutch Law rules, English decisions being valued only so far as they 
agree therewith. The prerogatives of the Crown are, generally speaking, the 
same as in England. 

The Supreme Court consists of an Appellate Division with a Chief Justice 
and two ordinary and two additional Judges of Appeal. In each Province of 
the Union there is a Provincial Division of the Supreme Court ; while in the 
Cape there are two Local Divisions, and in the Transvaal one, exercising the 
same jurisdiction within limited areas as the Provincial Divisions. The 
Judges hold office during good behaviour. The Circuit System is fully 
developed. 

Each Province is further divided into Districts with a Magistrate's Court 
having a prescribed civil and criminal jurisdiction. From this Court there 
is an appeal to the Provincial and Local Divisions of the Supreme Court, and 
thence to the Appellate Division. A distinctive feature of the Criminal 
system is that Magistrate's convictions carrying sentences above a prescribed 
limit are subject to automatic review by a Judge. 

Persons convicted, all courts, 1919: males, 210,131, females, 21,400. 



Chief-Justice of South Africa. — The Rt. Hon. Sir James Rose- Junes, 
K.C.M.G. (Appointed 19 October, 1914). 



P.C. 



Finance. 

Prior to 1913-14 the expenditure of the four Provinces was entirely met 
from grants by the Union Government. Under the Financial Relations Act, 
1913, which came into operation on April 1, 1913, certain revenues wen 
transferred or assigned to the Provinces, and the grants by the Union Govern- 
ment were limited to 50 per cent, of the total normal or recurrent expenditui e 
of the Provinces, with additional subsidies to two Provinces in which the 
funds so provided were shown to be inadequate to meet tho neci 
expenditure. The Act also provided that the capital expenditure of tin- 
Provinces should be financed by redeemable loans from the Union Treasury, 
the interest and sinking fund Charges on which should be included in tn«a 
normal or recurrent expenditure and thus he subject to the 50 per ient. 
grant, 



Revenue and expeni 


lituic : — 












1918-14 

(pri'-war) 


1916-17 


1917-18 


1018-19 


1919-90 


RcTfinu' (oidinon ) . 
Kxpeuditura (unlinnry) . 
„ (loan account) 


15,980,944 
14,289,652 


4 
18,408,619 
15,4. 1 
6,143,000 


£ 

16,886,161 
6,888,000 


£ 
21,911,029 
18,281,801 
7,932,01)0 


£ 

97,428,176 
90.9J 

IS, 000 



DEFENCE 



217 



The following are the estimated figures for ordinary revenue and expendi- 
ture for the year 1920-21 : — 



Ordinary Revenue (1920-21) 


Ordinary Expenditure (IMC 


-21) 


s ..... 


6,900,000 


Governor-General A Parliament 






|,«» > 000 


Ministerial Department of Prime 




Ielegraphs & telephone* 


8,090,090 


iter and Native Attain . 


474,117 


Mining Revenue 


2.32S,0<i0 


tenal Department of— 




Licences 




Defence .... 


1,2*7,395 


Stamp Duties ami 1 i ea 
Income Tax, Super Tax, and | 


900,000 


Mines and Industries . 
Higher Education 


355,605 


Dividend Tax . 


4,850,000 


Finance- 




Estate and Succession Duty . 


300,000 


Treasury .... 




Native Poll Tax . . . \ 
Native Hut Tax ...» 


830,000 


Public Debt 


7,195,5*4 


Pensions 


l,v- '..<•• ■»••■ 


Native Pass and Compound 




High Commissioner . 


60,074 




40,000 


Provincial Admin i - 


4,291,350 


Land Revenue .... 


150,000 


laneons Sen 


167,273 


Fore«t Revenue 


75,000 


Inland Revenue. 


•9,108 


R.-uts on Government Property 




Audit .... 


70.278 


Interest 




Customs and Ex 


305,417 


Departmental Receipt* . 




Justice .... 




Fines and Forfeitures 




Interior .... 


i,t4Mra 


Miscellaneous . 


100,000 


Public Works 


097.17:'. 






Agriculture .... 


1,076,992 






ha and Tele- 










■ 








206,304 






Irrigation .... 


179,490 






Special Incremental Pay . 


650,000 


Total . 


28,3S1,000 


Total ordinary 


28,71 1.S27 






Expenditure, loan account . 


13,^94,000 



The gross Public Debt of the Union at March 31, 1920, was 173,904,818/. 

The expenditure out of Loan Funds for war services during 1914-15 was 
9,258,959/. ; 1915-16, 10,707,138/. ; 1916-17, 2.67C.058Z. ; 1917-18, 
3, 4 ;.•->, 156/. ; 1918-19, 3,213,785/.; 1919-20, 2,525,000/. Excluding 
recoveries from sale of war material, the total charge on loan funds at 
March 31, 1920, will amount to 29,736,000/. 

The railway earnings in 1919-20 totalled 19,575,7097., and the total 
expenditure came to 20,284,081?. ; harbours, revenue 1,010,265/., expenditure 
993,071/. South African Steamships, 3 July, 1919, to 31 March, 1920 : 
quo, 268,903/. ; expenditure, 176,574/. ; leaving a total net deficit of 
598,898/. The estimated expenditure for 1920-21 is : railwavs, 24,220,680/. ; 
harbours, 903,918/. 

There is a provincial revenue fund in every Province, into which all 
revenues raised or received by the Province are paid. Appropriations are 
effected by Ordinance of the Provincial Council. It is only under the 
authority of such au Appropriation Ordinance that any withdrawal from the 
fund can take place. The provincial accounts are audited in each case by an 
auditor appointed and paid by the Union Government. 

Defence. 

During the latter part of the Great War the Union of South Africa provided 
the whole of the military forces necessary for its defence, and the last of the 
regular British troops were withdrawn. The forces of the Union are raised 
under a Defence Act under which all citizens are liable to service within the 
Dominion. As this would provide an unnecessarily large force, onlv a 



218 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



proportion of the younger men are annually enrolled, and it is hoped that 
this proportion will volunteer. If sufficient volunteers are not forthcoming 
the balance will be obtained by ballot. Men who do not undergo training are 
liable to pay 1/. a year for 24 years. The period during which men are liable 
to training is four years between the ages of 17 and 25. There is a period of 
preliminary recruit training followed by annual training of from 8 to 25 days. 
Men so trained form the Active Citizen Army. After completing four years' 
training in the Active Citizen Aimy, men join the Citizen Reserve Force until 
they aie 45. In addition to the Active Citizen Army there is a Coast 
Garrison Force composed of Garrison Artillery and Engineers, which is 
voluntarily enlisted and receives payment for its services. There is also a 
Permanent Force which includes the staffs of the defensive forces, five 
regiments of mounted riflemen, and some batteries of artillery. The Coast 
Defence Force and the Permanent Force have their own reserves formed from 
the men who have passed through their ranks. 

Boys between the ages of 13 and 17 are compnlsorily enrolled in cadet 
corps, where this is practicable, but it is recognised that this is not possible 
in sparsely populated districts. Trained cadets enjoy certain exemptions 
from recruit training on joining the Active Citizen Army. 

Finally there is the National Reserve, comprising all citizens between the 
ages of 17 and 60 who do not belong to any of the above forces. 

During 1920 the demobilization of the defence forces of the Union was 
completed, and a peace establishment was introduced. 

Production and Industry- 

Agriculture. — Wheat-growing has made a big forward movement, as 
will be seen from the following table giving the cpjantity of wheat produced 
during the years 1904, 1911, and 1918 :— 



Year. 


Cape of 


Natal. 


Transvaal. 


Orange 
Free State. 


Union. 














1904 (General Census) 
1911 (General Census) 
1917-18 (Census of Agri- 
culture) 
1918-19 ( „ „ )i 


1,0001b. 
113,453 
261,001 
496,842 

323,734 


1,000 lb. 

493 

1,446 

849 

2,154 


1,0001b. 
15,076 
53,098 
48,627 

65,504 


1,000 lb. 
12,717 
46,518 
68,153 

87,342 


1,000 lb. 
141,73;i 
362,063 
608,971 

478,734 



The following table also give3 the production of maize for the same period 



1904 (General Census) 
1911 (General Census) 
1018 (Census of Agricul- 
ture) 
1919 ( >, ) 



Cape of 
Good Hope. 



1,000 lb. 
220,342 
345,573 
477,498 

77.580 



Natal. 

1,0001b. 
157,735 
861,149 
288,780 

220,746 



Transvaal. 



Orange 
Free State. 



Union. 



1,0001b. 1,000 1b. 



260,733 
662,122 
910,783 

82S,39S 



77,6< 9 

3 JT.669 

850,967 



1,0001b. 

783,819 

1 726,608 



612,304 1,734,118 



1 Excluding Native Location, Reserves, <fcc. 
Maize, 585,490,000 lbs. 



Production, 1918, Wheat, 21,566,000 lbs. 



Other products, including Native Reserves, kc, 1918: barley, 
50,789,000 lbs.; oats, 214,039,000 lbs.; Kaffir corn, 383,524,000 lbs.; 
potatoes, 220,066,000 lbs. ; tobacco, 16,603,000 lbs. 

In dairying, too, good progress has been made. In 1919-20 the production 
of butter amounted to 13,783,000 lbs., and of cheese, 3,756,000 lbs. 

The 1919 census (Agriculture) showed that the numbers of various classes 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 21 !» 

of livestock in the Union were as follows : — 5,575,488 cattle : 695,138 horses ; 
81,150 mules; 498,616 donkeys; 282,070 ostriches; 28,491,500 sheep; 
5,842,270 goats; 724,007 pigs. * (This census covered rural areas only, to 
the exclusion of towns, villages, an 1 native reserves.) 

The production of wool and mohair (1919 exports : wool, 184,952,800 lbs. ; 
mohair, 16,942,021 lbs.) is being maintained. The slump in ostrich feathers 
during the war seriously reduced the output, though with the signing of 
the Armistice toward the close of 1918 the feather industry underwent a 
rapid revival (exports, 1919, 105,000 lbs., 1,646,000/.). In 1919 hides and 
skins valued at 4,992,597/. and wattle bark valued at 386,096/. were exported. 

Cotton -growing is now undertaken by many farmers, tha plant being 
found a better drought resistant than either tobacco or maize. The 1919 
yield was approximately 1,418,600 lbs. of seed cotton. The production of 
sugar continues to increase, the output in the Union in 1916-17 being esti- 
mated at 114,500 tons ; in 1917-18, 106,250 tons ; in 1918-19, 146,553 tons. 
The area under tea is approximately 4,136 acres, from which the yield for 
1918-19 was 5,744,000 lbs. (green leaf). It is estimated that some 15,000 
acres of land suitable for tea plantations are available. 

The total extent of forest reserve areas in March, 1919, was about 2,092,000 
acres. 

Irrigation. — Irrigation development has made rapid strides in the past 
ten years. Technical and financial assistance is given by the State under the 
Union Irrigation Law of 1912, which was designed to encouiage irrigation. 
The Government expenditure on irrigation in 1918-19 was 384,810/. from 
Loan Funds and 147,733/. from revenue; total 532,543/. 

Manufacturts. — The conditions brought about by the war gave an 
impetus to local manufactures. The production of leather, for which this 
country is most suitable, has been more than doubled ; a commencement has 
been made with the manufacture of tanning extract from wattle bark ; in 
dairy products, increasing activity is everywhere being shown ; and the 
output of cement is rapidly overtaking the demands of the country. The 
Union already produces its own requirements in beer and matches. The 
manufacture of tobacco satisfactorily maintains its position as one of the 
most important industries in the country. Amongst other commodities 
which the Union is producing are dynamite, soap, rope, wine, spirits, 
furniture, vehicles, brooms and brushes, biscuits, «arthenware pipes, and 
firebricks. 

The report on the industrial census in the Union in 1918-19 
gives the value added by process of manufacture, kc, as 29,199, 0C0/., ami 
the value of the gross production of the industries covered at 70,136,000/. 
The total number of factories which made returns was 6,042. Value of 
land and buildings, 16,193,000/., machinery, plant, and tools, 20,983,000/., 
of the fuel used, 2,065,000/., and of materials used 41,017,000/. Average 
number of persons employed, 143,088 (whites, 53.601). Wages paid, 
14,476,000/. 

The gross value of the output of the principal groups of industries 
was: food, drink, kc, 27,098,000/.; metals, engineering, kc, 12,963,000/.; 
chemicals, fee., 5,616,000/. ; heat, light, and power, 3,743,000/. ; building, 
&c, 3,349,000/.; clothing, textiles, kc, 2,940,000/. ; books, printing, &c, 
2,750.000/. ; leather, kc, 2,664,000/. ; stone, clav, kc, 1,679,000/. ; 
vehicles, 1,462,000/. ; furniture, kc, 1,332,000/. 

Alining. — The table hereunder gives the total value of the principal 
minerals produced in the Union from the earliest dates of existing records 
to December 31, 1919. The value of gold is calculated at 4*24773/. per 



220 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

fine ounce. Copper, tin, antimony, scheelite, and silver are valued on the 
estimated pure metal contained in shipments according to the average current 
prices in London. The value of other base minerals is calculated on average 
local prices. 



Classification . 



Gold . 
Diamonds 
Coal . 
Copper 
Tin . 

Total 



Cape of 
Good Hope. 

£ 

21,70.') 

159,368,965 

1,985,568 

19,457,273 

57,687 



£ 
82,7S5 

16,353,033 
389 



Transvaal. 

£ 

624,315,501 

25,379,497 

23,522,151 

3,041,627 

3,940,803 



Orange 
Free State. 



17,285,779 
2,491, 35S 



Union. 



£ 

i 624,420,051 

202,034,241 

44,352,110 

22,499,289 

3.998,490 



. 180,891,258 16,430,207 j 680,199,579 | 19,777,137 ( 897,304,181 

The output of gold in the Transvaal was : 1918, 35,768,6832. ; 1919, 
35,383,9742; 1920, 34,652,9072. 

The total value of the mineral production of the Union is given here- 
under for recent years. 



Ammonia, Sulphate of 

Antimony 

Arsenic 

Asbestos 

Bismuth 

Coal 

Coke 

Copper 

Corundum 

Diamonds 

Flint 

Gold 

Graphite . 

Gypsum . 

Iron On . 

Iron Pyrite 

Kaolin 

Lead 

Lime 

MagnesiU- 

Manganese 

Mica 

Nickel . 

Salt (including by-products) 

Silver 

Soda (crude) 

Steatite . 

Tal,' . 

Tar 

Tin 

Tungsten . 

Zinc 

Miscellaneous Articles 
(Briclcs, Cement, Kartlnv; 
ware, Pipes, etc.) 

Mineral Paints . 

Quarries , 



1916. 


1917. 


£ 


£ 


15.292 


12,428 


83,070 


87,364 


2,739,665 


3,275,608 


19,575 


28,648 


1,137,380 


1,126.040 


7,762 


13,038 


5,728,391 


7,718,810 


1,587 


1,120 


39,490,990 


38,307,675 


1,780 


2,590 


11,983 


5,092 



5,202 

115,750 

1,766 

1,185 

106,303 

106,311 

25,121 



339,571 
252 



45 



4,463 

19 

3,76! 

131,878 

2,050 

641 

•s77 

110,566 
172,9*7 

29.:;:: 

1,962 

346,016 
1,661 



(86,816 

805 



Total 



50,593,359 ] 52,260. 1'.'" 4N"I ■■'.'■ ' 1 ; 



£ 

2,589 

54,037 

3,224,597 

68,662 

342,105 

26,260 

7,114,867 

1,491 

15, 759,003 

2,294 

6,843 

2,729 

7,002 

1,880 

158,245 
2.1S4 
1,965 
1,185 

163,722 
187,608 

11,099 

1,718 

440,995 
8,647 



1.427 
61,525 



1919. 

£ 
102,930 
556 
663 
66,426 
300 
3,416,244 
47,812 
234,445 
1,486 
11,734,495 | 
1,811 ; 
35,390,609 
2,680 | 
10,921 
1,081 ' 
8,894 ! 

4,973 

2,723 
776 
369 



Mt,8M 

758 

' 932 
2,170 

us 

•.'77,925 



572 
65,121 



"il . 696,24« - 



1919. 
Quantities 

Tons 
3,762 
32 
8 



0-4 

266,135 

22.748 

4,886 

179 

58S.017 



331,651 

8,602 

5,532 

756 

1,024 
165 

3 



t 891,804 

~~757 
1,468 
l,-:30 



Information not yet available, t Carats. J Fine oz. 



COMMERCE 



221 



Coal Resources. — The extent oi the coal resources of South Africa are 
roughly estimated as follows : — 



Transvaal 

Natal 

Zulu land 

Orange Free State 

Cape Prcwince 

Basutoland 

Swaziland 



Area of Coal Resources 

Square Miles 
5,000, average 6 ft. thick 
1,000 „ 7 „ „ 

„ 4 ., „ 



| Probably 
j 1,000, are 



not less than | 
erage 4 ft. thick / 



ited quantities 
of Coal contained 
Min. Tons 
. 36,000 



Total 56,800 



The following table shows the average number of persons employed on 
mines and in allied concerns in the Union in 1919 : — 







Number of Persons. 




Proportion of 

Total Persons 

Employed. 


Classification 


White. 

23,803 

S.376 

1,694 

589 

7892 


Asiatic. 

29 

■:,'.■■••■ 

2 
37 


Natives and 
other 
Colou: 


Total. 


Cold . 
Diamonds . 
Coal . 
Base Minerals 
Other 1 


179,530 

28,121 
6,930 
l,Tf8 


82,715 

7,521 
2,604 


15-4 
11-2 

0-9 


Total 


35,251 


3,245 


252.S31 


591,337 


1000 



1 Includes lime, flint, gypsum, power supply, brick, cement works, etc 

2 Comprises Power Suj ply Companies, Quarries, and Salt Works only. 



Commerce. 

The total value of the Imports and Exports of the Union of South Africa, 
exclusive of Specie, was as follows : — 



Year 



Imports 



Exports 



Imports 



Export* 





£ 


1 








£ 


1912 


38,83S,960 


4,219 


1916 






►83,381 


1913 


41,828,841 


66,569,864 


1917 








1914 


35,354,971 


39,933,61:! I 


19^ 


49,4 "" 






191C 


31,810,717 


34,S17,9!«3 


191* 


50,791,205 




.13,646 



1 About 15,000,0001. of gold, which in normal times would hava been exported, wa.» 
retained in the country on behalf of the Bank of England. 



222 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



The principal articles of import and export for 1918 and 1919 were : — 



Imports. 


1918 


1919 
£ — 


Exports. 


1918 


1919 






& 


£ 


Apparel . 


2,948,324 


3,118,241 


Angora Hair . 


. 1,641,889 


1,654,235 


Arms and Ammuni- 






Bark 


| 287,220 


386,096 


tion 


322,965 


207,551 


Blasting Compound 


i 158,003 


82,902 


Bags 


1,348,322 


1,329,696 


Butter & Substitutes 


37,972 


Cotton Manufactrs. 


12,835,732 


1>,050,S96 


Coal 2 


1,033,064 


928,772 


Drugs and Chemicals 


1,254,223 


1,007,316 


Cotton Manufactures 


353,640 


Electrical Wire and 






Diamonds . 


7,063,043 


11,546,768 


Fittings 


374,969 


963,379 


Feathers, Ostrich 


88,628 


1,646,014 


Food and Drink 


4,722,118 


4,851,859 


Fish . 


189,038 


240,224 


Furniture 


422,607 


462,805 


Hides and Skins 


2,300,479 


4,992,597 


Glycerine 


423,882 


137,601 


Maize 


1,600,137 


1,145,40S 


Haberdashery 


1,406,774 


1,209,260 


Maize Meal 


662,332 


1,836,180 


Hardware <fe Cutlery 


1,137,692 


2,242,950 


Meats 


i 497,699 


1,213,620 


Hats and Caps 


403,505 


382,221 


Tobacco . 


1 176,415 


159,626 


Implements : Agri- 






Wines 


121,881 


115.524 


cultural 


495,155 


765,992 


Wool 


9,689,630 


17,919,0S8 


India Rubber 












Manufactures 
Iron and steel. 


434.135 
1,348,727 


582,281 
2,119,947 








Leather Manufac- 












tures : Mainly 












Boots and Shoes . 


1,807,048 


1,763,950 








Machinery 


1,602,456 


2,474,301 








Nitrates . 


253,474 


305,153 








Oils. 


1,437,613 


1,782,437 








Printing Paper 


492,573 


507,959 








Stationery & Books 


1,092,356 


1,161,218 








Tobacco . 


111,285 


159,401 








Vehicle* * 


651,126 


1, 932.79S 








Wax (Paraffin and 












Stearine) 


530,227 


346,139 








Wood and Timber . 


1,063,282 1,247,180 








Woollen Manufac- 










tures . 


1,452,076 977,101 








Zinc 


239,457 


175,830 







1 Excluding tyres imported separately (included under rubber manufactures.) 

2 Excluding bunker coal. 

Imports of Specie amounted to 2,022,825/. in 1915, 785,036/. in 1916, 
1,889,342/. in 1917; 2,059,477/. in 1918; 2,327,407/. in 1919 ; and exports 
to 194,382/. in 1915, 187,092/., in 1916, 153,305/. in 1917 ; 222,953/. in 
1918; 48,246/. in 1919. 

The following table gives the total values and percentages of general 
merchandise imported into Britiih South Africa, according to countries, for 
two years i 















Country of Origin. 


Value 


Per cent, 
of Total 


Value 


Percent. 
of Total 


United Kingdom 


£ 

26,165,983 


63-4 


28,814,580 


4754 


Australia .... 
India 


1,177,241 
3,427,402 


2-4 
7-0 
2 2 
2-4 


1,903,789 
2,679,845 
2,019,566 
1,054,812 


3 SO 
5 85 


Canada .... 
Other British Possessions . 


1,050,209 
1,180,019 


4-08 
211 


Total British Poesessions . 


6,834, S71 14 


7,667,962 


15-29 


Total— British Empire , 1 


38,000,864 ! 


67-4 


81,472,492 


62'88 



SHIPPING AND COMMUNICATIONS 



223 



1919 



Country of Origin 



Per cent. 

or Toui 



Tataa 



Ter cent. 

i r Total 



Foreign CountrU*. 










United States 


6,771,238 


13S 


12,07 • 


24 10 


Bolgian Congo . 


1,016,208 


•2 1 


14,610 


•03 


Sweden .... 


.•'i; 


2 


869,750 


174 


Holland .... 


37 1 


0-8 




40 


Switzerland 


603 


1-0 


345,478 


•60 




rtr.ua 


1-6 


634." 


1-27 


Argentine .... 


M - 


1-3 


160,471 


32 


France .... 


48M 


10 


•■H.w: 


1 -22 


Japan .... 


2,6*57 


5-4 


1,804,804 


3-60 


Other Foreign Countries . 


1,75- 


33 


1,899,406 


3-80 


Total— Foreign Countries . 


15,955,466 


326 


18,0'.- 


3717 


Total— General Merchandiw- 


48,1156,320 


100 


50,090,175 


100 



The total exports, excluding gold and specie, in 1919, were 52,098,752/., of 
which 29,770,104/. went to the United Kingdom ; 4,101,186/. to the rest 
of the Empire ; 7,961,115/. to the U.S.A. ; and 3,779.613/. to Japan. 



Shipping and Communications. 

Oversea shipping 1919: entered, 1,075 vessels of 3,647,000 tons net; 
cleared, 1,070 of 3,586,000 tons. Coastwise: entered, 2,124 vessels of 
4,013,000 tons net ; cleared 2,100 of 4,040,000 tons. 

Prior to Union, which took effect in May, 1910, the state railways of the 
several colonies now comprising the Union were operated by the separate 
Governments. In May, 1910, the Government lines were merged into one 
system, the South African Railways, under the control of the Union Govern- 
ment. The total open mileage of this system at the end of March, 1919, was 
9,542 (comprising Cape 4,254 miles, Orange Free State 1,342 miles, 
Transvaal 2,644 miles, and Natal, 1,302 miles), of which 8,982 miles are 
3ft. 6 in. gauge, and 560 miles 2 ft. gauge. The capital expenditure on 
Government Railways up to March 31, 1919, amounted to 94,331,365/., 
including 15,323.292/. in respect of rolling stock. Milt age of private lines, 
507 miles (Cape, 453, Natal, 50, O.F.S., 4). 

At the end of 1919 there were in the Union 2,665 post of&Ves. Tele- 
grams dealt with numbered 7,230,935. The number of money orders issued 
during the year was 413,607, and the value 3,046,280/., while 417,279 
orders of the value of 2,968,132/. were paid. 3,288,645 postal orders 
amounting to 1,939,663/. were issued, and 2.929,539, valued at 1,649,684/. 
paid. 

The revenue of the Post Office in 1919 was 1,277,100/.. and the expenditure 
1,367,350/. The revenue of the telegraph and telephone services (excluded 
from the previous figures) was 950,683/., and the expenditure 950,194/. 

12,842 miles of telegraph line, carrying 43,938 miles of wire, and 3,250 
miles of telephone line, carrying 128,604 miles of wire, were open. 7,673 
wireless messages were dealt with during the year 1919. 

The number of depositors in the Government Savings Bank in the Union 
at the end of March, 1920, was 307,486, and the amount standing to their 
credit was 7,079,789/. 



224) THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Banks. 

The statistics of the 5 banks in the Union are as follows : — 



Tear ending December 31 



Subscribed capital 
Paid-up capital 
Reserve fund 
Notes in circulation 
Deposit and current accounts 
Coin and bullion . 
Securities, Government and 
other . 



1916 


1917 


1918. 


1919 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


10,450,900 


10,500,900 


10,515,900 


11,421,800 


6,196,925 


5,246.925 


5,261,925 


5,775,900 


2,792,900 I 


2,953,733 


3,158,650 


3,643,007 


3,432,305 


4,658,632 


6,451,107 


S,219,674 


55,286,548 


60,628,887 


72,127,111 


107,070,707 


6,961,026 


8,938,269 


9,336,92S 


8,657,S0S 


7,740,240 


9,934,296 


10,773,102 


17,332,436 



In December, 1920, under the South African Currency and Banking Act, 
1920, a Central Reserve Bank was established at Pretoria, with branches at 
Cape Town and other important centres. The capital will be 1,000,000?., at 
least half being subscribed by the public or the Treasury. The bank will 
have a monopoly of the note issue. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

The coins and the standard weights and measures are British, but the 
following old Dutch measures are still used : — Liquid Measure : Leaguer = 
about 128 imperial gallons ; half aum = 15^ imperial gallons ; anker = 7^ 
imperial gallons. Capacity : Muid — 3 bushels. The general surface 
measure is Morgen, equal to 2*1165402 acres ; 1,000 Cape lineal feet are 
equal to 1,033 British imperial feet. Legislation is in contemplation to 
provide for the standardisation of the metric system for weights and 
measures throughout the Union, with the optional use of imperial standards, 
except in the case of chemists, who are compelled to use the metric system. 

Books of Reference. 

1. Official Publications. 

The South Africa Act, 1909. 

Official Year-Book of the Union of South Africa. Annual. 

Annual Statement of Trade and Shipping of the Union oi South Africa. Cape Town. 
Annual. 

Report to the Board of Trade on the Trade of South Africa. Annual. Loudon. 
Trade Report. Monthly. Cape Town. 

2. Non-Official Publications. 

The South African Year Book (First Issue, 1914). London. Annual. 

Brand (Hon. U. H.), The Union of South Africa, oxford, 1909. 

Drown (A. S.) and Brown (G. G.), Editors. The Guide to South and East Africa. 
Annual. 

Cory(Q. E.), The Rise of South Africa. 8 vols. London, 1910, 1913, and 191'.). 

Eybers(Q. W.), Select constitutional documents, illustrating South African M 
17'.'.'.-1910. London, 1019. 

Fairbridge (I).), A History of South Africa. London, 1918. 

Fit~«imtins (F. W.), The Natural History of South Africa. London, L9JL 

G'ibson(J. Y.), The Story of the Zulus. London, 1910. 

Hamilton t'y/e (II.), South Africa of to day. London, 1911. 

Hodton (A.W.), Trekking the Great Thirst, 1<U ,. 

Hollway (N. C. S.), Bibliography of Books relating to South Africa. In Transaction) 
of the South African PUlotopMcal Socirty, Vol. X., 1't. 2. Cape Town, lS'.'S. 

Lftrher (O.), The Bonds of Africa : Impressions of Travel and Sport from Cape Town 
bo Cairo, lOOS-lS. London, 1914. 



PROVINCE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE 225 

Lucas (Sir C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies, South Africa. Tart I. 
History, revised by Sir C. Lucas, and Part IT., Geographical, revised by A. B. Keith. 
Oxford, 1015. 

ilacdonald (A. 3.\ Trade, Polities, and Christianity in Africa and the East. London, 1916. 

.UarfcHa* (Violet), The New Era in South Africa. London, 1904.— The South African 
Scene. London, 1913. 

Marloth (R.), The Flora of South Africa. 4 vols. Cape Town and London, 1915. 

Mendclssohn\%.), Bibliographyof Books relating to South Africa. 2 vols. London, 1911. 

Moltma (S. M), Tne Bantu, Past and Present. Edinburgh, 1920. 

Natkam (M.), The South African Commonwealth. London, 1919. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. HI. African Territories. London, 1P14. 

Plaatje (3. T.). Native Life in South Africa before and since the European War and the 
Boer Rebellion London, 1910. 

Prarr (A.), The Real South Africa. London, 1»13. 

Roten (A E. von), Fran Kap till Alexandria. Stockholm. 

Scully (W. 0.), Further Reminiscences of a South African Pioneer. London, 1913.— 
A History of South Africa, from the Earliest Days to the Union. London, 1915. 

Stott (C. H.). Geology of South Africa. Oape Town, 1909. 

Theal (G. McCall), South Africa. Eighth Edition. London, 1917. — Catalogue of Books 
and Pamphlets relating to South Africa south of the Zambesi. Cape Town, 1 
Historv and Ethnography of South Africa. 11 vols. London, 1907-20. 

Tilby (A. W'yatt), South Africa (1486—1913). London, 1914. 

Wagner (P. A.), The Diamond Fields of Southern Africa. Johannesburg, 1914. 

Walton (Sir E), The Inner History of the National Convention of 8outh Africa. Cap* 
Town, 101-2. 

Willi (G.) and Millin (P.), Mercantile Law of South Africa. London, 1919. 

Won/old (W. B.), The Union of South Africa. London, 1912.— Lord Milner's Work in 
South Africa, 1S97-1902. London (new edition), 1913— The Reconstruction of the New 
Colonies under Lord Milner, 1902-1905. 2 vols. London, 1913. 



PROVINCE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

Constitution and Government.— The Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 
was originally founded by the Dutch in the year 1652. Britain took 
possession of "it in 1795 but evacuated it in 1 803. A British force again took 
possession in 1806 and the Colony has remained a British Possession since 
that date. It was formally ceded to Great Britain by the Convention of 
London, August 13, 1814. The original Colony has been extended from 
time to time. East and West Pondoland were annexed in 1894 and 
Bechuanaland in 1895. For many years the form of government in the 
Colony depended on the terms of the Royal Letters Patent and Instruc- 
tions to Governors. Letters Patent issued in 1850 to Governor Sir Henry 
Smith declared that in the Colony there should be a Parliament which 
should consist of the Governor, a Legislative Council, and a House of 
Assembly. 

A Constitution Ordinance was enacted by Order in Council of March 11, 
1853, and took effect on May 1 ensuing. This Order in Council provided 
that nothing it coutained should prevent the Parliament of the Colony 
from making Acts (subject to the power of Her Majesty in Council either 
to disallow or assent to such Acts) in amendment of the said Ordinance. 
This power of amending the Constitution was exercised from time to 
time as the bounds of the Colony were extended. In 1872 an Act was 
passed at the Cape and assented to by Order in Council, providing for 
the system of executive administration known as Responsible Government. 
The Constitution formed under these various Acts vested the executive in 
the Governor and an Executive Council, composed of certain office holders 
appointed by the Crown. On the 31st May, 1910, the Colony was merged 
in the Union of South Africa, thereafter forming an original province of the 
Union. 

Cape Town is the seat of the Provincial Administration. 



226 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — CAPE PROVINCE 



Administrator. — The Hon. Sir Frederic de Waal, K.C.M.G. (Salary 
2,500Z.) 

The Province is divided into 119 magisterial districts, and the Colony 
proper, including Bechuanaland, but exclusive of the Transkeian territories, 
into 86 fiscal divisions. In each division there is a Civil Commissioner, who 
is, in all cases where the fiscal and magisterial areas coincide, also the Resi- 
dent Magistrate. Each division has a Council of at least 6 members (14 
in the Cape Division) elected triennially by the owners or occupiers of im- 
movable property. These Councils look after roads, boundaries, and 
beacons; return 3 members to the Licensing Court, and perform other 
local duties. 

There are 128 Municipalities, each governed by a Mayor or Chairman 
and Councillors, a certain number of whom are elected annually by the 
ratepayers. There are also 75 Village Management Boards. 

Area and Population. — The following table gives the population of 
the Cape of Good Hope at each census : — 



Census 


All Races 


White 


Coloured 


Year 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1865 . 
1875 . 
1891 . 
1904 . 
1911 . 
1918 . 


496,381 

720,984 

1,527,224 

2,409,804 

2,564,965 


255,760 

369,628 

767,327 

1,218,940 

1,255,671 


240,621 

351,356 

759,897 

1,190,864 

1,309,294 


95,410 
123,910 
195,956 
318,544 
301,268 
311,312 


86,182 
112,873 
181,031 
261,197 
2S1.109 
307,513 


160.350 
846,718 

571,871 
900,396 
954,403 


154,439 
238,483 
678,881 
929,607 
1,038,185 



The following table gives the area and population of the Province 
native Territories in 1911 and 1918: — 



and 





Area in 
Sq. Mile*. 


Census Population in 1911 


131S. 

Kuropoaii 
Popwxtioil 




European o. ] oure d 
or White loured 


Total 


Colony proper . 
East Griqualand . 
Tembuland 
Transkei . 
1 Walfish Bay, &c. 
Pondoland . 
Bechuanaland . 


208,661 
6,602 
3,339 
2,504 
430 
3,906 
51,524 


546,162 1,007,468 
7,950 i 241,138 
8,138 ' 227,948 
2,189 ' 186,706 
1,638 ! 1,438 
1,383 233,254 
14,917 84,636 


1,553,630 
249,088 
236,086 
188,895 
3,076 
234,637 
99,553 


585,021 
5,866 
4,292 
2,228 
1,391 
1,311 
18,716 


Total Province . 


276,966 


582,377 1,982,588 


2,564,965 


618,825 



l Including travi'lli'is tiv rail. 

Of the coloured population iu 1911, 19,763 were Malays, and 416,283 :i 
mixture of various races ; the rest are Hottentots, Fingoes, Kaflks, ami 
Bechuanas. 

Chief towns : white population in 1918 :— Cape Town, 99,693 : Kind 
17,188; Port Elizabeth, 23,339; Graham's Town, 7,087; Paarl, 5,550; 



RELIGION — INSTRUCTION — CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS 227 

King William's Town, 5,685 ; East London, 17,592; Graaff-Rcinet, 3,886; 
Worcester, 3,618 ; Uitenhage, 7,103 ; Oudtshoorn, 5,131. 

Of the European population in 1911, 24,245 were professional, 1-53,925 
domestic, 37,796 commercial, 87,795 agricultural, 50,031 industrial, 
232,730 were dependants, and 5,855 indefinite and unspecified. Of the coloured 
population the great majority are engaged in agricultural or domestic employ- 
ments. 

Marriages, births and deaths in six years, so far a* registered : — 



Years 


Marriages 


Birtha 


Death* 










1913;pre-war 


12,133 


58,787 


39,532 


1915 


11,069 


59,344 


37,961 


1916 


11,344 


57,658 


40,509 


1917 


11,814 


55,529 


41,023 


1918 


11,514 


55,870 


88,024 


1910 


14,227 


47,770 * 


45,784 



Religion.— In 1911 there were 1,437,688 Christians— 479,825 Dutch 
Churches, 282,619 Anglican Communion (including Church of England, 
Church of Province "of South Africa, Church of Ireland, Episcopal 
Church of Scotland, Episcopalian >, 74,005 Presbyterians, 147,378 Indepen- 
dents or Congregationalism, 285,283 Weslevans, 19,161 other Methodists, 
21,506 Lutherans, 21,167 Moravians, 22,953' Rhenish Mission, 12,234 othei 
Lutherans, 13,704 Baptists, 35,934 Roman Catholics, 21,919 other Christians. 
Mohammedans 24,139, Jews 16,744. Of no religion, 1,077,998, of whom 
1,047,233 were natives. 

Instruction. — Local school administration is conducted by school boards 
and school committees, the unit of administration being the school district. 
There are now 121 such districts, each under the control of a school board, 
two-thirds of whose members are elected by the ratepayers and one-third 
nominated by Government and local authority. Boards have the power, 
subject to the Department, to establish and maintain schools ; subject to 
Departmental approval, further, they have the general financial control of 
schools under their jurisdiction, including the fixing of scales of fees and the 
hire of buildings. They also have power to enforce school attendance and in 
certain cases to allow free education. Every public school under a board is 
ordinarily managed by a committee elected by the parents or, in default, 
nominated by the board. Such committees have the general supervision 
of the school, and the selection of the teaching staff also rests with them. 
Giants in support of education are provided from the general revenue, the 
sources of revenue in the case of school boards being : Central government, 
6976 per cent.; local education rate, 466 per cent, ; school fees, 25 "17 per 
cent.; other sources, "41 per cent. Aided schools, June 30, 1918, 4,794. 
There are 121,910 Europt-an pupils and 149,985 non-European. Total numb*r 
of teachers 9,672. 

Provincial expenditure on education (excluding Higher Education, 
which is under control of the Central Government), 1915-16, 917,856/. ; 
1916-17, 976,2947. ; 1917-18, 1,166,0597. ; 1918-19, 1,435,3857. 

Charitable Institutions, Hospitals, Pauperism. — In the hospitals 

and kindred charitable institutions 18,466 in-patients, and 95,682 at 

Q 2 



228 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — CAPE PROVINCE 



Government-aided Hospitals, and 70,275 at Government Chronic Sick 
Hospitals, makiDgatotal of 165,957 ont-patients, were treated in the year 
1917. There is no system of poor-law relief, but 1,303 persons received 
indoor relief during the year. 

Finance.— Since the coming into effect of the Union there is only one financial 
statement for the four provinces together. Particulars are given above under the Union. 
Since the passing of the Financial Relations Act, 1913, the Provincial revenue consists 
of certain revenues assigned to the Province and an amount voted by Parliament by way 
of subsidy. The following figures show the provincial revenue and "expenditure for five 
years :— 





1913-14 


1914-15 


1915-16 


1916-17 


1917-18 


Revenue : — 

Provincial .... 
Union's Subsidy 


£ 
405,848 
862,000 


316,688 
917.20S 


£ 
333,784 
859,000 


£ 

366,289 
935,161 


£ 
, 426,314 
1,047,441 


Total Revenue .... 


1,267,848 


1,233,896 


1,192,784 


1,301,4:0 


1,473,785 


Total ordinary expenditure . . 


1,142,205 


1,204,251 


1,202,053 


1,286,038 


1,477,854 



The average annual ordinary expenditure in the six years ending 1917-18 
was : for General Administration, 96,679Z. ; Education, 933,720J. ; Hospitals 
and Poor Relief, 108,369Z. ; Roads, Bridges and Works, 119.813Z. Capital 
expenditure in 1917-18 was 264,61U 

Production and Industry. — Iu 1914, 919,420 acres of Crown lands 
were alienated, the amount realised being 52,265Z. Up to December 31, 
1914, the total area disposed of was about 141,039,952 acres, the quantity 
undisposed of being 36,336,708 acres. At December 31, 1919, the area 
unalienated was reduced to 26,713,330 acres. 

For Mineral Production, see p. 220. 

Commerce. — Since the coming into effect of the Union there are no 
special records of trade for each of the Provinces. The British Board of 
Trade statistics, however, continue to give details of trade between the United 
Kingdom and each Province separately. The following figures show the 
value of the trade between the Cape of Good Hope Province and the United 
Kingdom for five years : — 





1913 


1917 


1918 


1919 


19201 




(pre-war) 












£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Imports from Cape . . 


9,880.716 


6,310,962 


8,020,139 


15,080,669 


12,649,000 


Exports from U.K. to 












Cape — 












British produce and 












manufactures . 


10,812,298 


8,392,141 


10,191, 568 


8,802,676 


24,138,000 


Foreign and Colonial 












merchandise 


958,332 


521,935 


313,661 


301,600 


1,441,673 



' Provisional figures. 



The more important imports and exports in 1919 were: — lnipoits 
into United Kingdom: sheepB* wool (56,173,938 lbs.), 5,299,623Z. ; mohair, 



BOOKS OF REFERENT F. 229 

1.917,123/. ; raw hides, 601,346/. ; skins and furs, 2,277.305/. ; maize, 
909,291/. ; maize meal, 821,275/. ; jams, kc, 158,756/. ; fish, 311,353/. The 
exports of diamonds to the United Kingdom in 1919, as given in the Cape 
returns, were 2,751,097 carats, value 11,535,850/. (these figures are not 
included in the table above). Exports from United Kingdom (British 
produce): cotton goods, 1,386,922/. ; woollens, 612,410/. ; apparel, 1,204,362/.; 
machinery, 472,438/. ; iron and steel goods, 1,135,561/.; leather boots and 
shoes, 170,474/. ; paper, 215,037/. ; chemicals, 297,045/. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

1. Official Publications. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London. 

Report on the liietfoutein area. By J. F. Herbst. Colonial Reports, Miscellareous 
Series, No. 55. London, 1908. 

Statistical Abstract for the several Colonies and other Possessions of ths United King- 
dom. Annnal. London. 

2. Non-Official Publications. 

Brown (A. S. and G. Q.), Guide to South Africa. Annual. London. 

Bruce (J.), Impressions of South Africa. 3rd edition. London, 1899. 

Bryden (H. A.), The Victorian Era in South Africa. London, 1S9". — History of South 
Africa, 1652-1903. London, 1904. 

CoUjuhoun(\. R), The Afrikander Land. London, 1906. 

Colvin (I. D.), Romance of South Africa. Cape Town, 1909. 

Hatch and Corttorphine. Geology of South Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1909. 

Henkel (C. C), History, Resources, and Productions of the Country between Cape 
Colony and Natal. [The Transkeian Territories.] London, 1903. 

Hutchinson (G. T.), From the Cape to the Zambesi. London, 1905. 

Johntton (Sir Harry), History of the Colonisation of Africa by Alien Races. Cam- 
bridge , 1S99. 

Keane (A. H.), Africa, Vol. II. South Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1908. 

Kidd(D.), The Essential Kaffir. London, 1904.— Savage Childhood. London, 1906. 

Knight (E. F.), South Africa after the War. London, 1903. 

Lucat (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. Vol. IV. Oxford, 1899. 

Orpen, Reminiscences of Life in South Africa. Cape Town. 1 

Ortroz (F. Van), Conventions Internationales Concervant L'Afrique. Brussels, 1898. 

Playne (3.), Cape Colony : Its Historr, Commerce, Industries aud Resources. London," 
1"!2. 

Stow (G. W.), The Native Races of South Africa. London, 1905. 

Theal(G. M.), South Africa. 4th edition. London, 1S99.— Progress of South Africa 
is the Century. Edinburgh, 1903.— History of South Africa. 3 vols. London. 1903-04. 

The Government of South Africa 2 vols. Cape Town, 1908. 

The South African Natives. London, 190S. 

Trottrr (Mrs. A. P.), Old Cape Colony. London, 1903. 
Wallace(R.), Farming Industries of Cape Colony. London, 1896. 

William* (Q. F.), The Diamond Mines of South Africa. London, 1903. 
^ilmot (A). The Story of the Expansion of South Africa. 2nd edition. London 
1397.— Book of South African Industries. Cape Town, 1892.— History of our own Times' 
in South Africa. 2 vols. London, 1S9S. 



230 



THE BRTTISH EMPIRE: — PROVINCE OF NATAL 



PROVINCE OF NATAL. 

Constitution and Government. —Natal, which had heen annexed to 
Cape Colony in 1844, was placed under separate government in 1845, and 
under charter of July 15, 1856, was erected into a separate Colony. By this 
charter partially representative institutions were established, and. under' a 
Natal Act of 1893, assented to by Order in Council, June 26, 1893, the Colony 
obtained responsible government. The province of Zululand was annexed 
to Natal on December 30, 1897. The districts of Vryheid, Utrecht and part 
of Wakkerstroom, formerly belonging to the Transvaal, were in January, 
1903, annexed to the colony. On May 31, 1910, the Colony was merged in 
the Union of South Africa, becoming an original province of the Union. 

The seat of provincial government in Natal is Pietermaritzburg. 

Administrator. — The Hon. G. T. Plowman, C.M.G. 

Area and Population. — The Province (including Zululand, 10,424 
square miles) has an area of 35,291 square miles, with a seaboard of about 
360 miles. The climate is sub-tropical on the coast and somewhat colder 
inland. It is well suited to Europeans. The Province is divided into 
40 Magisterial Divisions. 

The European population has more than trebled since 1879. The returns 
of the total population at the last four censuses were : — 



Census 




All Races. 




Year. 


Total. 


I Males. 


Females. 


1891 . 
1904 . 
1911 . 
1918 . 


543,913 
1,108,754 
1,194,043 


| 268,062 
, 550,631 
1 564,648 


275,651 
558,123 
629,395 



White. 



Coloured. 



25,787 

50,75S 
52,495 

(-,2,745 



Males. Females. Males. Females 



21,001 
40,851 
45,619 
59,186 



242,275 
493,873 
512,153 



254,850 
517,772 
583,776 



The figures for 1891 exclude Zululand ; those for 1904 and 1911 in- 
clude the districts of Vryheid, Utrecht, Paulpietersburg. Ngotshe, and 
Babanango. The number of males in 1911 was 564,648, ami of females, 
629,395. 

Population of the borough of Durban according to the census of May 7, 
1911, 69,187, consisting of Europeans, 31,783, natives (including half-castes), 
17,784, Indians and Asiatics, 19,620; and of Pietermaritzburg, 30,555, 
consisting of 14,737 Europeans, 7,789 Indians and Asiatics, 8,029 natives, 
including half-castes. The white population of Durban in 1918 was 43,413, 
and of Pietermaritzburg, 18,525. 

So far as registered, the births in 1918 numbered 38,091 (2,924 European, 
35,167 coloured); deaths, 28,998 (1,577 European, 27,421 n on- European ) ; 
and marriages, 2,614 (1,041 European, 1,573 non-European). 

Instruction. — With the exception of Higher Education, which lias been 
placed under the control of the Union Government, Education comes under t lie 
Provincial Administration. There are, for children of European extraction, 
171 schools giving primary, 7 schools giving intermediate, and 10 giving 
secondary education, in all 188 schools, which are supported either entirely 
or partially by Government funds. In addition there are 3 special or 
vocational schools, 1 training school for teachers, and 143 farm schools. For 
coloured children, there are 398 state and state-aided schools (including 44 



FINANCE — PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



2H1 



for Indians), as well as 6 schools provided for the training of coloured 
teachers. The aggregate number of European pupils in regular attendance 
at the Government and inspected schools was 20,711 for 1917 ; the average 
daily attendance 90 1 per cent, of the number on the registers. The 
number of colour9d children receiving instruction in 1917 amounted to 
28,812. A sum of 50,992/. was spent on coloured education during 1918 
out of public funds ; the corresponding figure in respect of European 
education was approximately 384,000*. About 1,100 children attend 
private unaided schools, and it is estimated that only a very small percentage 
of white children are receiving no education. 

Finance. — for financial arrangements see p. 216 above. The follow- 
ing figures show the provincial revenue and expenditure for five years: — 





1913-14 


1914-15 


1915-16 


1916-17 


1917-18 


Revenue : — 

Union Subsidy .... 


£ 
118,486 
333,000 


£ 

99,923 
332,500 


£ 
106,800 

309,000 


£ 

I9MN 
IM,S8ji 


£ 

172.15.9 
288,778 


Total Revenue .... 


432,423 


414,390 


47S,998 


555,937 


ToUl Ordinary Expenditure. 


451,002 


448,175 


439,8?6 


477,039 


532,443 



The average annual expenditure in the six years ending 1917-18 was : 
for General Administration, 27.220/. ; Education, 212,730/.; Hospitals and 
Poor Relief, 41,070/. ; Roads Bridges, and Works, 192,068/. 

The estimated ordinary expenditure for 1918-19 was 666,198/. The 
capital expenditure in 1918-10 Was 157,092/. 

Production and Industry.— At the end of March, 1918, the area of 
Crown land which remained unalienated and could be taken up for 
agricultural or pastoral purposes was 1,178,000 morgen (1 morgen = 
2*1165 acres approx.). On the Coast and in Zululand there are vast 
plantations of sugar (output, 1917-18, 108,000 tons, value 2,700,000/.) and 
tea, while cereals of all kinds (especially maize), fruits, vegetables, the Acacia 
molissima, the bark of which is so much used for tanning purposes, and 
other crops grow prolifically. 

The Province is rich in mineral wealth, particularly coal, the output of 
which is being maintained at a steadily progressive rate. There was ic 191S 
one gold mine conducting operations on a small scale (for statistics, see 
p. 220). Among other minerals known to exist in the Province are 
asbestos, copper ore, fireclay, gold, graphite, gypsum, iron ore, lead and 
silver ore, limestone and marble, manganese ore, mica, molybdenum ore, 
nickel ore, nitre, oil shale, and tin ore. 

The various factory industries of Natal in 1917-18 (census of 1919) 
numbered 864, with an annual output valued at nearly 13,754,356/. They 
had 7.702,542/. invested in machinery, lands, and buildings, annually used 
materials worth 7,678,167/., and paid over 2,255,326/. yearly in wages to 
:32,t3r>4 employees. 

A Whaling Industry was commenced at Durban in 1908. Down 
to 1917 (nine years) 7,274 whales were captured. In 1917, 1918 
and 1919, the whales captured numbered 17ti, 142 and 641 respectively. 
Only two companies, with 11 boats, were operating in 1919. 
Th< industry is now regulated by the Provincial Government. 



232 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — TRANSVAAL 



as indiscriminate slaughter w-jas driving the whales away from the South 
African waters. 

Commerce. — Since the coming into effect of the Union there are no 
special records made for each of the P?e7>vinces ; the British Board of Trade 
statistics, however, continue to give deta^ds of trade between the United King- 
dom and each Province separately. The ic"">Uowing figures show the value of 
the trade between Natal Province and the Unnited Kingdom for five years : — 





1913 
(pre-war) 


1917 


19lY r - ' 


1919 


19201 


Imports from Natal 
Exports of U.K. produce 


£ 

•2,724,265 


£ 

4,681,928 

4,344,712 
173,795 


£ 
3,616,428 

5,053,861 

146,108 


\ £ 

7..'529,832 

'I. 
5,277, 503 

146,410 


£ 

6,333,000 

11,804,000 
598,000 


Exports of foreign and 
colonial merchandise 


389,252 



1 Provisional figures. i 

a 
The more important imports and exports in 1919 were: — Imports into 
United Kingdom: maize, 362, 852Z. ; maize meal, 1,326,010?.; raw ■ hides, 
747,699?. ; sheep's wool (24,378,626 lbs.), 2,225,878?. ; sheep skins, wcjjolled, 
290,046?. ; dye and tanning stutfs, &c, 696,484?. ; sugar, 414,358?. Ex ports 
from United Kingdom (British produce): cotton manufactures, 678,2t >5?. ; 
woollen manufactures, 199,150?. ; machinery, 586,774?. ; iron and steel gorods, 
1,109,174?. ; apparel, 469,686?. ; chemicals and preparations, 169,243?. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference. 

Statistical Abstract for theseveral colonial and other possessions of the United Kingdon i. 
Annual. London. 

Barnett {P. A.) and Sweeney (A. W.), Natal : the State and the Citizen. London. 1904. . 

Bird (John), The Annals of Natal, 1495-1845. Pietermaritzburg, 1888. 

Ciillingworth's Natal Almanac. Annual. Durban. 

Ingram (J F.), Natalia : History of Natal and Zululand. London, 1897. 

Peace (Walter), Our Colony of Natal. Published by permission of the Natal Govern- 
ment. London, 1884.— Notes on Natal. London, 1S93. 

Robinnon (Sir J.), A Lifetime in South Africa. London, 1900. 

Rowell (T.), Natal and the Boers. London, 1900. 

Ru»tell(R.), Natal, the Land and its Story. 6th ed. London, 1900. 

Stuart (J.), A History of the Zulu Rebellion, 1906. London, 1918. 

Tatlow (A. H.), Natal Province: Descriptive Guide and Official Handbook. Durban 
and London. Annual. 

rroHop«(Anthony), South Africa. 2 vols. London. 1878. 

Twentieth Century Impressions of Natal. Natal, 1900. 






PROVINCE OF THE TRAN8VAAL. 

Constitution and Government— The territory comprised within 
the limits of The Transvaal was colonised by Boers who left Cape Colony 
in 1836-37. In 1852 the independence of the Transvaal Government 
was recognised by Great Britain, but, in 1877, in consequence of 
financial difficulties and troubles with the natives, and in accordance 
with representations and petitions from the Boers, the territory was annexed 
by the British Government. In 1880 the Boers took up arms for the 
restoration of their independence, and, in 1881, a Convention was 
signed restoring to the inhabitants of the territory their self-government. 
but with conditions, reservations, and limitations, and subject to tlie 



AREA A\D POPULATION 



233 



suzerainty of the Queen. This arrangement was modified by a Convention 
made in 1884, in which the name of the South African Republic was given 
to the Transvaal State ; but the control over external affairs, other than 
engagements with the Orange Free State, was reserved to her Majesty. 
These Conventions, however, did not preserve harmony within the 
Transvaal territory, or with the British Government. The discovery of gold 
and the conditions which followed this discovery occasioned difficulties from 
which the two Boer States sought release by military action. The result 
of this was the military occupation of the two countries, and their annexation 
to the British Crown, the one on September 1, 1900, under the name of 
The Transvaal, and the other (May 24) as the Orange River Colony. 
Hostilities continued till May 31, 1902, when an agreement as to terms of 
surrender was signed by the representatives of the burgher forces in the field. 
[See Statesman's Year-Book for 1906, under The Transvaal.] 

The administration was thereafter carried on under a Governor and 
Lieutenant-Governor, assisted by an Executive and a Legislative Council. 
On December 6, 1906, Letters Patent were issued providing for a Constitution 
of responsible Government in the Colony. The Colony was merged in the 
Union of South Africa on May 31, 1910, as an original Province of the Union. 

The seat of provincial government for the Transvaal is at Pretoria. The 
position of the various parties in the Provincial Council after the election in 
August, 1920, was I South African Party, 10 ; Nationalists, 21 ; Labour, 11 ; 
Unionists, 6 ; Independent 1 ; total, 49. 

Administrator. — The Hon. A. G. Robertson (salary, 2,500/.) 

Area and Population. — The area of the Province is 110,450 square 
miles, divided into 24 districts. The following table shows the population 
at each of the last four censuses : — 



Cfn.-us Year 


All Races 


Whit* 


COLOCRKD 


Total Males ; Females 


Males Females 


Males Females 


1S90 
1904 . 
1911 
1918 


_ _ _ 
1,269.051 7.382 
US '.<7 1,555 ! 714,657 


66,498 
178.244 
236,91? 
M0,S4fl 


52,630 
119,033 
183,649 


524,825 448,349 
734,642 531,008 



The largest towns had in 1918 a white population as follows : Johannes- 
burg, 137,166; Pretoria, 41,690; Benoni, 17,633; Krugersdorp, 13,663 
Boksburg, 11,950 ; Potchefstroom, 9,804 : and Roodepoort, 7,451. 

Vital Statistics are shown as follows : — 



Births 


Death. Marriages ^SJS^ 


1913 19,790 

1914 18,992 

1915 18.S13 

1916 19,S91 
1917 

191 8 


14,790 6,504 5,000 
12.094 6,117 6.89S 
13,636 6,419 5,277 
14.099 6,844 5,792 
7,300 

.ear 1 6.S67 -:.7S9' 



1 Influenza Epidemic, giving excess of deaths. 



234 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — TRANSVAAL 



Religion. — Statistics for the Transvaal 



Churches, &c. 


Whites 
1918 


Others 
1911 


m,„.„».„„ j,. Whites Others 
Churches, &c. | mg lfln 


Dutch Churches . . 
Anglican .... 
Presbyterian . . . 

Roman Catholic . 
Lutheran .... 


266,521 
91,087 
25,194 
34,597 
22,153 
4,464 


24,634 
51,355 

6,670 ! 
92,969 

6,439 
101,271 | 


Other Christian . . . | 18,560 24,253 
Hindus and other non- 
Other Religions and . 

Sects | 5,146 , 943,616 



Instruction. — The system of education was embodied in the Education 
Act which was passed during the first session of the first Parliament elected 
under responsible government, and which provides that all education except 
that of a university type shall be under the provincial authority. The Province 
has been divided for the purposes of local control and management into 
twenty-nine school districts, for each of which there is a school board 
consisting partly of elected and partly of nominated members. The board 
is an advisory local body with general powers of supervision over all public 
schools in its district except high schools and special schools or classes 
specified in the third schedule of the Education Act, 1907. Instruction in 
Government Schools, both primary and secondary, is free. 

The following statistics of education are for the yearending Dec. 31, 1918: — 
973 primary schools had 88,207 pupils ; 24 secondary schools, with a 
enrolment of 3,886 pupils ; 346 State and State-aided schools for coloured, 
native and Indian children, with 26,256 pupils. There are seven training 
institutions for European teachers, with 605 students ; and three for 
coloured teachers, with 290 students. An amount of 1,283,108?. was 
expended during the year for educational purposes. 

In respect of the question of language, the medium of instruction up to 
and including the fourth standard is the home language (English or Dutch) 
of the pupil, but parents may request that the second language be gradually 
introduced .as a second medium. Above the fourth standard provision is 
made for the instruction of pupils through the medium of English and 
Dutch, and the parent of each pupil may choose one of the two languages as 
the sole medium of instruction, or both of the languages as the media ol 
instruction. If the parent of any pupil fails to exercise his right of choice, 
that pupil is instructed through the medium of the language which is the 
better known and understood by him, the other language being also used as 
far as possible as a medium of instruction. Bible History is taught in every 
school, but no doctrine or dogma peculiar to any religious denomination or 
sect may be taught. 

Finance.— For financial arrangements sec p. 216 above. 
The following figures show the provincial revenue and expenditure tot 
five years : — 

















1913-14. 


I'.'M 16. 


1915-16. 


1916-17. 




Revenue : — 
Provincial 

Union Subsidy . 


629,100 


£ 
527,329 
057,804 


£ 
565,481 


710,999 


£ 
7S1.8U 


Total Revenue 


1,231,818 


1,185,188 


1,120,475 






Total Ordinary Bxpend- 


1 ,"64,872 




1. ".'.7, Mi 


1,426,584 


1, est, 261 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY — COMMERCE — BOOKS 2^,5 

Estimates 1918-19: total revenue, 1,817,659/.; expenditure, 2,005,291/. 
A considerable proportion of the Provincial revenue is derived from 
Natives' Pass Fees. 

The capital expenditure in 1918-19 was estimated at 300,000*. 

Production and Industry. —The Province of the Transvaal is in the 
main a stock-raising country, though there are considerable areas well 
adapted for agriculture, including the growing of tropical crops. The 
extent of land under cultivation is given as OTer 2,000,000 acres; fallow 
land as about 470,000 acres; and grazing land as 29,900,000 acres. The 
maize and tobacco crops may be regarded as the most important. 

The live stock numbered, in 1919, 3,244,840 sheep, 447,700 goats 
(including 90,700 of the valuable Angora breed). 

For mineral production, see above, p. 220. The Transvaal Province 
has iron and brass foundries and engineering works, grain-mills, breweries, 
brick, tile, and pottery works, tobacco, soap, and candle factories, coach and 
wagon works, &c. 

Commerce. — Since the coming into effect of the Union there are no 
special records of trade for each of the Provinces. The British Board of Trade 
statistics, however, continue to give details of trade between the United 
Kingdom and each Province. The following figures show the value of the 
trade between the Transvaal Province and the United Kingdom for five 
years : — 





1918 


1917 


1918 


I9!.> 


19201 


. 


(pre-war) 












£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


4 


Imports from Transvaal ' 


196,448 


423,067 




202,032 


214,000 


Exports of U.K. produce 












and manufactures to 












Transvaal . 


5,751,9-20 


6,047,412 


6,924,576 


4,861,092 


12,261,000 


Exports of foreign and 












Colonial merchandise , 


482,636 


169,888 


167,316 


1C2.239 


549,000 



1 Provisional figures 



The more important imports and exports in 1919 were: — Imports 
into United Kingdom: copper regulus and precipitate, 52,482/. ; raw 
hides. 41,138/. Exports from United Kingdom (British produce) : Cottons, 
585,835?. : woollens, 285,069/. ; apparel, 707,649/. ; machinery, 409,781/. ; 
iron and steel and manufactures, 689,882/. ; leather boots and shoes, 
118.551/. ; chemicals and preparations, 186,129/. ; electrical goods, 133,770/. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference. 

Papers, Correspondence, Ac, relating to the Transvaal from 1852 to 1903. London. 

History of the War in South Africa, 1899-1902. Compiled hy direction of H.M. 
Government. 2 vols. London. 1907. 

The War in South Africa. Prepared in the Historical Section of the Great General 
3tatT, Berlin. Trans, by Col. H. Du Cane. London, 1905. 

Amry(Ju. S.), (Editor), "The Times" Historv of the War in South Africa, 1S99-1902 
" vols. London, 1909. 

Both* (P. M), From Boer to Boer and Englishman. [English Translation from the 
[>otch.] London, 1900. 

Bryee (J.), Impressions of South Africa. 3rd ed. London, 1899. 

Cappon (J.), Britain's Title in South Africa. 2nd. ed. London, 1902. 

Cloete (H.), History of the Great Boer Trek and the Oriein of the South African 
Republics. London, 1899. 

Colquhoun (A. R.), The Africander Land. London, 1906. 



236 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — ORANGE FREE STATE 

Creswicke (L.), South Africa and the Transvaal War. 7 vols. London, 1900-02.— 
South Africa and its Future. London. 1903. 

Cunliffe (F. H. E.), History of the Boer War. 2 vols. London, 1904. 

Deherain (H,), Expansion des Boers au XIX« Siecle. Paris, 1905. 

Doyle (A. Conan), Historv of the Great Boer War. New ed. London, 1902. 

FitzPatrick (J. P.), The Transvaal from Within. London, 1899. 

Qoldmann (C. S.), South African Mines. 3 vols. London, 1895-96. 

Keane (A. H.), Africa, Vol. II. : South Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1908. 

Keltie (J. Scott), The Partition of Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1895. 

Kriiger (P.), Memoirs of Paul Kriiger. Told by Himself. 2 vols. London, 1902. 

Leyds (W. J.), The First Annexation of the Transvaal. London, 1906. — The Transvaal 
Surrounded. London, 1919. 

Mackenzie (W. D.), South Africa : Its History, Heroes, and Wars. London, 1900. 

Mahan (A. T.), The Story of the War in South Africa. London, 1900 

Markham (Violet R.), South Africa Past and Present. London, 1900. — The New Era in 
South Africa. London, 1904. 

Native Races of South Africa. Edited by Native Baces Committee. London, 1901. 

Nevinson (H. W.), Ladysmith: The Diary of a Siege. London, 1900. 

Norrii-Newman (C. L.), With the Boers in the Transvaal and Orange Free State in 
1880-81. London, 1S82. 

Phillips (L.), Transvaal Problems. London, 1906. 

Praacjh (L. V.) (Editor), The Transvaal and its Mines. London and Johannesburg, 
1907. • 

Rectus (E.), L'Afrique Australe. Paris, 1901. 

Theal (George McCall), History of the Boers in South Africa. London, 1887.— History 
of South Africa. 5 vols. London, 1887-93.— South Africa. 4th ed. London, 1899. 

Truscott(S. J.), The Witswatersrand Goldfields. Banket and Mining Practice. 2nd ed. 
London, 1902. 

Viljoen (B.), My Reminiscences of the Anglo-Boer War. London, 1902. 

Voigt (J. C), Fifty Years of the History of the Republic of South Africa (1795-1845). 
2 vols. London, 1899. 

Willoughby (W. C), Native Life on the Transvaal Border. London, 1900. 

Wilmot (Hon. A.), History of South Africa. London, 1901. 

Worsfold (B.), Lord Milner's Work in South Africa. London, 1906. 

Wright (H. S.), Thirty Years in South Africa. London, 19r.0. 

Younghusband(V.), South Africa of To-day. London, 1899. 



PROVINCE OF THE ORANGE FREE STATE. 

The Orange River was first crossed by Europeans about the middle of 
the 18th century. Between 1810 and 1820, several Europeans settled in the 
southern parts of the Orange Free State. The Great Trek greatly augmented 
the number of settlers during and after 1836. At first no settled govern- 
ment was established. In 1848, Sir Harry Smith proclaimed the whole 
territory between the Orange and Yaal Rivers .as a British Possession and 
established what was called the Orange River Sovereignty. A British 
Resident was appointed at Bloemfontein, with Assistant Commissioners at 
Winburg and Caledon River. Great dissatisfaction was caused by this step, 
as well as by the native policy of the British Government. In 1854 the 
Convention of Bloemfontein, by which British Sovereignty was withdrawn 
and the independence of the country was recognised, was sigued by Sir 
George Russell Clerk. 

During the first five years of its existence the Orange Free State was much 
harassed by incessant raids by, and fighting with, the Basutos. These 
were at length conquered. The British Government then stepped in and 
arranged matters much to the dissatisfaction of the conquering party. By 
the treaty of Aliwal North, only a part of the territory of the Basutos was 
incorporated in the Orange Free State. This part is still known ns the 
Conquered Territory. 

A great deal of unpleasantness was caused by the dispute over the 



AREA AND POPULATION — RELIGION 



237 



Kimberley Diamond Fields, which belonged to the Orange Free State, hut 
were annexed to the Cape Colony by the British Government. 

On account of the Treaty between the Orange Free State and South 
African Republic, the former State took a prominent part in the South 
African War (1899-1902), and was annexed to the British Dominions by 
proclamation of Lord Roberts, on May 28, 1900, as the Orange River Colony. 
After peace was declared Crown Colony Government was established and 
continued until 1907, when responsible government was introduced. On 
May 31, 1910, the Orange River Colony was merged in the Union of South 
Africa as the Province of the Orange Free State. 

The seat of provincial government is at Bloemfontein. 

Administrator.— The Hon. Sir C. H. Wcsels, Kt.(salary, 2.000J.) 

There are municipalities at Bloemfontein and other centres, 50 in all ; 
local authorities have, so far as possible, the usual local administrative powers. 

Area and Population. — The area of the Province is 50,389 square 
miles ; it is divided into 24 districts. The population at the last 4 censuses 
and the European population at the census taken in 1918 were as follows : — 



Census 




All Races. 




White. 


Coloured. 


Tear. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. Females. 


1880 . 

1890 . 
1904 . 
1911 . 
1918 . 


133,518 

207,50s 

3S7.315 
528,174 


70,150 
108,883 

210,095 

277.51S 


63.30S 
99,141 

250,656 


31,906 
40,571 

94,4fcS 
93,969 


29,116 
37,145 
61,108 

$0,701 
87,709 


38,244 . 34,252 
67,791 61,996 

128.524 llfi,112 

113.030 1 



The capital, Bloemfontein, had, in 1911, 14,720 white inhabitants (8,995 
males and 5,725 females), and 12,205 natives and other coloured persons 
(6,212 males and 5,993 females); total, 26,925. The 1918 European 
population was 15,631. 

Vital statistics are shown as follows : — 





Births 1 


Deaths i 


Marriages 


Surplus of 
, births over 
death si 




European 


Coloured 


1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 


5,386 
4,571 
4,S82 
5,080 
4,959 
M • 


1,511 
1,321 
1,618 
1,4-JS 
1,433 
S.155 


1,476 
1,232 
1,294 
1,562 
1,562 
1,492 


1,148 
1,051 

1,107 
1,264 
1,228 
1.30*' 


3,875 
8,250 
3,264 
3,652 
3,526 
1,751 



1 European. 

Religion. — The principal body, according to the census of 1911. 
is the Dutch Reformed Church with 175,311 adherents ; of Wesleyans there 
were 88,857 ; Anglican Communion, 42,401 ; Presbvterians, 7,549 ; Con- 
gregationalists, 8,368 ; Lutherans, 8,727 ; Roman Catholics, 5,696 : Jews, 
2,808; no religion (so stated), 173,336, of whom 173,192 were natives and 
other coloured persons. 



2-38 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — ORANGE FREE STATE 

Instruction. — Higher education is under the control of the Minister 
of Education for the Union, while primary and secondary education 
is controlled by the Administrator of the Province. Under the School 
Act of 1908 the Province is divided into 55 school districts, for each 
of which there is a board consisting partly of elected arid partly of nominated 
members. Each board is an advisory body, with certain powers of super- 
vision ; it is also responsible for carrying out the provisions of the law as to 
compulsory school attendance. The boards have certain advisory functions 
with regard to the appointment of teachers. Public schools, with certain 
special exceptions, are under the supervision of committees, the members of 
which are elected. The functions of these committees also are advisory, but 
they may nominate teachers for appointment in the discretion of the 
Director. Grants are given conditionally to private schools. In 1917 
there were 731 public and 137 aided private schools in the Province, 
with a total enrolment of over 36,938 pupils. Fees are charged 
at all schools, exemption being granted under certain prescribed regulations, 
and attendance is compulsory up to Standard VI. Except where the parents 
object both English and Dutch are taught to all children, and where possible 
are used as equal media of instruction. 

The Normal College trains from 80 to 90 teachers annually. The 
Polytechnic College, established in 1912, trains teachers in art, dressmak- 
ing, &c. The Home Industries Board directs the spinning and weaving 
schools throughout the country. The Government Industrial School for 
boys was opened at Bloemfontein in 1907. Secondary schools have been 
established in all the leading towns of the Province with more advanced 
departments preparing pupils up to University Matriculation standard. 

Finance- — For financial arrangements see p. 216 above. The following 
figures show the provincial revenue and expenditure for five years : — 



1913-14 


1014-15 


1915-16 


1916-17 


1917-18 


Revenue :— 


£ 


£ 


£ 

130 898 


£ 
203 456 


£ 
248 650 


Union Subsidy . 


341,000 


357,278 


326,146 


345,029 


398,406 


Total Revenue 


503,638 


471,423 


456,044 


6*8,485 


647,066 


Total Ordinary Expenditure . 


476,5.57 


486,643 


466,399 


519,973 


611,960 



The capital expenditure in 1917-18 was 64,190/. 

Production and Industry. — The Province consists of undulating 

plains, affording excellent grazing and wide tracts for agricultural purpose.. 
The raiufall is moderate, The country is still mainly devoted to stock -fanning, 
although a rapidly increasing quantity of grain is being raised, especially in 
the Eastern Districts. 

For Mining Statistics see p. 220. 

Commerce. — Since the coining into ell'oct of the Union there are no 
special records of trade for each of the Provinces. The British Hoard of Trade 
statistics, however, continue to give details of trade between the United 
Kingdom and each Province separately. The following figures show the 



PROTECTORATE Of SOUTH-WEST AFRICA BM 

value of the trade between the Orange Free State Province and the United 

Kingdom : — 



hni»orts consigned from Orange 
Free State 

Exports to Orange Free State : 
United Kingdom produce . 
Foreign and Colonial produce . 



1913 
(pie- war) 


1917 


1918 


1919 


| 19201 


4 


£ 


£ 


£ 


*» 


- 


999 




- 


- 


667,371 
35,644 


382,703 
8,815 


463,319 
10,337 


906,008 


910,000 
42,000 



1 Provisional figures 

The more important exports (British produce) from the United Kingdom 
in 1919 were : — Cottons, 58,040/. ; woollens, 48,332/. ; iron and steel manu- 
factures, 9,381/. ; apparel, 57,509/.; leather boots and shoes, 8,549/. 

The money, weights, and measures are English. The land measure, the 
Morgen, is equal to about 2^ acres. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference. 

Correspondence, Reports, Despatches Proclamations, Ac, relating to the Orange Free 
State and Orange River Colony. Loudon, 1S99-1901. 

Keaae (A. H.), Africa. Vol. II. London, 190S. 

NorrifNewman(C . L.), With the Boers in taeTransvaal and Orange Free State. London 
1S82. 

On the Heels of de Wet. By the Intelligence Officer. London, 1902. 

Sandeman(E. F.), Eight Months in an Ox-Wagon. London, 1S80. 

Trollope (Anthony), South Africa. 2 vols. London, 1878. 

W*ber( Ernest de), Qnatre ans au pavs des Boers. Paris, 1S82. 

Wet (Chr. R. de), Three Years' War(1899-1902). London, 1902. 

PROTECTORATE OF SOUTH-WEST AFRICA. 

This Protectorate is bounded on the north by Portuguese West Africa, 
Angola, and Rhodesia ; on the east by Rhodesia and the Kalahari Desert (Cape 
Province) ; on the south by the Cape Province ; and on the west by the 
Atlantic Ocean. The country was captured from the Germans in July, 1915, 
by South African forces, and the Union of South Africa now administers the 
territory under a mandate from the League of Nations, dated December 17, 
1920. Under this mandate the laws of the Union, subject to local modifica- 
tions as necessary, may be applied to the Protectorate. The military train- 
ing of the natives, except for local police or defence purposes, is prohibited, 
and no naval or military base or any fortifications may be established. 

The whole southern part and much of the east is barren and desert. There 
have been extensive boring operations for water, in many cases successful. 
Area 322,400 square miles. European population, 1913, 14,830(1,799 British 
and 12,292 German) ; but although 6,350 Germans were deported during 
1919, the European population in 1919 is estimated at 16,000 to 17,000. 
The new-comers are mostly South Africans in search of farms. Twenty-two 
British schools have been established with 925 pupils. The native popula- 
tion is estimated at 90,000, exclusive of Ovamboland in the north, where 
there are probably 100,000 Ovambos. 

The principal native races in the Protectorate are the Hereros, Ovambos, 
Bastards, Bergdamaras, Hottentots and Bushmen. The Hereros are a 
pastoral people, who formerly owned vast herds of cattle ; but as a result of 
the native wars their numbers were reduced by about 75 per cent., and their 
cattle either destroyed or seized. Since the British occupation they have 
again acquired a number of stock, and their numbers have increased con- 



240 THE BRITISH EMPIRE I — SOUTH-WEST AFRICA 

siderably. They now supply a large portion of the agricultural labour. The 
Ovambos, like the Bushmen, are one of the native races who are not 
increasing in numbers. 

It may be noted that the Cunene River, which formerly ran through 
Ovamboland into the Etoscha Pan, passes along its rorthern border into the 
Atlantic, and this change of course has made Ovamboland far less fertile. 
Ovambo labour is used for the mines and railways. 

The Bastards are descendants of a cross between European farmers and 
Hottentots, who originally came from the Cape Colony half a century ago. 
They were never conquered by the Germans, and still manage many of their 
own affairs. They live in the Rehoboth District, which lies to the south of 
Windhuk, and number about 9,000. 

The seat of the present Administration is Windhuk, which is pleasantly 
situated at an altitude of 5,600 feet, in the centre of the Protectorate. Its 
total population is nearly 10,000. 

Up till 1920 the German Law has been in force. New legislation has 
been effected by Proclamations under Martial Law. In January, 1920, 
Roman Dutch was made the Common Law of the country, and a number of 
Union Acts have since been applied by Proclamations. Civil Courts have 
been established and all troops withdrawn, and although Martial Law has 
not yet been repealed, the Government has been conducted on a purely civil 
basis for some time past. A Parliamentary Commission from the Union has 
recently visited the country, with a view to formulating a scheme for its 
future administration. A start has been made with local government by the 
creation of Hospital Boards and Municipalities, and it appears that the 
Germans are anxious to co-operate in the work of reconstruction. 

Mr. Gysbert Hofmeyr, C.M.G., who has been Clerk of the Union House 
of Assembly for the last ten years, has succeeded Sir Howard Georges, 
K.C.M.G., M.V.O., as Administrator. 

Finance. — For the financial year 1919-20 the revenue amounted to 
654,370/., and the expenditure to 718,100/. (1918-19 : revenue, 377,049/. ; 
expenditure, 744,407/.). The estimates for the year 1920-1 are: revenue, 
1,025,000/. ; expenditure, 849,674/. The principal source of revenue is the 
tax on diamonds, which is estimated to yield 800,000/. The tax is based on 
66 per cent, of the sale proceeds less 70 per cent, of the working costs. The 
working life of the alluvial fields is probably less than ten years. 

Customs. — Customs revenue is estimated to yield 75,000/. 

Trade. — The total imports and exports for the last five recorded years 



Year 


Imports 


Exports 


Year 


Imports 


Exports 


1911 
1912 
1013 


2,265,097 
1,62-V'll 
2,171,230 


& 
1,734,558 • 
1 ,952,«*r 

3,446,220 


191S 
1919 


£ 

1,081,534 
1,185,116 


1,679,534 



Mineral Production. — Five of tin Qerauu 1 >iamond Mining Companies 
in the Luderitzbucht area have been acquired by the Consolidated Diamond 
Mines of S.W.A., Ltd., which is registered in South Africa. The stones, which- 
are small, but of a good quality, arc found in the sand along the coast, but 
iu no case at a greater distance than 15 miles lioni the sea. During 1919 



AGRICULTURE — HARBOURS COMMUNICATIONS — BOOKS 241 

the yield was 462,181 carats, valued at 2,081,863/. The total output since 
1908, when the mines were first discovered, has been 6,669,246 carats, 
valued at 13,349,690/. The copper mines at Tsnmeb were handicapped at 
the beginning of the year by shipping difficulties. Their output in 1919 
was 26,675 tons. Alluvial tin is being worked in the Karibib and Omaruru 
districts, and valuable deposits of coloured marble at Karibib. Prospecting 
has been allowed since March 1, 1920, and is being energetically con- 
ducted in many patts of the country. Coal is greatly required, but only 
poor seams have so far been located. 

Agriculture, &C. — The Protectorate is essentially a stock-raising 
country. Roughly speaking, Windhuk and the country to the north is a 
cattle country, and the southern portion is a sheep country. Stock thrive 
well in nearly every part, and retain their conditiou in times of drought in 
a wonderful way. No artificial feeding is required. 17,266 cattle and 87,000 
sheep were exported in 1919. In 1914 there were 240.000 cattle and 
1, 125,000 small stock : the estimated number in 1920 was 400,000 cattle and 
2. -JJ5, 000 sheep and goats. No agriculture is possible without irrigation, 
except in the north-west, and there unseasonable or poor rains frequently 
result in very poor crops. 

The German Administration tried to encourage the tobacco industry, but 
with verv little success ; and although cotton and wheat do fairly well, the 
principal crop is maize. 

Approximately 37,000,000 acres have been taken up, out of a total of 
207,000,000. 

A Land Board has baen established, and farms are being given out on 5- 
year leases, with the option of purchase on an instalment principle. 
Personal occupation is an essential. As boring is necessary on nearly all 
vacant Government ground before it can be allotted, the Board can only go 
slowly. Fifty-eight drills have been purchased by the Administration for 
this purpose. The usual size of farms is 3,000 hectares in the north and 
10,000 to 20,000 in the south. A hectare is roughly 2 47 a res. Large 
numbers of applications for farms have been received. 

Harbours. — The harbours in the Protectorate are Luderitzbncht and 
Walvis Bay. The German Administration utilised Swakopmund, which lies 
21 miles to the north of Wains Bay, but it has now been abandoned as a 
port in favour of Walvis Bay. It is, however, gaining favour as a seaside 
resort. Better facilities for handling cargo are required at both Luderitz- 
bucht and Walvis Bay. 

Communications. — The Wireless Station (Telefuncken System) at 
Windhuk, which in 1914 was one of the most powerful in the world, is not 
being used, nor is the German Cable Station at Swakopmund. Cables are 
sent to Cape Town for despatch. 

The total length of Government railway lines is 967 miles of 3ft. 6in. 
gauge, and 98 miles of 2ft. gauge ; and of private lines 98 miles. There are 
no made roads outside of the villages. The distance from Cape Town to 
Windhuk is 1,383 miles, and the journey occupies three days and four 
nights. There are two mail trains a week. 

Books of Reference. 

AngraPeqnefia. Copy of Despatch from the Earl of Derby to H.M.'s High Commission 
in 8. Africa relative to the Establishment of a German Protectorate at Anzra Peqnefia and 
along the Coast. London, 1884. 

Report on the Natives of South-West Africa, and their treatment by Germany. 
(Cd. 9146). London, 1918. " ' 



242 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — WEST AFRICA — NIGERIA 

Calvert (A. F.), South-West Africa during the German Occupation. London, 1915. 

Dintcr (K ), Deutsch-Siidwestafrika. Leipzig, 1909. 

Evehigh(Vf.), South- West Africa. London, 1915. 

Ooode (J. L. Wilson), Report on the Conditions and Prospects of Trade in the 
Protectorate of So nth-West Africa. [Cmd. 842]. London, 1920. 

Me (I.). Die Herrero. Gutersloh, 1906. 

Opitz(\f.), In Siidwestafrika. Leipzig, 1909. 

Schulze (LA Siidwestafrika. Berlin, 1910. 

Schwabe (K.), Im Deutschen Diamantenlande. (A History of German South-West Africa 
from 1884 to 1900.) Berlin, 1909. 

Tonnesea (T.), The South-West African Protectorate. Geographical Journal for April, 
1917. 

Wanner (P. II.), The Geology and Mineral Industry of South-West Africa. Cape 
Town, 1916. 



WEST AFRICA. 

These Possessions are the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria ; the 
Gambia Colony and Protectorate ; the Gold Coast Colony with Ashanti 
and Northern Territories ; and the Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate. 

Parts of Togoland and the Cameroons are also included. 

NIGERIA. 

History and Constitution. — This territory comprises a number ol 
areas formerly under separate administrations. Lagos, bought in August, 
1861, from a native king, was placed under the Governor of Sierra Leone in 
1866. In 1874 it was detached, together with the Gold Coast Colony, and 
formed part of the latter until January, 1886, when a separate " Colony and 
Protectorate of Lagos " was constituted. Meanwhile the National African 
Company had established British interests in the Niger valley, and in July. 
1886, the company obtained a charter under the name of the Royal Niger 
Company. This Company surrendered its charter to the Crown in 1899, and 
on January 1, 1900, its territories were formed into the two Protectorates of 
Northern and Southern Nigeria. The latter absorbed the "Niger Coast 
Protectorate," which was formed in May, 1893, from the "Protectorate ol 
the Oil Rivers," which had been constituted in June, 1885. In February, 
1906, Lagos and Southern Nigeria were united into the " Colony and 
Protectorate of Southern Nigeria," and on January 1, 1 1> 1 4 , the latter 
was amalgamated with the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria to form the 
' Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria,' under a Governor. l.agos is the seat of 
the Central Government. 

The Colony of Nigeria had its boundaries defined afresh, and the Protec- 
torate was divided into two groups of provinces, the 'Northern Provinces' 
and the 'Southern Provinces,' each under a Lieutenant ■( io\ erimr appointed by 
the King, and subject to the control and authority of t he Governor. 

The Executive Council of the Colony was made, from January 1, 
1914, the Executive Council of the Protectorate also. There is an ad- 
visory and deliberative body known as the Nigerian Council, consisting ol the 
Governor, the members of the Executive Council, and other official member* 
a member, resident in Nigeria, of the Lagos Chamber ol Coimnen 
member of the Calabar Chamber of Commerce, and a member of the Oha 
of Mines, nominated by those bodies ; three Europeans nominated b] 
Governoi ; and six native members, also nominated by the Governor. This 
Council has no legislative or executive authority. Then: is a LeguJ 
Council for Lagos, consisting of tho Governor, six otiicial and four unoflicial 
members. 



AREA AND POPULATION — JUSTICE — RELIGION, ETC 243 

Governor of Nigeria.— Sir Hugh Clifford, K.C.M.G. 
Secretary to Central Government. — D. C. Cameron, C.M.G. 
Lieutenant-Governors in the Protectorate. — Vacant (Southern Provinces), 
and H. S. Goldsmith, C.M.G. (Northern Provinces). 

Area and Population.— Area approximately 332,000 square miles ; 
population, about 17,500,000, including, at the end of 1919, about 2,800 
Europeans (Northern Province : 256,000 square miles, 8,670,000 population. 
Southern Province : 76,000 square miles, 8,900,000 population). In 1900 a 
proclamation was issued in Northern Nigeria which, without abolishing 
domestic slavery, declared all children born after January 1, 1900, 
free; aud forbade the removal of domestic slaves for sale or transfer. In 
1917 the Slavery Ordinance abolished the legal status of slavery through- 
out the Protectorate. Slave markets have been suppressed by native rulers, 
and slave dealing is now practically nen-existent. In 1917, 7,212, in 1918, 
7,811, and in 1919, 7,091, slaves were liberated in the Northern Provinces. 

Justice. — The Supreme Courts of Northern and Southern Nigeria are 
united under one Chief Justice of Nigeria. There are police magistrates at 
Lagos and Calabar. In each province is a Provincial Court consisting of 
the Piesident and his assistants, and such justices of the peace as may 
be appointed by the Governor. Native courts exist in Mohammedan 
localities where there are chiefs and councillors, and amongst pagan 
Judicial Councils with limited judicial powers have been established in 
localities where the intelligence of the natives renders such a policy po- 
There are cantonments at Eaduna, on the river of the same name, Kano, 
Zaria, Lokoja on the Niger, and Port Harcourt, and there station magis- 
trates have been appointed. The number of persons apprehended or 
summoned before the Provincial Courts in 1919 was .8,233, of whom 5,908 
were convicted. Out of 14,934 brought before Magistrates' Courts in 1919, 
12,267 were convicted, and 102 were convicted in the Supreme Court. 

Heligion and Education. — Northern Provinces. — Mohammedanism is 
widely diffused, the Fnlani and Hausas and other ruling tribes being of 
that religion, but in some parts of the territory paganism is predominant. 
Protestant and Catholic missions are at work, and have industrial and 
other schools at several stations. The principles governing the education 
of natives in the Egyptian Sudan ars being closely followed. Secular 
subjects only are compulsory ; the acceptance of religious teaching is 
optional. At present the principal schools are situated at Kano, a great 
Mohammedan centre. In 1919 there were 18 Government schools, and 98 
unassisted private schools, the total average attendance being about 998, and 
2.747 respectively. It is estimated that there are also over 31,000 Moham- 
medan schools, with more than 205,000 pupils. 

Southern Provinces. — There is a system of primary and secondary schools. 
There are also a residential school at Bonny, supported by Government 
grants, and by Chiefs' subscriptions, and a Government secondary school and 
mission grammar school at Lagos, and a high school at Calabar. In 1919 
there were 43 Government schools with 4,957 scholars on the roll, and an 
average attendance of about 3,686 ; 169 assisted schools, 25, 187 on the roll, and 
18.000 in average attendance j and 1,099 unassisted schools, with about 
68,909 on the roll, and 40,000 in average attendance. Total expenditure 
from public funds, 49,iil6Z. 

Four British Protestant Societies and two French Roman Catholic 

r 2 



24 4 THE BRITISH EMPIRE:— NIGERIA 

130,000. 

Finance.- Revenue, expenditure, and debt of Nigeria as a whole :- 

Reyenue i Expenditure \ Debt 

— ' ~~ ' £ £ £ 

1 048 380 ! 3,596,764 8,267,569 

1914 . litl'lli 3 609 638 8,470,593 

1916 s'492 788 l 3 219 957 8 > 4 ™,593 

1917 ..••••• 3 4 ; f 4 'jf 3,459',774 3,470,593 

1918 ! '0=9498 4,529,176 11,997,118 

1919 . • • • • • • *.•"*■«-» i ! 

Eastern Railway from Port Hare™ ; in 1918 t >m**edM W c J„ on , 
„„ ft, Eastern RaUway and "^•^^..tn.rtion, and 95,720*. 

1919 was 91,812*. —Customs, 1,897,937*. ; 

The main items of revenue ^ 1919 /. e ™- ^ ourt &c , 301,153.. 

Railway, 1,042,817..; Marine, 448,812*. , moiic 

113,8252. ■ . (,, , • a. Northern Provinces a 

There is established m each na J^Steto m^ort^ .^ 

Treasury, locally known as a Keit-el-Mai wnicn „ native 

of that portion of the local revenue w hich is annual J "^^^ The 
administration of each Emu-ate for ^ rappoit aj aa f the 

Provinces. 

« j *•*« «««1 Triflnqtrv— The products are palm-oil (exports 191. 
Production and Industry. " P . bb gl . ou „d-nuts 

100,967 tons) and kerne s C^^J^^^S^^SgLa^-ijJ^ cotto. 
shea-butter ivory, hides liv > stock, ostnc kola .A uts and variou: 

(output 1919, estimated at 60,221 cwt ), coco , seedlin „ s iu fa 

drugs. Tobacco is also grown. Theieaie musi1 '^'^ Onitsha Oloke-Meji 
Southern Provinces, and .botany 1 datum at Ca aba , O taha ^^ 
and Agege, and at Mayganna BuU, /am a 1 i 

Provinces. Mahogany is export ^Jf^L ^d tin for centuries. Biol 
and dyed. The natives nave worked H J » ^ tin-bearing area • 
alluvial deposits of tin o^ay^bwn d^ovarea. . ^ . q fch 

f M as it is now known ^^^J^S* bdnfi ^7.686 tons, and ther 
Northern Provinces .the output pt t » ^ n 1J1S Mrcing t, ^ bee: 

are also deposits of tin in *• ^^"^f^c,., which is connect* 

^SS^SSiiffi ^0"^^ Theco^ is of good q «lit, 



COMMERCE AND COMMUNICATIONS. ETC. 



245 



There are rich reefs of galena carrying a considerable silver return. 
Pockets of native silver have from time to time been discovered in the 
vicinity of Orufu and Wukari. There are also deposits of manganese ore, 
lignite, and monazite (which contains thorium). 

Mining rights are vested in the Government, but under an agreement 
made with the Royal Niger Company at the date of the revocation of 
the charter, that Company receives half the gross profits derived 
from royalties on minerals won between the main stream of the Niger on 
the west and a line running direct from Yola to Zinder on the past for a 
period of 99 years with effect from January 1, 1900. 

Commerce and Communications, &c— The principal ports are 
Lagos, Varri, Burutu, Forcados, Sapele, Brass, Degema, Port Harcourt, 
Bonny, Opobo, and Calabar. Numerous rivers and creeks form the chief 
routes for transport, and there are many well-made roads driven through 
the country. There is now a metalled road between Kano and Katsena, a 
distance of 95 miles, and it is probable that an attempt will be made to 
establish motor transport between these two centres. At Lagos, and Calabar, 
there are engineering and repairing workshops and slip-ways for the 
repair of hulls. 

At Lagos moles are being constructed, and a deep channel is being made 
over the Bar which admits ocean steamers entering the harbour. 

Considerable trade is carried on in the Northern Provinces, and several 
new trading stations have been recently opened. There is, besides, a large 
trade by caravans which, coming from Salaga in the west, the Sahara in 
the north, and Lake Chad and Wadai in the east, make use of Kano as 
an emporium. 

The trade and shipping of Nigeria are shown as follows (bullion and specie 
air included): — 





Trade 


Shipping entered 


and cleared 


Tear 










Import! 


Export* 


Total 


Brit:ah only 




£ 


£ 


Tons 


Tons 


1913 


7,201,819 


7.352.377 


1,735.036 


1,04'. 


1915 


5,016,951 


5,660,796 




1.06S.030 


1916 


5,780,118 


0,W' 


1,043 


976,957 


1917 


7,532,730 




939,159 


883,448 


191 S 


8,S1S,39S 


9,564, 


805,981 


- :4S 


1919 


12,015,832 


14,726.:-;.:. 


1.07 





The chief imports 1919 were: cotton piece goods, 3,262,9334. : cuopers' 
stores, 917,8962. Chief exports 1919 : palm kernels. 4.947.995*. : palm oil, 
4,245,893/. ; raw cotton, 484, 745*. ; tin ore, 1.324.074/. ; cocoa. 1.0*57,675/. ; 
groundnuts, 698,702/. ; hides and skins. 1.262,140/. 

Imports from the British Empire, 1919, 10,400,703/., and from U.S.A. 
1,528,000/. 

There were (1919) 1,126 open miles of railways. A weekly boat-train 
with sleeping accommodation and a restaurant car runs between Lagos 
and Zaria. A new trunk railway has been constructed, from Port Harcourt 
(discovered March, 1913, on the Bonny River), to the Udi coalfields (151 
miles). Construction beyond the coalfields was suspended during the war. 
Total capital expenditure on Nigerian railwav to end of 1919, 9,277,041/ ; 
Gross receipts, 1919, 1,466,872/.; working exp'enses, 843.767/. ; net receipts,' 



246 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — NIGERIA 

623,105Z. ; passengers carried, 1,709,095 ; goods and minerals transported, 
631,421 tons. 

There are several thousand miles of telegraph wires, and the system 
is connected with the French Dahomey system. There are also several 
hundred miles of telephone wires. A wireless station was opened for traffic 
at Lagos at the end of 1913. 

In 1919 there were 130 Post Offices in Nigeria. The savings bank on 
December 31, 1919, had 5,536 depositors, with 40,597?. to their credit. 

A special silver coinage for West Africa was introduced in 1913, the de- 
nominations being 2s., Is., 6d., and 3d., of the same size, weight, and fine- 
ness as corresponding coins of the United Kingdom. The new currency, 
with adequate reserves in London, based on gold and securities, is under the 
control of the "West African Currency Board. A nickel coinage (penny and 
tenth of a penny) is also in use. In 1916 local currency notes were intro- 
duced. At present the denominations are 51., 20s. 10s., 2s. and Is. The 
amount in circulation in Nigeria at June 30, 1919, was I,048,295Z. 

The Bank of British West Africa, Ltd., and the Colonial Bank, have 
branches in Nigeria. 

There is a mail service between Liverpool, Bonny, and Calabar vid Lagos. 

Standard time of one hour fast on Greenwich was introduced in Nigeria 
on September 1, 1919. 

Books of Reference. 

Nigeria. 

Papers relating to the Massacre of British Officials near Benin. London, 1897. 

Papers relating to the Royal Niger Company. London, 1899. 

Boundary Convention with France, 1898. London, 1899. 

Government Gazette. 

Annual Reports on Northern and Southern Nigeria.— Colonial Report. Miscellaneous 

Handbook of Nigeria, 1919. (Burns). 

Travels of Clapperton, R. Lander, Richardson, Barth, Rohlfs. 

Basden (G. T.). Among the Ibos of Nigeria. London, 1921. 

Bindloss(H.). In the Niger Country. London, 1899. 

Dennett (R. E.), At tie Back of the Black Man's Mind, or Notes on the Kingly Office 
in West Africa. London, 1906. 

Falconer (J. D.), On Horseback through Nigeria. London, 1911.— The Geology and 
Geography of Northern Nigeria. London, 1911. 

G oldie (Hugh), Old Calabar and its Mission, 1890. 

Harford-Battersby (C. F.), Niger and Yoruba Routes. 3 vols. London, 1895-96. 

Bazzledine (G. D.), The White Man in Nigeria. London, 1904. 

Hutchinson, Narrative of the Niger, Tshadda, and Biuuc Exploration. 

Hodget (F. E.), Consular Jurisdiction in the Niger Coast. Loudon, 1895. 

Hour$t (Lieut.), Sur le Niger et au Paysdes Touaregs. Paris, 1898.— The Exploration 
of the Niger, 1895-96. [Eng. Trans.] London, 1898. 

Johntton (Sir Harry), The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. 

Ktltie( J. Scott), The Partition of Africa. 2nd ed. Loudon, 1895. 

L*onard(K. G.), The Lower Niger and its Tribes. London, 1906. 

Lucat (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. West Africa. Third 
edition, revised to end of 1912 by A. B. Keith. Oxford, 1913. 

Luqard (Lady), A Tropical Dependency. London, 1906. 

Lupard (Sir F. D.), Report on the Amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria, 
and Administration, 1912-19. London. I 

Mockler- Ferryman (A. F.), Up the Niger. London, 1892. Imperial Africa. T«l. I. 
London, 1898.— BritiBh Nigeria. London 1902. 

Afor«J (E. I).), Nigeria. Its Problems and its People. London, 1811. 

Nigeria, Our Latest Protectorate. London, 1900. 

Orr (Oapt. C. W. J), R.A., The Making of Northern Nigeria. London, 1911. 

OrlrotCP. Van) Conventions Internationales eoneeriiantl'AfriqHe. Brussels, 1898. 

Partridge (C), Cross Hiver Natives. London, 1905. 

Venxer (N. M.), Cotton in British West Africa. Lond< n, 

Raphael (J. R.), Through Unknown Nigeria. London, 1914. 



GAMBIA 



247 



Sobimon (C. H.), Hausaland: Fifteen Hundred Miles through the Central Soudaa. 
London, 1896. 

3ehultxt(A.), The 8nltanate of Bornn. Translated, with additions, by P. A. Bontoa. 
London, 1914. 

Taloof (D. A.), Woman's Mysteries of a Primitire People: The Ibibios of Southern 
Nigeria. London. 

T*o»won(J.), 'Mungo Park,' and Proe. R. Geographical 8oc.(18S«). 

Tremtarnt <\l aj. A. J. N.), Tie Niger and the West Soudan. London, 1»U. 

Trofter (Colonel J. K.). The Niger Sources. London, 1897. 

Untcin (A. H.>, West African Forest* and Forestry. London, 1920. 

TandeUur (S.), Campaigning on the Upper Nile end Niger. (London, 18M.) 

Vtieher (L), Croqnis et 8ouTenirs <ie la Nigerie du Nord. Paris, 1917. 



GAMBIA. 

Governor.— Captain Cecil H. Armitage, C.M.G., D.S.O. (2,500/., and 
7501. allowances) 

Gambia, at the m«uth of the river Gambia, was controlled from Sierra 
Leone from 1807 ; in 1843 it was made an independent Crown Colony ; in 
1SG6 it formed part of the West African Settlements, but in December, 1S8S, 
it again became a separate Crown Colony. The Colony is administered 
under a Governor with an Executive and a Legislative Council nominated. 
There is an unofficial element in the latter. Area of Colony proper, 4 square 
miles; population 8,000. In the Protectorate (area, 4,130 square miles) the 
population is estimated at 240,000. With the exception of the Island of St. 
Mary, on which Bathurst, the capital, stands, the whole Colony is ad- 
ministered on the Protectorate system. In June, 1901, an agreement was 
made with the local chief for the administration of the Fuladu district 
by the British, both banks of the Gambia being now under direct British 
control up to the Anglo-French boundary. 

There were in 1919 8 elementary Government-aided schools, with 1,504 
pupils enrolled; and an average attendance of about 477 pupils; Govern- 
ment grant, proportionate to results (1919), 774?. Of the elementary schools 
three are Roman Catholic, three Wesleyan, one Anglican, and one Mo- 
hammedan. The Wesleyans have also a secondary school under native 
control, with 49 boys, and a technical school with 13 pupils, which receives 
a grant of 350?. Total Government expenditure on education (1919), 
1,491?. There is a company of the West African Frontier Force of 130 
men. The armed police has a strength of 92 men. In !919, 38 caaes 
were tried in the supreme court : 296 cases were disposed of in the police 
court ; 609 cases were reported from the Protectorate. 

Finance and Trade. 



Revenue 
Expenditure 
Imports ! 
Exports 1 



1913 
(pre-war) 



124,990 

95,210 

1,091,129 

S67.1S7 



£ 
92.253 

521,151 
595,797 



103.S75 

83,218 

8S4.554 

705.546 



U7.0T7 

94,519 

991,626 

1,046,503 



£. 

138,324 

SS.703 

1,458,014 

1,100,210 



1919 



£ 

180,585 

143,451 

1,250,321 

1.-.-.3.02: 



There is no public debt, 
the liabilities by 231,028?.. 



i Including specie. 
On December 31, 1919, the assets exceeded 



248 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE:— GOLD COAST 



Principal items of revenue in 1918: Customs, 96,862?.; Licences, 
1,8927. ; Fees of Courts or Office, &c, 6,9687. ; Rent of Government Property, 
513?.; Interest, 5,478?. ; Protectorate, 19,036?. ; Miscellaneous, 6787. 

Chief imports, 1919: specie, 70,681?. ; bags, empty, 56,175?. ; cottons 
(piece goods and other cotton manufactures), 335,570?. ; flour, 13,603?. ; 
hardware, 47,765?. ; kola nuts, 156,993?. : provisions, 12,269?. ; rice, 
104,101?. ; spirits, 12,295?. ; sugar, 12,988? ; tobacco, 53,710?. Chief 
exports: ground nuts, 1,172,843?. ; hides, 8,419/. ; palm kernels, 15,324?. ; 
specie, 323,600?. 

Imports from United Kingdom in 1919, 725,508?. ; exports to United 
Kingdom, 1,124,674?. 

The tonnage of vessels entered and cleared in the foreign trade is given 
as follows : 



Total. 
British only 



1913 
(pre-war) 



Tons 

625,132 
371,419 



Tons 

530,024 
317,399 



1917 



1919 



Tons 

371,670 
242,706 



Tons 
398,524 
290,288 



Tons 
282,060 

262,274 



Tons 
441.S60 
354,837 



There is a fortnightly mail-service between Liverpool and Bathurst. 
Internal communication is maintained by steamers or laun< lies. There are 
two post offices. Postal packets and parcels dealt with in 1919, 151,749. 
Bathurst is connected with St. Vincent (Cape de Virde) and with Siena 
Leone by cable, but there are no local telegraphs or railways. TheCamlia 
savings bank had 493 depositors in 1919. A special West African silver 
currency was introduced in 1913 (nee, under Nigeria, p. 246). West African 
currency notes in circulation June 30, 1919 amounted to 110,300?. The 
French five franc piece is legal tender at 3s. 10^t?., and was very largely used, 
but its circulation diminished after the outbreak of war in 1914, owing to 
export restrictions from France. There are two banks in the Colony, the 
Bank of Biitish West Africa and the Colonial Bank. 

GOLD COAST. 

The Gold Coast stretches for 334 miles along the Gulf of Guinea, letweei 
the French Ivory Coast and Togoland. The Colony is administered by a 
Governor with an Executive and a Legislative Council, both nominated, 
with nine unofficial members in latter. The area of the Colony, Ashanti. and 
Protectorate is about 80,000 square miles ; population, census 1911, 
1.503,386 ; Europeans, 1915, 2,206. Chief towns : Accra, 19,585 ; Seccondee, 
7,725 ; Cape Coast Castle, 11,364 ; Quittah, Saltpond, Winnebah, Axiro, 
and Akuse. There were in 1919 19 Government schools, and 194 assisted 
schools which are under the control of the Scottish, Wesleyan, Roman 
Catholic, Church of England (S. P.G.), and African Methodist Episcopal 
Zionist Missions; the Dormer Bremen Mission Schools are at present 
temporarily under the control of the Education Department ; average attend- 
ance of primary and secondary schools, 21,938 (1919); enrolled, 27,31S ; 
Government estimated expenditure on education in 1919. 57,7167. There 
are also a large number of aon-aasisted primary schools supported by 
the various religious bodies. The strength of the police (1919), 21 
European officers and 1,365 of other ranks. This includes 2 European 
officers and 193 other ranks in Ashanti. The constabulary (Northern 
Territories) consists of 2 officers and about 320 of other ranks. Summary 
convictions in 1919, 8,978 ; convictions in Supreme Courts, 104. Staple 
products and exports, palm oil, kola nuts, palm kernels, cocoa, indiarubber 



GOLD COAST 



249 



and manganese ; the export of valuable native woods is increasing. The 
botanical station at Aburi aids in the plantation of coconut trees, rubber, 
cocoa, coffee, cotton, pepper, nutmeg, pimento, and croton. Gold is found in 
quartz, in banket, and in alluvium. The output of gold in recent vears was : 
1916, 1,629,746?. ; 1917, 1,549,275/. ; 1918, 1,334,000/. (313,445 ounces). 
Many of the coast inhabitants are fishermen, and there is considerable 
traffic in dried fish by rail into the interior. 



1913 
(pre-war, 


1916 


1917 
1 


191S 


1919 


Revenue . 
Expenditure . 
Imports 1 . . 
Exports' . 


£ 
1,301.566 

1,35*.. 

4,952,494 

5,427,106 


1,835,989 
1,465,946 
5,999,749 
5,816,527 


£ 

1,634,124 
1,424.279 
3,386,480 
6,364,925 


£ 

1,298,674 

1,309,486 

3,257,591 

,925 


£ 
2,601,360 
1,781,170 
7,946,981 
10,814,175 



1 Including bullion and specie 

Chief items of revenue, 1919: customs, 1,672,423/. ; railways, 663,976/. ; 
Chief items of expenditure, 1919 : public works, 138,081/. ; rail 
233,562/. ; debt charges, 143,721/. ; Gold Coast Regiment, 107,205/. 

Public debt, December 81, 1919, 3,364,118/. 

Chief imoorts, 1919: cotton goods, 1,981,120/. ; machinery, 88,711/. ; 
provisions, 394,193/. ; apparel, 138,233/. ; bags and sacks, 724,659/. ; hard- 
ware. 150,919/. : carriages (motor cars, kc), 284,445/. ; building matt-rials, 
141.767/. ; oil [kerosene . 120,077/. .liquid fuel), 147,741/. Chief exports : 
cocoa (176,176 tons), 8,278,554/. ; gold and gold dust, 1,403,760/. ; kola 
nuts, 350,249/. ; lumber, 103,238/. ; palm kernels, 253,248/. ; palm oil, 
140,163/. ; manganese, 71,808/. 

The imports from the United Kingdom in 1919 amounted to 6,055,777/., 
and from the U.S.A., 1.513,994/. ; and the exports (1919) to the United 
Kingdom, 4,951,110/. ; to U.S.A., 3,465,999/. ; and to France, 1,607,005/. 

The shipping entered and cleared in the foreign trade is given as 
follows : — 



Total 
British only 



1913 
(pre-war) 



tons tons tons 

2.986,553 1,565,258 1.444.972 

1,25(5,302 



1918 

tons 
983.994 
953,164 



tons 
1.404.715 
1,670,805 



There is a Government railway, from Seccondee on the coast to Coomassie, 
a total length of 168 miles, with branches Tarquah to Prestea, 19 miles, and 
Inchaban Junction to Inchaban, 5 miles ; capital expenditure to end of 1919, 
3,360,983/. A line from Accra to Tafo (,65 miles) has been constructed, and 
survevs for further construction are in hand to join Coomassie to 
Accra". Gross railway receipts 1919, 672,000/., expenditute, 234,000/. Road 
construction is proceeding rapidly ; theie are over 320 miles of main roads 
and 2,100 miles of .secondary roads. There are in the Colony 2,762 miles of 
telegraph line and 60 offices, and telephone exchanges at Accra, Seccondee 
and Tarquah; telegrams in 1919, 290.218. There is a wireless telegraph 
station at Accra. Th» number of letteis, packets, ic, handled in the postal 
service in 1919 was 5.732,633. In 1919 the savings bank had 5,806 de- 
positors with 54,437/. to their credit. 

Ashanti was placed under British protection on August 27, 1896, and a 
English Resident was appointed to Coomassie. Under orders in Council of 
September 26, 1901, the country was definitely annexed by Great Britain, the 



250 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — SIERRA LEONE 

Governor of the Gold Coast being appointed Governor of Ashanti, though the 
laws and ordinances of the Gold Coast do not apply to the annexed territory. 
The population (census 1911) was 287,814. Coomassie, -the chief town, lias 
about 24,000 inhabitants. There are Government schools at Coomassie (511 
pupil.s in 1919), Sunyani (101), and Juaso (121), and a number of mission 
schools. Police force (1918), 137 ; convictions (1918), 4,049, but there is little 
serious crime. Agriculture is extending, cocoa and rubber plantations arc 
being formed. Gold output (1918), 421,7312. In the western parts of the Gold 
Coast Colony and especially of Ashanti are rich forests with excellent 
timber trees (mahogany, cedar, &c. ), trees yielding fruits, rich in oil, 
rubber-bearing plants, and species yielding gum copal. The country is 
well watered, and with proper restraints on wasteful native farming and 
on over-exploitation, would contain inexhaustible supplies of valuable forest 
products. On the eastern side the forests are sparser, though timber and 
oil trees are common and game plentiful ; the products there are chief!}- 
maize, koko, yams, bananas, ground-nuts, and cocoa, the plantations of which 
are rapidly extending. Imports into Ashanti, 1918, 822,300?. ; exports, 
1,292,736Z. (mainly gold, 421,7362. ; cocoa, 360,0002.; kola, 360,0002. ; rubber, 
6,0002. -cattle and sheep, 70,0002. ; hides, 20,0002.; snails, 20,0002). 

In 1901 the Northern Territories lying to the north of the parallel of 8 °N 
lat., bounded on the west and north by the French possessions and on 
the east by Togoland, were placed under British protection. They are 
administered, under the Governor, by a Chief Commissioner with his 
headquarters at Tamale. The country is divided into three provinces under 
Commissioners ; the Southern Province, with headquarters at Tamale ; 
North-Eastern province, with headquarters at Navarro ; and North- 
Western Province with headquarters at Wa. By the census taken in 1911 
the population of the region to the north of Kintampo (variously estimated 
at from 31,000 to 50,000 square miles) is put at about 360,000. The 
Mohammedans have substantial mosques ; there are Roman Catholic and 
other missions. Government schools have been established at Tamale, 
Gambaga, Lorha, and Wa. Good permanent roads are being made. The 
Northern Territories are capable of producing various agricultural crops 
(cereals, indigo, tobacco), and are said to contain wide auriferous areas. 

The Bank of British West Africa, Ltd. and the Colonial Bank operate 
in the Colony. For currency, see p. 246. French, Spanish, and American 
gold coins are also legal tender at fixed values. For small purchases cowries 
are still used. The natives tend to melt down the silver and nickel coins for 
ornaments. West African currency OfttfiS in circulation at December -'SI. 
1919, amounted to 3,959,4952. 

Governor of the Gold Coast. — Brig. -General F. G. Guqgisberg, CM. 
D.S.O., R.E. 

Chief Gammissioner of Ashanti. — C. 11. Harp.r, O.li. K. 



SIERRA LEONE. 

Sierra Leone lies between French Guinea on the north and the Republic 
of Liberia on the east and south-east. Sierra Leone proper consists of a 
peninsula about 26 miles long, and 12 miles broad,, with an area of about 
300 square miles, terminating in Cape Sierra Leone. The Colony of Sierra 
Leone extends from the Scarcies River on the north, to the border of 
Liberia on the south, 180 miles. It extends inland to a distance varying 
from 8 to 20 miles and includes the Yellaboi and other islands towards 
the north, as well as Sherbro and several smaller islands to the south, 






SIERRA LEONE 2nl 

but the Isles de Los were ceded to France under the Convention of 1904. 
There are in the Colony Executive and Legislative Councils, nominated. 

Area of the Colony 4,000 square miles approximately ; population (census 
1911), 75,572, of whom 702 were whites. The birth-rate for Freetown (1919) 
was 21 4 per thousand, and the death-rate 25 7 ; infantile mortality is Tery 
high, being 30 per cent, per 1,000 births average 191719, and 
be° increasing. Chief town, Freetown, 34,090 inhabitants (1911), head 
quarters of H.M.'s forces in West Africa. The battalion of the West 
African Frontier Force has its headquarters at Daru on the Moa River. 
Freetown, the greatest seaport in West Africa, is a second-class Imperial 
coaling station, with an excellent harbour. 

In 1919 there were 169 elementary and intermediate schools, with an 
average attendance of 6,004 : grants-in-aid to the assisted schools, 119 in 
number, 4.644/. The assisted schools are all denominational, In-longing to 8 
nary societies. There were (1919) 10 secondary schools in the Colony, 
8 of which arc missionary institutions, while the remainder are owned 
privately. Grants-in-aid to 3 assiated schools, 269/. There is a Government 
Modd School (secondary), with average attendance of 257 in 1919. In the 
Protectorate! are the following Government institutions: the Bo School, for 

'is of Chi _:iculturul Training College, and 3 A 

vernacular schools. Fourah Bay College is affiliated to the University ol 
Durham. There are 5 Mohammedan schools in the Colony, with an a 
attendance 1919 of 392. Training classes for teachers are attached to the 
I Jo and Government Model Schools. Police force at end of 1919 had an 
authorised strength of 300, including 11 European officers. In 1917, 60 
persons were convicted of indictable offences in the Supreme Court, and 
1,745 Summarily convicted in the police court-. 





1913 


I9U 


Mac 


lflT 


191S 


1919 




(pre-war) 


£ 












£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


ReTenue 


618.3S3 


504,424 


551,106 


546,44* 


583.159 




Expenditure- 


H, 438 


546,771 


532,940 


612,844 


544.011 


740.3S3 


Imports 


1,750,303 


1,256,75s 


1,29. 


1,332,752 


1,680,336 




Exports 


1,731,25-2 


1,254,621 


1,223,544 


1.497,995 


1,516,871 





The revenue from Customs in 1919 was 452,325/., and from the railway, 
175, 442 J. 

Net public debt, December 31, 1919, 1,730,048J. 

Principal imports, 1919 : Cotton manufacture, 461.098?. ; coal, 164,171/. : 
spirits, 60,940/. ; tobacco, 244,755/. ; oil (kerosene), 40,778/. Principal 
exports, 1919: Singer, 31,110/. (1,069 tons): palm kernels, 1,191,607/. 
(50,622 tons) ; kola nuts. 417.378/. ; palm oil, 115,515/. 828,750 gall 

Imports from United Kingdom in 1919, 1,372,985/. ; exports thereto, 
1,374,510/. 

The tonnage of vessels entered and cleared in the foreign trade is given as 
follows (excluding vessels in Admiralty servica) : — 



1913 
(pre-war) 


1915 


1916 


1917 


191- 1919 


Total tonnage 
British only . 


2,931,085 

2,051,310 


1,635.119 
1,52c 


1,553,312 
1,410,000 


1,526,640 
1,417,804 


1,736,247 2,016,699 
1,669,984 1,953,760 



252 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — SIERRA LEONE 

A Government railway, a single line of 2ft. Bin gauge, "open from 
Freetown to Pendembu, near the Liberian frontier, a length of 227* miles 
From Boia Junction, 64* miles from Freetown, a branch line runs to 
KaTabai a distance of 104 miles ; and a further extension to Baga in the 
Sadugu District is contemplated. There is also a mountain section from 
Freetown to the official quarters at Hill Station a distance of 5f miles. 
There are over 1,100 miles of telegraph and telephone lines. In 1919, 
1 615 118 postal packets were dealt with in the Colony ; money order 
transactions amounted to 103,842?. There are 536 miles of combined 
Saph and telephone service in operation. There are, 43 post offices and 
uostaTa-encies. At the end of 1919 there were 6,328 depositors m the 
Lvngsb nk with 96,114*. (inclusive of interest) to their credit. The West 
African Silver Currency was introduced in 1913 (see under Nigeria, p. 242) , 
but Sidsh coins are still largely used, and the French five franc piece is 
W tender at 3,. 10^. Currency notes of the United Kingdom and 
Nigeria are in circulation, the amount at June 30, 1919, being 150,250*. 

Tb* Protectorate -On March 7, 1913, an Order in Council was issued 
proT ^L f oS^ffldatiation of the Protectorate of Sierra Leone The 
Order applies to the territories, not being portions of the Colony of Sierra 
Leone Win- between the sixth and tenth degrees of north latitude and 
the tenth and fourteenth degrees of west longitude, and beginning at the 
extreme southerly point of the Colony on the Anglo-Libenan boundary, 
as dSim ted undeJ the provisions of the Anglo- Liberian Conventions, 
November 11, 1885, and January 21, 1911. The Protectorate extends 

inla ?heGo°verno 8 r° and Commander-in-Chief for the time being of the Colony 
of Sierra Leone is also the Governor of the Protectorate. Authority is 
a yen to the Legislative Council of Sierra Leone, by ordinance to exercise and 
Provide for giving effect to the powers and jurisdiction acquired by the Crown. 
P Th ^Protectorate has an area of 27,000 square miles and a popu- 
lation according to the census of 1911, of 1,327,560. The Protectorate was 
proclaimed August. 21, 1896, and the whole territory has been divided 
into 3 Province!, each of which is placed under a European commissioner. 
Circuit courts are held at the chief centres of population ; convictions 
in 1917 84 There are also district commissioners courts, chiefs 
courts for purely native cases (not serious crime), and combined courts (a 
chief and a non-native) for small debts and trivial misdemeanours (assaults, 
abusive language) arising between native and non-na ive. The chief articles 
of import are cotton goods, spirits, hardware and tobacco ; the chief exports 
a S kernels, kola nuts, and palm oil There are severabnussion and 
MnWimedan schools. A Government school tor the sons and nominees of 
STl S was establish, d at Bo in the Railway district of the Protec 
torate on March 1, 1906. The school, which is under Europeau supervision, 
opened with 8 pup ; at the end of 1919 there were HO pupils. An ele- 
mentary school was opened at the end of 1915 ; Hum, are also 8 Goveinment 
Co Vernacular Schools. An Agricultural TrainingOollege was established 
W the Government in 1919, with 30 pupils. tfWe are over 92 non- 
Government schools, of which 49 arc unetea bjf ttrt Government. 
Governor.-R. 3. U'il/ruisoi,, C.M.G. (2.500Z.). 
Colonial Secretary.- -Dr. J. C. Ma.nnll. C.M.G. 



TOGOLAND 253 

Books of Reference. 
Gambia, Gold Coast, and Sierra Leonk. 

The Annual Blue Books of the various Colonies, and Reports thereon. 

The Colonial Office List. Annual. 

The Gambia Colony and Protectorate. An Official Handbook. Annual. 

Papers relating to the Construction of Railways in Sierra Leone, Lagos and the Gold 
Coast. London, 1904. 

Statistical Abstract for the Colonies. Annual. 

Alldridgt (T. J.), The Sberbro and its Hinterland. London, 1901— A Transformed 

Archer (F. B.), The Gambia Colony. London, 1905. 
Colony. Sierra Leone London, 1910. 

Armitagt (C. H.) and Montaro (A. F.), The Ashanti Campaign of 1900. London, 1901. 

BaiUand (Emile), La Politique indigene de TAngleterre en Afrique occidental*. Paris, 
1912. 

Barroxc (A. H.), Fifty Tears in Western Africa. London, 1900. 

Cardinali (A. W.), The Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. London, 
19?0 

Ctaridgt (W. W.), A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti, from the Earliest 
Times to the Twentieth Century. 2 vols. London, 1915. 

Crook* (J. J.), A H-.storv of Sierra Leone. Dublin, 1903. 

Ellis (A. B.), History of the Gold Coast of West Africa. London, 1893.— The 
Yornba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast. Loudon 1894.— The Ewe-speaking Peoples of 
the Slave Coast. London, 1S90.— The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast. Lon- 
don. 1SS7. — West African laUnds. London, 1885. 

F- rry man (A. F. Mockler), Imperial Africa. Vol.1. London, 189S. 

Freeman (H. A), Travel and Life in Ashanti and Jaman. London, 1898. 

Fuller (Sir Francis C). A Vanished Dynasty— Ashanti. London, 19S0. 

Gaunt (Mary). Alone in West Africa. 2nd ed. London. 1912. 

George (C). The Rise of British West Africa. London, 1903. 

Uayford (C.), Gold Coast Native Institutions. London. 1903. 

Ingham (Bishop E. G.), Sieire Leone after a Hundred Tears. London, 1194. 

Johmten (Sir Harry), The C jlonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. 

Kemp (D.) Nine Years on the Gold Coast. London, 1S98. 

King$ley (Mary H.), Travels in West Africa. London, 1S97.— West African Studies 
2nd ed. London, 1901.— The Story of West Africa. London, 1899. 

Kitson (H. E.), The Gold Coast. (GeographicalJournal, November, 1916). 

Lukaeh (H. C). A Bibliography of Sierra Leone. Oxford, 1910. 

Lucas (C. P.), Historical Geographvof the British Colonies. West Africa. 3rd edition, 
revised to end of 1912 bv A. B. Keith. Oxford, 1913. 

Afor^l (E. D.), Affairs of West Africa. London, 1902. 

Seieland (H. O.), Sierra Leone : its people, products, and secret societies. London, 1916. 

Ortroz (F. Van). Conventions Internationales concernantl" Afrique. Brussels, 189. 

Pierion (A. T.), Seven Years in Sierra Leone. London, 1897. 

Pomell(U. S. Baden), The Downfall of Prempeh. New ed. London, 1900. 

Reeve (H. F.), The Gambia : Its History, Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern. London, 1915. 

Reindorf(C. C). History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti. Basel, 1895. 

Roth (H. Ling), Great Benin : Its Customs, Ac. London, 1903. 

Thomas (N. W.i. Anthropological Report on Sierra Leone. London, 1916. 

Walli$ (C. B.), The Advance of our West African Empire. London, 1903. 



TOGOLAND. 

Togo, with Little Popo and Porto Scguro, iu Upper Guinea, between 
the Gold Coast Colony on the west and French Dahomey on the east ; area 
33, 700 square miles; estimated coloured population (1913) 1,031,978; estimated 
European population, 1919, 125. Coast line about 31 miles, but inland the 
territory, between the rivers Volta and Monu, widens to four or five times that 
breadth. Lome, the only port and capital, and Anecho, are on the coast. 
The government stations are Lome, Anecho, Misahbhe, Atakpame, Kete- 
Kratchi, Sokode, Yendi and Sansane-Mangu. Togoland was surrendered un- 
conditionally by the Geimans to British and French forces in August, 1914. 
The Colony is now divided between the French and British. The British have 
obtained about oue-third of the country, 1 2, 500 square miles, bordering the 
Gold Coast territories, but no part of the sea-coast. 



254 THE BRITISH EMPIRE :— TOGOLAND 

The southern half of Togoland is peopled by natives using 30 different 
languages, of which the principal is Efe — these may be regarded as an off- 
shoot of the Bantu peoples. The northern half contains, ethnologically, a 
totally different population descended largely from Hamitic tribes and speak- 
ing in all 16 languages, of which Dagomba and Tim are the most important. 
The majority of the natives are pagans, but many profess Mohamedanism, 
while Christianity has, latterly, been making some progress in the coast 
districts. 

In the British zone there is one Government school with 200 pupils, and 
Missionary Societies have 35 schools with 3,912 pupils. 

The climate is extraordinarily cool for the tropics, and, although far from 
healthy, is not unpleasant. 

Inland the country is hilly, rising to 3,600 feet, with streams and water- 
falls. There are long stretches of forest and brushwood, while dry plains 
alternate with cultivable land. Maize, yams, cassada, plantains, ground- 
nuts, etc., are cultivated by the natives ; oil palms, caoutchouc, and dye- 
woods grow in the forests ; but the main commerce is the barter trade for 
palm oil, palm kernels, coco, rubber and copra carried on with the European 
factories. There are considerable plantations of oil and coco palms, coffee, 
coco, kola, and cassada ; kapok and cotton are also being tried as well as 
fibrous and other plants. In the Sokode and Sansane-Mangu districts there 
are about 65,000 head of cattle ; sheep, goats, poultry and pigs are found, 
but nowhere in large numbers ; in some districts horses of small size are 
bred. Native industries are : weaving, pottery, smith-work, straw-plait- 
ing, wood-cutting, etc. There is no mining by Europeans, but the natives 
in the Sokode and Misahbhe districts smelt iron. Customs revenue for 
1917 was 63,578Z. ; for 1918, 54,203/,. 

Revenue, 1918 (English and French zones), 127,444Z. ; expenditure 
118,953*. 

Imports and exports for six years : — 



Years Imports Exports Tears 



.c 





& 


1912 


571,391 


1913 


531,550 


1916 


325,68 1 



Imports Exports 



& £ 



497,945 1917 845,868 473,774 

456,850 1918 414,566 

286,913 1 1919 665,332 85(1.744 



1 From Lome only. 

The principal imports in 1918 were cotton goods, provisions, salt, and 
tobacco. Principal exports were palm oil, palm kernels, cocoa, copra, and 
cotton. 

There are good roads, connecting the more important centres of the 
Colony. There are three railways connecting Lome with Aneoho (Little 
l'opo) (27 miles), with Palinie (74 miles), and with Atakpaine (103 miles). 
Total, 204 miles. There are 13 post and telegraph stations and 4 sub-stations, 
connected by telegraph and telephone with the Gold Coast Colony, PltW 1' 
Dahomey, and with Europe. 

Aihninixtntlor <</' llritisli -?<>«<.— Major V. \V. V. J<t<Lso,i. D.S.o . K..\. 

Books of Reference. 

<r»iW»(Miss M.), A Camera Actress in the Wilds of togoland. London, tin I. 

Pauarge (8.), Togo. Berlin, H'ln. 

Triermbery ( I.), ICWO. Berlin, 1914. 

Von Puttkamer(\.), Ikmverneursjatare. Berlin, 1912. 



CAMEROON 25n 



CAMEROON. 

The Cameroons, lying between British Nigeria and the French Congo 
extend from the coast north-eastwards to the southern shore of Lake 
Chad. In 1911 a considerable tract of land was transferred to Cameroon 
from French Congo, the new acquisition being known as New Cameroon. 
An agreement settling the frontier between Nigeria and Cameroon from 
Yola to the sea was signed in London on March 11, 1913. The Colony 
was captured from the Germans by French and British troops in February, 
1916, and is now divided between the British and French. The British por- 
tion of the country is a strip, area about 30,000 square miles, stretching from 
the 3ea along the Nigerian frontier to Lake Chad. Total area 191,100 square 
miles ; population, 2,540,000. Bantu negroes near the coast, Sudan negroes 
inland. In 1913 there were 1,871 whites. The seat of Government was 
at Buea. Duala (pop. 22,000), Victoria, Kribi, Rio del Rev and Campo are 
important trading stations, and Aquatown and Belltown are the principal 
native settlements. 

There are four Government schools, at Duala, Victoria, Jaunde, and 
Garua. Four missionary societies have schools with 24,270 pupils. 

The soil in the coast region is fertile, and numerous valuable African 
vegetable productions grow in profusion. Plantations of cocoa occupy 
26,000 aires ; and of rubber of various sorts, 18,000 acres. There are 
345,824 oil palms. In Victoria, experiments are being made towards the 
cultivation of cloves, vanilla, ginger, pepper, and many other products ; 
an active trade in ivory and palm-oil. The colony is rich in hardwood ; 
ebony is abundant. Gold and iron have been found. Natives in the 
Bamenda division smelt iron. Salt is found in the Keara country, Ossid- 
inge Division, and at Bamessing in the Bamenda division. 

There is a poll tax which yielded 24,178/. in 1918. Estimated revenue 
1920 (British sphere), 54,680/. 

Imports iuto the British Cameroon in 1919, 67,000/. : exports, 235,000/. 
Chief exports : palm kernels, rubber, palm oil, ivory, cocoa. Chief imports : 
textiles, spirits, timber, salt, iron wares, and colonial produce. In 1919 
there entered Victoria 30 trading vessels of 52,221 tons. 

Roads are being constructed between the coast towns and from the coast 
inland. The total length of railway line (1913) is 149 miles. The Manenguba 
railway is constructed to the length of 160 kms. A line from Duala to Edea 
and Widimenge was in construction, and other lines near the south-west 
coast were being projected. The telegraph system is being rapidly extended. 
Cameroon is connected by cable with Bonny in Southern Nigeria. A new- 
direct cable to Germany was opened in 1913. 

The mark is still (September 1919) in use, value Id. at the official rate, 
both in the French and British spheres, but its purchasing power in the 
markets is the same as the shilling. 

I nistralor of British Zone. — The^Governor of Nigeria. 



Books of Reference. 

Calctrt (A. F.), The Cameroons. London, l'.'lT. 

£><mint'k(H.), Kamerun: Sechs Kriegs und Friedensjahre in dentschen Tropen 
Berlin, 1901. 

Haa*e(l,.), Durchs unbekannte Kamerun. Berlin, 1910. 

Hutter (F.). Wanderungen und Forschungen im Nord-Hinterland von Kamexuu 
Braunschweig, 1902. 



256 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — EGYPT 



Von Puttkamer (I.), Gouverneursjahre. Berlin, 
Sembritzki (E.), Kainerun. Berlin, 1909. 
Zimmermann (E ), Neukainerun. Berlin, 1913. 
Zintgraf (Eugcn), Nord-Kamerun. Berlin, 1895. 



Zululand. See Natal 



EGYPT. 

(MlSR.) 

Sultan. 

Fliad I. Ahmed Fuad Pasha, G.C.B, was horn in 1868, son of the 
Khedive Ismail Pasha ; became Sultan on October 9, 1917 ; married the 
Princess Nazli on May 24, 1919. 

The present sovereign of Egypt is the eighth ruler of the dynasty of 
Muhammad AH, appointed Governor of Egypt in 1805, who made himself, 
in 1811, absolute master of the country by force of arms. The position of the 
Sultan's father, Ismail I. — forced to abdicate, under pressure of the British 
and French Governments, in 1879 — was recognised by the Imperial Hatti 
Sherif of February 13, 1841, issued under the guarantee of the five great 
European Powers. The title given to Muhammad Ali and his immediate 
successors was the Turkish one of ' Vali,' or Viceroy ; but this was changed 
by an Imperial firman of June 12, 1867, into the Persian-Arabic of ' Klridew- 
Misr,'or, as more commonly called, Khedive. By a firman issued June 8, 
1873, the Sultan of Turkey granted to Ismail I. the rights hitherto withheld of 
concluding commercial treaties with foreign Powers, and of maintaining armies. 
On December 18, 1914, a British Protectorate over Kgypt was declared, 
and the next day a Proclamation was issued deposing Abbas Hilmi, lately 
Khedive of Egypt, and conferring the title of Sultan of Egypt upon Hussein 
Kamil, eldest living prince of the family of Muhammad Ali. The British 
Protectorate has been recognised by Fiance, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, 
Portugal, and the United States of America. Sultan Hussein Kamil died 
in 1917, and was succeeded by his brother. 

The new Egyptian flag consists of three white crescents with their backs 
to the staff, each with a five-pointed white star between the horns on a red 
field. This flag was the personal standard of the Khedive, and now takes 
the place ot the former national flag, which was distinguished from the 
Turkish by having a star of. five instead of six points. 
The predecessors of the present ruler of Egypt were — 

Born Died Reigned 

Muhammad Ali, founder of the dynasty 1769 1849 1811-48 

Ibrahim, son of Muhammad . . . 1789 1848 June— Nov. 1848 
Abbas, grandson of Muhammad . . . 1813 1854 1848-54 

Said, son of Muhammad 1822 1863 1854-63 

Ismail, son of Ibrahim 1830 1895 1863-79 

Muhammad Taufiq, son of Ismail . . 1852 1892 1879-92 

'Abbas Hilmi, grandson of Ismail . . 1874 1892-1914 

Hussein Kamil, son of Ismail . . . 1854 1917 1914-1917 

British Representatives. 

His Majesty'* High Commissioner for Egypt and the Sudan. — His Excel- 
lency Field-Marshal Viscount AlUnby, G.C.B,, G.C.V.O., G.C.M.G., D.S.O., 
etc., appointed October, 1919. 

Counsellor.— Sir Milne Cfuclham, K.C.M.G. 

Consul- General at Alexandria. — D. A. Cameron, C. M.G. 



GOVERNMENT AND CONSTITUTION . 257 

Consul at Cairo. — A. D. Alban. 
Consul at Port Said. — F. G. Freeman. 
Commercial Agent for Eyypt and Sudan. — E. H- Mulock. 
There are also Consular representatives at Suez, Hansnra, Tanta, Zagazig, 
and Birket-es-Sab. 

Government and Constitution. 

The administration of Egypt is carried on by native Ministers, subject to the 
ruling of the Sultan. From 1S79 to 1883 two Controllers-General, appointed 
by France and England, had considerable powers in the direction of the 
affairs of the country (Khedivial Decree, November 10, 1879). In the summer 
of 1882, in consequence of a military rebellion, England intervened, subdued 
the rising, and restored the authority of the Khedive. In this intervention 
England was not joined by France, and as a result, on January 18, 1SS3, the 
Khedive signed a decree abolishing the joint control of England and France. 
In the plac«of the Control, the Khedive, on the recommendation of England, 
appointed an English financial adviser, without whose concurrence no 
financial decision could be taken. The Khedivial Decree appended to and 
approved by the Anglo-French Convention of April 4, 1904, removed moat 
of the restrictions which encumbered the management of Egyptian Finance. 
No modification may be introduced into the terms of the Decret without 
the assent of the signatory powers to the Convention of London of 18S5. 

In November, 1919, it was officially announced that the policy of Great 
Britain in Egypt was to preserve the autonomy of that country under British 
protection and to develop the system of self-government under an Egyptian 
ruler ; and that the object of Great Britain was to defend Egypt from all ex- 
ternal danger and interference by any foreign Power, and at the suae time to 
establish a constitutional system in which, under British guidance, the 
Sultan, his Ministers, and the elected representatives of the people might in 
their several spheres and in an increasing degree co-operate in the manage- 
ment of Egyptian affairs. A mission under Lord Milner was sent to Egypt 
with the purpose of working out this policy. The Egyptian Government 
have now ^March, 1921) been invited to discuss with the British Government 
the question of substituting for the protectorate a relationship which, while 
securing the special interests of Great Britain and enabling the latter to 
offer adequate guarantees to foreign powers, will meet the legitimate aspir- 
ations of Egypt. 

The Egyptian Ministry, composed of ten members, is constituted 
March 16, 1921) as follows :— 

Prime Minister. — Adly Ycghen Pasha. 

Vice-President of the Council. — Hussein Bushdi Pasha. 

Minister of Interior. — Abdel Khalek Sancat Pasha. 

Minister of Education. — Gaafar Waly Pasha. 

Minister of Public Works, Marine and War. — Mohammed ShuJVc Pasha. 

Minister of Justice. — Abdel Fattah Yehia Pasha. 

Minister of Agriculture. — Xeguib Ghali Pasha. 

Minister of Wakfs (Pious Foundations). — Midhat Yeghen Pasha. 

Minister of Communications — Ahmed Zitcer Pasha. 

Minister of Finance. — Ismail Sidky l'asha. 

The new Ministry of Communications, established in 1919, comprises 
the following services : The Egyptian State Railways, Telegraphs, and 
Telephones ; the Postal Administration ; the Ports and Lighthouses ; the 
Harbour Works ; Inland Water Transport : Mechanical Transport ; Main 
Roads and Bridges ; Supervision, licensing, and control of civil aerial traffic. 

On May 1, 1883, an organic law was promulgated by the Khedive creating 
a number of representative institutions, including a Legislative Council, a 



258 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — EGYPT 

General Assembly, and Provincial Councils. But these bodies were mainly 
consultative and the Khedive and his Ministers retained most of the legis- 
lative power. The above Law was replaced in July, 1913, by the present 
Organic and Electoral Laws, by which for the Legislative Council and General 
Assembly was substituted a new body called the Legislative Assembly. This 
consists of (i) the Ministers, (ii) 66 elected members, and (iii) 17 members 
nominated by the Government to represent certain minorities. The elections 
are indirect : every 50 electors choose an elector-delegate, and the electors- 
delegate elect the members of the Assembly, but are liable to be recalled 
before any fresh exercise of their functions. The members of this Assembly 
sit for six years, their numbers being renewed one-third at a time every two 
years : they also receive payment. The Assembly can initiate legislation and 
must be consulted on all measures relating to loans, land-tax assessment, or 
modifications of the railway or irrigation systems. The Government, how- 
ever, is not bound by the resolutions of the Assembly, and, in the event of a 
disagreement between the two about any proposed law, the Government 
can eventually enact the law in such form as it may think fit. The Assembly 
has the right of veto on new direct, personal or land taxes, which cannot be 
imposed without its sanction. The ordinary session of the Assembly is from 
November 1 to May 31. 

The Provincial Councils were endowed in 1909 with the powers of apply- 
ing bye-laws, authorising public-markets, fixing the number and pay of 
ghafirs (village watchmen), and authorising the creation of ezbas (hamlets). 
They are the local authorities in connection with elementary vernacular 
education and trade schools. They consist of two elected representatives 
from each Markaz. The Mudir is the ex-officio President of the Council. 

Egypt Proper is administratively divided into 5 governorships (muhafzas) 
of principal towns, and 14 mudirias or provinces, subdivided into districts 
or Markazes. In 1890 the Powers consented to a decree constituting a 
Municipality in Alexandria, with power to impose local taxes. 1 

In thirteen towns (Mansura, Medinet el-Fayum, Tanta, Zagazig, Da- 
manhur, Beni-SueT, Mahalla el-Kubra, Minya, Mit Ghamr, Zifta, Kafr el- 
Zayat, Benha, and Port Said), Mixed Commissions have been formed with 
power to impose taxes on residents who have given an express consent to be 
taxed for municipal purposes. 

In 41 other towns a third class of town council (Local Commissions) 
exists, but, in general, there is no power to impose local taxes, the revenue 
being derived from grants from the central Government, and receipts from 
water supply, slaughter houses, &c. During recent years, however, 22 of 
the Local Commissions have, with the express consent of foreigners and 
Egyptians, imposed local taxation for municipal purposes. 





Governorships. 




Mudirias. 


1. 


Cairo. 






Lower Egypt : — 


Upper Egypt :— 


■2. 


Alexandria. 






1. Qalyubiya. 


1. Giza. 


3. 


Suez Canal 


(Port 


Said.— 


2. Menufiya. 


2. Beni-Suef. 




Isniailia). 






3, Gharbiya. 


3. Faiyuni. 


4. 


Suez. 






4. Sharqiya. 

5. Daqaniiya. 


4. Minya. 


5. 


Damietta. 






5. Asyiit. 










6. Beheira. 


6. Girga. 

7. Qena. 

8. Aswan. 



Area and Population. 

The total area of Kgypt proper, including tho Libyan Desert, tbr 
region between the Nile and the Red Sea, and the Sinai Peninsula, bul 
1 In Egypt no foreigner may be taxed wilhout the consent of his Government. 



AREA AND POPULATION 



259 



excluding the Sudan, is about 350,000 square miles ; but the cultivated 
and settled area, that is, the Nile Valley and Delta, covers only ] . 
square miles. Canals, roads, date plantations, &c, cover 1,900 square miles ; 
2,850 square miles are comprised in the surface of the Nile, marshes, and 
lakes. Egypt is divided into two great districts — ' Masr-el-Bahri,' or Lower 
Egypt, and 'El-Said,' or Upper Egypt. 

The following table gives the area of the settled land surface, and the 
results of the census taken in Mar h, 1917 : — 



Administrative 


Area in 


Total 


Population 


Division 


sq. miles 


Population 
790,939 


per 
sq. mile 


x /'Cairo . 


•;•_' 




$ 1 Alexandria 


19 


444,617 


23.401 


£ 1 Daniietta 


11 






s ■! (Port Said 








3 1 Canal < and 








o 1 Usraailia 


ij+ii 


91,090 


30,363 


O I^Suez . 


3 


30,996 


10,332 


Frontier District- . 


? 


70.351 




Provinces : 








i. ^Beheira 


i.ra 


892,246 




i£ 1 Daqahliyu . 


1,006 


986,643 


981 


H | Gharbiya . 




•313 




r \ Menufiya . 

5 1 Qalyubiya 

3 Uharqiya . . 


606 


1,072,636 


1,770 


na 


52- 




1,322 


.497 




Provinces : 








- 


r ASTt'lt . 




981,197 




g 


Aswan 


IM 


253,340 


1,508 


ff. 


Beiii-teuei . 
Faiyilm 


Mb 


45'J. ' 
507,017 


1.107 


a 


Girga . 


57<"i 


S63.234 


1,499 


£ 


Giza . 


Ml 


:.352 


1,317 


- 


Miuya . 


651 


763, '.'22 


1,173 




.Qona . 


7-". 1 


>40.317 


1,114 




Total . 


12.U23 


12,750,918 


1,061 



The growth of the general population of the country is exhibited by the 
following figures : — 

1800 (French estimate) . .2,460,200 1897 (Census) . . . . 9,734,405 
1821 (Muhammad Ali) . . 2,536,400 1907 (Census) . . . . 11,287,359 

1846 (Census) 4,476,440 1917 (Census) . . . . 12,750,918 

1882 (Census, 6,831,131 I 

The average annual increase from 1S46 to 1882 was 125 per cent. ; from 
1882 to 1897, 2-76 per cent. ; 1897-1907, 149 per cent. ; from 1846-1907, 
1 53 per cent. 

For details of the census of 1907, sec The Statesman's Year-Book for 
1915, pp. 250-1. 

Estimated population, Julv 1, 1919 : 12,878,000. Births registered, 
1919, 493,507 ; deaths, 383,872, 

The principal towns, with their populations, according to the 
results of the census of 1917, are :— Cairo, 790,939 ; Alexandria, 444,617 
Port Said (including Ismailia), 91,090 ; Suez, 30,996 : Damietta, 30.9S4 
Tanta, 74,195; Mansura, 49,238; Zagazig, 41,741; Damanhur, 47.S67 
Benha, 18,607; Shibin el-Kom, 24,604 : Asyt'it, 51,431 ; Aswan, 11,203 
Beni Suet, 31,986 ; Faiyiim, 44,400; Sohag, 20,760; Giza, 18,714; Qena 
23,357 ; Minya, 34,945. 

s 2 



260 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



-EGYPT 



Religion and Instrnction. 

In 1917 the population consisted of 11,658,148 Moslems; 854,773 
Orthodox; 59,581 Jews. Christians: 47,481 Protestants; 107,687 Roman 
Catholics; 14,416 other Christians ; 8,827 others. Thus Moslems formed 91'43 
per cent, of the population; Christians, 8 '03 per cent.; Jews, 0'47 
per cent. ; others, 0*07 per cent. The principal seat of Koranic learning 
is the Mosque and University of El-Azhar at Cairo, founded year 361 
of the Hegira, 972 of the Christian era. In 1914 it had 405 professors and 
9,749 students of Islam and subjects connected therewith. The Mosque of 
El-Ahmadi at Tanta had 113 professors and 2,860 students at the end of 1914. 
The Mosque of Damietta had in the same year 16 professors and 411 students, 
that of Dessdqi (Tanta), 16 professors and 280 students, and the Meshiakhat 
Olama of Alexandria 75 professors and 1,854 students. All these institutions 
are under the supervision of the Council of the University of El-Azhar. 

There are in Egypt large numbers of native Christians connected with the 
various Oriental churches ; of these, the largest and most influential are the 
Copts, the descendants of the ancient Egyptians ; their creed is 
Orthodox (Jacobite), and was adopted in the first century of the 
Christian era. Its head is the Patriarch of Alexandria as the successor 
of St. Mark. There are three metropolitans and twelve bishops in 
Egypt, one metropolitan and two bishops in Abyssinia, and one bishop for 
Khartum ; there are also arch-priests, priests, deacons, and monks. Priests 
must be married before ordination, but celibacy is imposed on monks and 
high dignitaries. The Copts use the Diocletian (or Martyrs') calendar, 
which differs by 284 years from the Gregorian calendar. 

The following table shows the proportion of illiterates in the various 
religious communities (1917 census) : — 





Religion 


Population 


Number illiterate per 


1000 * 




Males 


Females 

937 | 

920 

556 

642 

955 


Total 


Moslems 
Orthodox 
Christians 
Jews . 




11,(558,148 

854,778 

155,168 

59,581 

23,243 


901 
739 
505 
482 
912 


919 
830 
531 
562 


Others 




934 


Total 


12,750,918 


888 


982 


933 



1 Provisional figures. 

Subject to certain adjustments for purposes of comparison, it appears tk; 
the proportion of the native Egyptian population able to read and write in 19] ! 
as compared with the returns of the previous census in 1907,' was as follows :- 





1907 




1 


1917 




Mules 






Females 


Males 




Females 


85 per 1000 




3 per 1000 


120 per 1000 


I 


18 per 1000 



Until 1897, Government initiative in the matter of education was limiteil 
to supplying a Europeanised course of education designed to fit Egyptians 
for various branches of the public service and for professional careers. This 
system of schools, which owes its origin to the Europeanising zeal of 
Muhammad Ali Pasha, the first viceroy, consists of Primary Schools, 
Secondary Schools, and Professional Colleges (Law, Medicine, Engineering, 
Veterinary, Military, Teaching, Accountancy and Commerce, and Agriculture), 
in addition to a number of special schools. 



RELIGION AND INSTRUCTION 



261 



Scattered throughout the country there hare existed from time im- 
memorial a number of indigenous schools called 'Maktabs. ' In 1897, th« 
Ministry of Education endeavoured to bring these independent ' Maktabs ' 
voluntarily under Departmental supervision by means of a system of 
inspection and reward. Government aid was made dependent upon daily 
instruction being given in reading, writing, and arithmetic, apart from any 
religious teaching, and upon the school reaching a satisfactory level of 
efficiency. The extent to which the scheme has developed is shown in the 
following table : 



Tear 



1918-14 

1315-1(5 
1918-17 

1017-18 



Maktabs awarded grants-in-aid and under inspection 




3,744 
3,970 
8.8M 

3,534 
3.271 



8,188 



Since 1913 the grants-in-aid to maktabs situated within the areas governed 
by Provincial Councils have been paid from the funds of the Councils. 

The following table gives statistics (corrected to February, 1920), 
concerning the schools under the immediate direction of the Egyptian 
Government in 1897 and 1920 respectively. The schools marked with an 
asterisk are under Departments other than the Ministry of Education. 



Higher Colleges : — 
Medicine and Pharmacy 
•Law 

Jneering . 
•Military 
•Yeterinary . 
Teaching 
* School for Qadis 

culture . 
Accountancy and Commerce 

Special and Technical Schools :— 

Agriculture (Intermediate) 

School for Qadis (Intermediate) 

Accountancy & Commerce (Inter 
mediate) 

Technical (Intermediate) 

School of Egyptian Aits & Crafts 

Trades (Elementary) 

Teaching (Elementary) 

Domestic Economy . 

Nurses and midwives 
•Police .... 
•Reformatory Schools 
Secondary Schools 
Higher Primary Schools 
Higher Elementary Schools . 
Maktabs (Elementary Vernacular 

Schools) 
Infant Schools . 



1897 



1920 



Schools 



Pupils 



Schools 



Male Female 



40 

75 

29 

204 

7-: 



612 
,S30 



Pupils 
Male I Female 



270 

353 

810 

90 

19 

448 

107 

99 

77 

10S 
166 

290 
236 
34 
619 
261 



95 
590 

2,525 

S.6C9 

152 

i 

111,913 

170 



477 
77 
46 



578 
303 



9,243 



262 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



-EGYPT 



The number of schools under the control of the Provincial Councils in 
February, 1920, either through direct management or through grants-in- 
aid, was as follows : — 





No. of 
Schools 




No, of Pupils 






Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Maktabs (Elementary Vernacular 
Schools) .... 

Higher Elementary Schools . 

Elementary Training Colleges for 
Teachers .... 

Industrial, Agricultural and Com- 
mercial Schools 

Higher Primary Schools 


3,316 
18 

22 

20 
44 


182,546 
1,370 

1,020 

1.99S 
3,964 


25,290 

381 

1,034 


207,836 
1,370 

1,401 

1,998 
4,998 


Total 


3,420 


190,898 


26,705 


217,603 



By agreement with the Provincial Councils it was decided in 1912 that 
the Ministry of Education should hand over to the Councils the duty of 
making provision for Elementary Schools in their areas, including the giving 
of grants-in-aid to the private Maktabs. 

The Ministry of Education has under its direct management (February, 
1920) :— 





Attendance 




Boys 


Girls 


Total 




9,524 


8.779 


18,303 


4 Training Colleges for Elementary Teachers 


261 


447 


70S 







77 


77 







46 


46 




619 


_ 


619 




8,609 


578 


9.1S7 


7 Secondary Schools 


8,6*6 


— 


2,525 


5 Technical and Commercial Schools (and night classes) 


M9 


— 


949 


1 8chool of Medicine (and Pharmacv) .... 


270 


— 


270 




310 


— 


310 




44S 


82 


630 


1 Higher School of Commerce and Accountancy . 


77 


— 


77 


Egyptian Educational Mission in Europe . 


30 


_ 


30 


6 Higher Elementary Schools 


207 


464 


671 




170 


— 


170 




23,999 


10,473 


34,472 



Under other Government Depart men ts are the School of Law (353 
students), the Military School (90 cadets), the Veterinary School (19 
students), the Higher School of Agriculture (99 students), the Inter. 
mediate School of Agriculture (108 students), the School for Cadis (higher 
section, 107, lower, 166 students) ; the Police School (95 cadets), and 2 
reformatories (590 boy.s, 139 girls). It is proposed to establish a State 
University at Cairo. 



justice 263 



Justice. 

The indigenous tribunals of the country are the Mehkemas, presided over 
by the Qddis. At the present time, they retain jurisdiction only in matters 
of personal law (marriage, succession, kc. ), and wakfs — the latter being either 
charitable foundations, or family settlements with an ultimate remainder in 
favour of a charitable foundation — and also in certain non-religious cases 
{e.g. succession) between non-Moslem natives. In matters of personal law 
other than intestate succession non -Mussulmans are, however, in general 
subject to their own Patriarchate, or other religious authority. In other 
matters, natives are justiciable before the so-called Native Tribunals estab- 
lished in 1883. These now consist of 90 Summary Tribunals, each presided 
over by a single judge, with civil jurisdiction in matters up to £E150 in 
value, and criminal jurisdiction in offences punishable by fine or by 
imprisonment up to three years, that is, police offences and misdemeanours ; 
eight Central Tribunals, each of the Chambers of which consists of three 
judges ; and a Court of Appeal at Cairo, about one-third of its members 
being European. Under a law of 1904, there are also weekly sittings 
in the Governorate Qisms (to the number of 28) for the disposal of 
petty offences, the judge having powers up to three months' imprison- 
ment or fine of £E10, and the prosecution being conducted by the police. 
Civil cases not within the competence of the Summary Tribunals are 
heard in first instance by the Central Tribunals, with an appeal to the 
Court of Appeal. The Central Tribunals also hear civil and criminal 
appeals from the Summary Tribunals. Since 1905 serious crimes (and, under 
a law of 1910, all press offences) are tried at the Central Tribunals by 
three judges of the Court of Appeal sitting as an Assize Court, assizes 
being held monthly. There is a recourse on points of law, in criminal 
matters, to five judges of the Court of Appeal sitting in Cairo as a Court 
of Cassation. The prosecution before Summary Tribunals and Assize 
Courts is entrusted to the Parquet, which is directed by a Proeureur 
General ; the investigation of crime is ordinarily conducted by the 
Parquet, or by the police under the direction of the Parquet : cases 
going before an Assize Court are further submitted to a special committing 
judge. Offences against irrigation laws, Ac, are tried by special administra- 
tive tribunals. 

The so-called "Cantonal Courts," created by a law of July, 1912, 
should also be mentioned. They are composed of village notables, and 
have general civil jurisdiction in suits up to £E5 in value, besides an 
extended jurisdiction in special matters, and a petty criminal jurisdiction 
with penalties up to 24 hours' imprisonment or PT25 fine. The jurisdiction 
of each court extends to a group of villages. The courts are now 236 in 
number. 

Owing to the Capitulations, which still apply to Egypt, foreigners are 
exempted from the jurisdiction of the local tribunals. Mixed tribunals 
were instituted in 1876, consisting partly of native and partly of foreign 
judges, with jurisdiction, in civil matters, between natives and foreigners 
and between foreigners of different nationalities, or even between foreigners 
of the same nationality if the dispute relates to land in Egypt. These 
Tribunals have, also, a limited penal jurisdiction, notably in cases of 
police offences, offences against the bankruptcy laws, and misappropria- 
tion of property seized by order of the tribunal. There are three 
Mixed Tribunals of First Instance, with a Court of Appeal sitting at 
Alexandria. 



264 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — EGYPT 



Finance. 

Revenue and expenditure for six years :— 



Years j 


Bevenue 


Expenditure 


Tears 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


191. 'i 
1916-17 1 
1917-18 


£E 
17,868.616 
19,927,274 
23,166,074 


£E 

15,728,7S5 
17,240,606 
22,496,948 


1918-19 
1919-20 

1920-21 1 


J5E 

27,661,289 
33,677,401 
40,271,000 


jjE 

23,884,326 
28,991,934 
40,271,000 



1 Estimates. 



The final accounts for the year 1919-20 (April 1 to March 31), and the 
budget estimates for the year 1920-21, are as follows : — 



Receipts 


1919-20 
Actual 
figures 


1920-21 
Estimates 


Expenditure 


1919-20 
Actual 
figures 


1920-21 
Estimates 


Direct taxes : 


£K 


£E 




£E 


£E 


Land tax, *c. 


5,624,260 


5,480,000 


Civil List .... 


459,847 


499,264 


Indirect taxes : 






Expenses of Administration 


10,023,630 


12, 207.32S 


Customs . 


0,627,536 


0,590,000 


Expenses of Revenue Earn- 






Tobacco . 


3,827,325 


4,000,000 


ing Administrations : 






Excise . 


499,979 


— 


Railways .... 


5,422,757 


6,594,175 
221,230 


Miscellaneous 






Telegraphs 


248,124 


taxes 


461,128 


318,000 


Post Office 


431,564 500,980 


Receipts from 






Telephones 
Army: 


198,127 


169,780 


Revenue earn- 






ing Adminis- 






Egyptian Army 


1,615,055 


1,631,250 


trations : 






Army of Occupation 


146,250 


146,250 


Railways 


7,135,030 


7,386,000 


Pensions .... 


779,406 


737,300 


Telegraphs 


803,353 


300,000 


Tribute and Debt : 






Post Office . 


437,424 


516,000 


Tribute .... 


664, S26 


064,820 


Telephones . 


196,098 


266,000 


Expenses of Caisse de la 






Receipts from 






Dette .... 


88,617 


42,000 


Administrative 






Consolidated Debt . 


3,552, 2fi6 




Services : 






Non-Consolidated Debt . 


344,152 


353,280 


Ports and 








— 


24,483 


Lighthouses 


179,185 


183,000 


War Gratuities . 


2,559,806 


4,250,000 


Judicial and 






Extraordinary Expendi- 






Registration 






ture in connection with 






fees 


2,060,940 


1,863,000 


the war . , . . 


508,260 


40,000 


■Miscellaneous 




Settlement of claims arising 




Revenue 


5,894,239 


8,778,000 


outof the recent disorders 
Purchase rind distribution of 


45,528 




Total ordinary 




85,675,000 


articles of prime necessity 


404,499 


2,000,000 


revenue 


32,752,503 


Temporary Commissions . 







Extraordinary 
revenue 

Draft on gene- 
ral reserve . 


924,898 


4,596,000 


Total Ordinary Expen- 
diture 


47,4 12.71 1 


:;i,f.l6,'.>eo 


88,677,401 


40,271,009 


Expenditure for new works 
Total .... 




5,654,080 


Total. 


••.V.I!'1.'.<:m 


•10,27 1.000 



The foreign debt of Egypt began in 1862, when loans amounting to 
3,292,800/. were issued for the purpose of extinguishing tho floating debt. 
Other issues followed in rapid succession. The dual control by England and 
France began in 1879. In January, 1880, tho two Coutrollers-General reported 
that Egypt could not possibly meet her engagements in full, and in July the 
Liquidation Law, in accordance with tho recommendation of an Inter- 
national Commission of the Great Powers, was promulgated. By this law 
the Unified debt was reduced to 4 per cent, interest ; further conversions 



DEFENCE 265 

were made, and the Unified debt thus increased to 60,958, 2401. ; certain 
unconsolidated liabilities were added to the Preference debt, which thus rose 
to 22,743,800Z. ; and the Daira Sania debt was increased to 9,512,900J., the 
interest being reduced to 4 per cent. In 1885 and subsequent years further 
loans and conversions were entered into. 

The Daira Sania and the Domains loans were paid off on October 15, 
1905, and June 1, 1913, respectively. The amount and the charge of the 
various debts in April, 1920, were as follows : — 

_ Debt Charge 



£ £E 

Guaranteed Loan, 3 per cent 6,093,400 307.1-'5 

Privileged Debt. 3J per cent 31,127,7S0 1,062,235 

Unified Debt, 4 per cent. ..... 55,971,900 2,1S2,906 

Total 93,195.140 3,552,5«6 

On April 1, 1920, the debt stood at £stg.93,198,140, inclusive of the 
amount of £stn.6,466,860 held by the Government and the Caisse de la' 
Dette Publiquer In 1919-20 the debt was reduced by £190,500. 

The charges on account of debts of all kinds (including tribute), as 
shown in the estimates for 1920-21, amount to £E4, 612,372. 

In 1888 and 1390, reserve funds were established, the balances of which, 
in virtue of the Anglo-French Convention of April 4, 1904, were placed at 
the disposal of the Egyptian Government in 1905, less certain sums 
remaining in the hands of the Caisse de la Dette Publique for the service 
of the debt. The amount received by the Egyptian Government was 
carried to a General Reserve Fund. In this Fund on April 1, 1920, there 
was a balance of £E17,117,866, including £E1,541,031 realised from the 
minting of new coinage. 

Defence. 

Egyptian Army. 

On September 19, 1882, the existing Egyptian army was disbanded. 
The organisation of a new army was entrusted to a British general officer, 
who was given the title of Sirdar. Service is compulsory, but, owing to the 
small contingent required, only a fraction (4 per cent.) of the men who are 
liable actually serve. Service is for three years. In the Sudanese battalions 
service is voluntary and extended. The army consists of 5 squadrons of 
cavalry, a camel corps, 5 batteries, 18 battalions of infantry (of which 6 
are Sudanese and 1 is a special "Equatorial" battalion), a railway battalion, 
and various departments. Most of the higher posts are held by British officers. 
The strength of the army is about 17,000. 

Army of Occupation. 

Before the outbreak of war in August, 1914, the British garrison, or army 
of occupation, consisted of a cavalry regiment, a horse artillery battery, 
a mountain battery, a company of engineers, and 4 battalions (one company 
in Cyprus) stationed in the Nile Delta, and of a battalion of infantry and 
detachment of garrison artillery stationed in the Anglo- Egyptian Sudan. 
The establishment, including departmental services, was 6,067 of all ranks. 

In 1920 the British garrison consisted of 1 regiment of cavalry, 1 battery 
R.H.A., 7 battalions of infantry, with detachments of engineers and garrison 
artillery, making a total of 11,605. In addition there were Indian troops to 



266 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — EGYPT 



the number of 20,463. At the end of the year this garrison was in process 
of reduction. 

Production and Industry. 

The cultivable area of Egypt proper was reckoned in 1919 at 7,691,793 
feddans (1 feddan = l "038 acre), and of this 2,829,215 were uncultivated for 
want of reclamation. The land-tax has been readjusted, the old 
distinction between Kharagi and Ushuri tax has disappeared, and the 
taxes on land range from 2 piastres (1 piastre = 2\d.) to 164 
piastres per feddan according to the rental value. The corvie, or forced 
labour, has been abolished, but the inhabitants are still called out to 
guard or repair the Nile banks in flood time, and are also liable in any sudden 
emergency; in 1913 none were called out; in 1914, 21,600; in 1916, 
113,000. The agricultural population (Fellahin) forms about 62 per 
cent, of the whole. A large proportion of them are small landholders 
with under 51 feddans, while others, almost or altogether landless, are 
labourers, the relation between the employers and the employed being 
mostly hereditary. The following table shows, for 1919, the number of 
landholders and the distribution of the land between foreigners and natives : — 



Extent 
of 


Foreigners 


Natives 


Total of area 


Total of 
Landowners 


holding 

in 
feddans 


Area in 
feddans 


Land- 
owners 


Area in 
feddans 


Land- 
owners 


Feddans 


Per- 
centage 


Land- 
owners 


Per- 
centage 


Uptol 
From 1-5 
„ 5-10 
., 10-20 
„ 20-30 
„ 30-50 
Over 50 


1,163 
4,738 
5,540 
8,672 
8,198 
15,812 
583,463 


2,('38 
1,M)1 
751 
605 
328 
398 
1,488 


489,918 
1,050,887 
533,542 
512,058 
272,260 
329,777 
1,695,231 


1,158,681 
494,791 
77,494 
37,323 
11,228 
8,529 
11,192 


491,081 
1,055,625 
539, OS 2 
620,730 
280,458 
345,589 
2,278,694 


8-9 
19-2 
9-8 
9-4 
5-1 
6-3 
413 


1,160,719 
496,592 
78,245 
37,928 
11,556 
8,927 
12,680 


64-3 
27-5 
4-3 
2-1 
0-6 
0-5 
0-7 


Total . 


627,586 


7,409 


4,8S3,673 


1,799,238 


5,511,259 


100 


1,806,047 


100-0 



The Egyptian agricultural year includes three seasons or crops. The 
leading winter crops, sown in November and harvested in May and June, are 
cereal produce of all kinds ; the principal summer crops, sown in March and 
harvested in October and November, are cotton, sugar, and rice ; the autumn 
crops, sown in July and gathered in September and October, are rice, maize, 
millet, and vegetables generally. In Fayum and Lower Egypt, where 
perennial irrigation is effected by means of a network of canals tapping 
the Nile and traversing the Delta in every direction, the chief crops are 
cotton, rice, Indian corn, wheat, barley, clover, cucumber ; in Upper Egypt, 
south of Deirut, where the basin system of irrigation, i.e. submersion at 
high Nile, is generally adhered to, cereals aud vegetables are produced ; 
north of Deirut the same conditions prevail as in Lower Egypt, except 
that no rice is grown. Where there is perennial irrigation, two or three crops 
are secured annually. 

Extensive reservoir works, consisting of a dam at Aswan, a barrage 
at Esna, a barrage at Asydt, and a barrage at Zifta, have been com- 
pleted. The original storage capacity of the reservoir was 1,065,000,000 
cubic metres. The level of the dam has been raised by 6 metres and the 
capacity of the reservoir increased to 2,423,000,000 cubic metres. The 
barrage at Ksna ensures adequate irrigation to a large area of basin land even 
in a year of low Nile. North of Deirut an area of approximately half a 



COMMERCE 



267 



million acres has been converted from basin to perennial irrigation in the 
last ten years. The area and production of cotton in six years were : — 



Season 


Are*. Crop. season 
Feddans Qanttrs season 


Area. 
Feddans 

1,677.000 
1,361,000 
1,574,000 


Crop. 
Qanttrs 


1913-14 
1915-16 
1916-17 


1,723,000 7.664,000 1917-18 
1,186,000 4,775,000 1918-19 
1,656,000 5,060,000 1919-20 


6,293,000 
4,821,000 

5.072,000 



The area under cotton in 1920 was 1,828,000 feddans 

In 1919 the area and yield of wheat were 1,323,376 acres and 820,195 
tons; barley, 356,530 acres and 219,620 tons; maize, 1,792,109 acres; 
millet, 26(5,556 acres ; rice, 149,630 acres ; sugar-cane, 59,311 acres. 

In 1919 the sugar exported amounted to 12,689 tons, valued at 
£E654,656 and the cotton exported amounted to 6,708,906 qantars, valued 
at £E65,441,901 (1 qantlr = 9905 lbs). 

The principal mineral products in 1918 were (in metric tons) : Phosphate 
rock, 31,000 ; petroleum, 282,000 ; manganese iron ore, 27,000 ; nitrate shale, 
4,500; carbonates and sulphate of soda, 3,500. The production of gold was 
2,856 oz. Other products are : Ochres, sulphate of alumina, sulphate of 
magnesia, talc, building stones, clay, gypsum, natron, nitrate of soda, salt, 
and turquoise. The following minerals are also known to exist, namely, 
alum, copper ore, beryl, granite, ornamental stones, and sulphur. 

Commerce. 

Imports and exports for five years : — 



Tear 


Merchandise ' 


Specie 


Imports 


Export* 


Imports 


Exports 




£E 


£E 


£E 


1913 


27,865,195 


31,662,065 


9,791,188 


11,13" 


1917 


33,175,139 


41,060,612 


1,239,549 


44,300 


1918 


51,155.306 


45.370,020 


611,009 


5,500 


1919 


47,409.717 


75,S88,321 


183,513 


8,174 


1920 


101, $80,963 


£5,467,061 


399,039 


12.249 



Excluding re-exports (£12,551,894 in 1920) and transit trade (£E12.811,874 in 1920). 
Commerce (merchandise) by principal countries : — 



Countries of origin 


Imports from 


Exports to 


or destination 












1919 


1920 
£E 


1919 


1920 


£E 


£E 


£E 


Great Britain 




21,480.957 


S7.>94,760 


40,222,S!1 


30,343,2S4 












747,707 


Australasia . 




1 .S4S.623 


4,900,722 


48,910 


91,137 


United States 




2.883,749 


10,751,055 


16,714,085 


26,469,171 


China . 




1.3:: 


2,320,707 


25,881 


19,907 


Japan . 




29,164 


4.051 


1,804 


1,236,763 


France 




2.390,540 


o,104,S05 


5,871,556 


8,069.200 


Greece 




1.S93.105 


0.031 


696.591 


413,036 


Italy . 




2 - 12,028 


5,705,020 


3,499.514 


3,303,414 


Switzerland 




•i 05,307 


1,549,640 


1,811,096 


2,246,838 


Belgium 




202,710 


1,927,160 


207,019 


324,260 


Chile . 




jS,055 


2,057,266 


0,49-1 


6,559 


Germany . 
Sweden 




6,827 

443.11S 


1,186,121 


543,561 


1,2*4,373 


1,639.665 


56.779 


19.721 



268 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — EGYPT 



Value of the leading imports and 


exports during three 


years : — 






Imports 


Exports 


Merchandise 
















1918 


1919 
£E 


1920 


1918 
21 


1919 


1920 




£E 


£E 


£E 


£E 


Animals A animal 














food products . 


2,293,405 


1,704,098 


2,080,793 


375,906 


320,485 


328,457 


leather goods 


501,431 


762,116 


1,602,519 


622,279 


1,301,946 


748,194 


Other animal pro- 


135,518 


49,118 


60,657 










40,442 


64,311 


52,788 


Cereals, vegetables 


1,361,805 


2,263,042 


13,285,213 


3,418,022 


4,832J46 


5,110,788 


Colonial produce . 


2,110,604 


1,803,070 


4,849.225 


1,246,696 


062,368 


1,159,495 


Spirits, oils, Ac. . 


4,737,127 


4,251,340 


5,947,634 


225,616 


218,654 


216,339 


Paper, books, Ac. 


1,658,666 


1,270,824 


2,150,094 


73,50S 


276,133 


211,871 


Wood A coal . 


5,415,661 


3,912,109 


11,993,427 


50,923 


71,702 


56,574 


Stone,earthenware 














and glass. . 


730,476 


553,151 


1,933,695 


2,388 


20,59s 


8,219 


C olouring materials 


580,024 


690,782 


883,570 


0,448 


90,579 


51,7 H 


Chemicals, per- 














fumes, Ac. . 


1,880,3S1 


3,353,972 


5,531,302 


187,754 


692,132 


679,177 


Textiles A yarns 1 . 


22,190,210 


18,845,7S7 


34,441,258 


38,298,026 


66,077,660 


75,612,121 


Metals and manuf. 


2,858,704 


3,742,412 


11,842,201 


71,100 


167,092 


169,069 


Sundries 


1,000,305 


1,137,152 


2,094,412 


23,097 


00,439 


110,107 

951,121 


Tobacco 


3,100,929 
51,155.306 


3,070,744 


3,184,99S 


732,155 


1,032,076 


Total 


47,409,717 1101,880,963 


45,370,020 


75,888,821 


85,467,061 



i The cotton tissues imported amounted, in 1918, to £E13, 085,467 ; in 1919, to 
£E11, 259,384, in 1920, to £E18,9S5,634. The quantity of raw cotton exported was, In 
1918, 5,019,689 qantars, rained at £E38,034,467 ; in 1919, 6,708,906 qantars, valued at 
£E65,441,901, in 1920, 4,001,407 qantars, valued at £E75,096,026. 

Of the total imports in 1918, the value of £E33, 535,624, and of the exports the value of 
£E40, 782,984, passed through the port of Alexandria ; in 1919, of the imports, £E34,882,S72 ; 
of the exports, £E72,453,903 ; in 1920, of the imports, £ES0,988,567 of the exports, 
£ES2,456,180. 

Goods imported into Egypt are examined by experts, who determine their value 
according to the market price in their original country, plus the cost of transport, freight, 
insurance, Ac. In order, however, to facilitate customs operations, the administration, in 
communication with the merchants interested, establishes, on the same basis as above, 
periodical tariffs for common articles of importation. In the statistics of the Custom 
House, the values are taken according to the estimated price which served as the basis 
for the payment of duty, now fixed at 8 per cent, ad valorem (except coal, liquid fuel, 
charcoal, firewood, petroleum ; oxen, cows, sheep and goats, whether alive or cold stored, 
the duty on which was reduced to 4 por cent, ad valorem from November 25, 1905 ; and 
alcoholic drinks, perfumes, and alcoholic extracts, on which the duty was raised to 10 per 
cent, on April 30, 1915). As regards exports, there are tariffs for nearly all of them, 
estimated in the same manner as the tariffs of imports. The quantities recorded in 
statistics are those declared by the merchants and controlled by the Customs. 

The origin of imports and destination of exportsare declared by importers and exporters 
and controlled, as much as possible, by the searchers and appraisers of the Custom House. 

Principal imports into the United Kingdom from Egypt, and the 
principal exports from the United Kingdom to Egypt, according to British 
Board of Trade returns : — 



British Imports from Egypt 


Exports of British Produce to Egypt 


Tear 

Raw 
Ootton 


Cotton 
Seed 


Eggs 


Oil Seed 
Cake 


Cotton 
Goods 

£ 

7,728,861 
13,824,498 
9,014,163 


Coal, Ac. 

£ 

2,464,887 
1,071,982 
2.188,828 

8,579,838 


Iron 4- Steel 
and Manu- 
factures 


Woollen 
Goods 


. * 
1013) 17,642,358 
1918 ,18,927,829 

1917 i26,187,8S4 

1918 44,469,567 

1919 50,84(1,618 


4 
2,005.471 
3,102,323 
3,269,180 
6,394,110 
5,008,880 


X 
866,672 
974,658 
1,015,840 
715.170 
980,674 


£ 

817,003 

774,234 

1,371.412 

9.7 !•; 
9,09,788 


£ 
718,8 

614,671 
773,824 

797,899 
1,069,555 


252,432 

631,727 

1,017,868 

1,089,180 

898,778 



1 Including Anglo-Egyptian Sudan in 1913. 



SHIPPING AND NAVIGATION 



269 



Total trade between Egypt and U. K. (in thousands of pounds sterling) 
fur 5 years (Board of Trade returns) : — 



Imports from Egypt into U. K 
Exports to Egypt from U.K. 

British produce 

Foreign and Colonial produce 



191 3 
(pre-war> 



1917 

i 



21,3951 
9,8051 



14,793 
306 



22,202 



1MB* 



32,484 54,151 60,671 69,336 



19,405 43,662 

1,170 



1 Including Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 



- Provisional figures. 



Shipping and Navigation. 

In 1919, excluding warships and Teasels requisitioned by the military 
authorities, 4,607 steamers of a net i>.. image of 12,534,974 

entered at, and 4,511 steamers of a net registered tonnage of 12,569,929 
departed from, all the Egyptian porta (Alexandria, Port Said, Snez Basin, 
Suez Road. Tor, and El Kosseir). These figures include Suez Canal transits. 
The total number of sailing vessels (both foreign and coasting trade, but 
excluding sponge and fishing boats) that entered the ports was 1,395 of 
71,267 net tons, and of those that departed, 1,424 of 70,613 n«t tons. 

Arrivals and departures of commercial steamers at Alexandria in six 
vears : — 



Tear 


Arrivals Depar 






Steamers 


Net Steamers 
registered tonnage T — 


Net 

registered tonnage 


1913 

19151 

19161 

1917 1 

191S1 

19191 


1,932 
958 
554 
346 
839 
726 


3.71S.650 1,927 
1,57* 989 

966,673 705 

641,060 

73106-2 895 
1,830,702 785 


3,698,396 
1.6S2.869 
1,343,867 
687.6S4 
900,192 
1,862,431 



1 Excluding supplies and military transports. 
The mercantile steamers visiting the port of Alexandria in 1919 comprised 



Natienalitv 


Arrivals 


Departures 












Steamers 


Net 
registered tonnage 


Steamers 


Net 
i registered tonnage 


. 


334 


703,267 


340 


i 

734,969 


French 




30 


30,740 


30 


78.S65 


Greek . 




61 


38,099 


64 


40,621 


Italian 




124 


-37.870 


124 


260.556 


American 




18 






1 44.026 


Norwegian . 




20 




22 




Japanese 




29 


1 B 


_ ; 


59.866 


Russian 




28 


20.2S7 


M 


20.2-7 


Swedish 




16 


30,004 


15 


27,963 


Spanish 




19 


12,724 


20 


13,034 


Other . 




42 


41,410 


44 


41,449 


Total (All Shi 


pping) 


TS6 


1,330,702 


735 


1,362,431 



270 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — EGYPT 



Suez Canal. 

The following table shows the number and net tonnage of commercial 
vessels (excluding vessels requisitioned by the military authorities) of all 
nationalities that passed through the canal in 1919 : — 



Nationality j 4 No - ?£ 
transits 


Suez Canal 
net tonnage 


Nationality 


No. of 
transits 


Suez Canal 
net tonnage 


British 

Japanese 

French 

Italian . 

Greek 

Norwegian 


1,898 

. ; 414 

112 

. ] 98 
34 

. ! 72 

. i 42 

74 


8,417,365 
1,420,693 
513,994 
296,044 
91,577 
255,421 
153,637 
311,842 


Spanish 

American . 

Dutch 

Other nationalities 

Total . 


35 

50 

175 

44 


95,127 
160,879 
739,147 
111,315 


Danish . 


3,048 


12,567,041 



The number of Government vessels that passed through the Canal in 
1919 was 939 of 3,447,210 Suez Canal net tonnage (including 818 British 
of 3,111,426 net tonnage). 

The number and net tonnage of vessels that have passed through the 
Suez Canal (including warships), and the gross receipts of the company, have 
been as follows in six years : — 



Tear 



1913 
1915 
1916 



No. of 

Transits 



5,085 
8,708 
3,110 



Net 
Tonnage 



20,033,884 
15,260,155 
12,325,347 



Receipts ] 



£ 
5,197,038 
3,929,124 
3,561,771 



Tear 


No. of 
Transits 


! 1917 
! 1918 
! 1919 




2,353 
2,522 1 
3.9S6 | 



Net 
Tonnage 



Receipts 



8,368,918 
9,251,601 
16,013,802 




i Taken at 25 francs = £1. 

The number of passengers (civil and military) who went through the 
canal was, in 1913, 282,235 ; 1915, 210,530 ; 1916, 283,030 ; 1917, 142,313 ; 
1918, 105,914; 1919, 527,502. 

The Suez Canal is 103 miles long, including 4 miles of approach 
channels for the harbours, connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea, 
opened for navigation November 17, 1869. The concession to the Suez 
Canal Company expires on November 17, 1968. 

Internal Communications. 

On March 31, 1920, there were (exclusive of sidings) 2,330 miles of rails 
(double and single) belonging to and worked by the State, and 721 miles of 
rails of agricultural light railways owned by private companies: 1,152 miles of 
State and 623 miles of companies' rails aro in the Delta, and 1,178 miles of 
State and 98 miles of light railways are in Upper Egypt. This is 
exclusive of the Sudan military railway to Khartoum, 375 miles long, of 
gauge 3 ft. 6 in. The railways have a gauge of 4 ft. 8£ in. inside rails, 
except the line from Luxor to Assuan, which is 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, and that to 
the Western Oases, which is 2 ft. 5£ in. 

In May, 1918, Cairo was connected by railway with the Palestine 
system, by the completion of a swing-bridge over the Suez Canal at Kantara. 

The length of line of the State Railways (excluding the auxiliary railways 
of Upper Egypt, 280 miles, and the Western Oasis railway, 141 miles) in 
1919 was 1,909 miles; the number of passengers carried in 1919-20, 
26,213,000 ; weight of goods carried, including service transports, 4,820,702 
tons ; and the list receipts, 4!E1, 910,874. 



BANKS AND CREDIT — MONET, WEIGHTS, ETC. 271 

The working expenses, £E5,120,429 in 1919-20, represent an average of 
72*82 per cent, of the gross receipts, which were £E7,031,303. 

The telegraphs ami telephones belonging to the Egyptian Government 
were, on March 31. 1919, of a total length of 6,311 miles, the length of 
the wire being 21,310 miles. The Eastern Telegraph Company, by con- 
cessions, have telegraph lines across Egypt from Alexandria vid Cairo to 
Suez, and from Port Said to Suez, connecting their cables to England and 
India. The number of telegrams in 1919-20 was 2,711,228, as against 
2,155,443 in 1918-19, not including railway service telegrams and those 
sent by the Eastern Telegraph. 

There were, in 1919, 2,501 post offices and stations. In the internal 
service (1919) there passed through the post-office 37,278,000 letters and 
post-cards, and 16,527,000 newspapers, &c. , and samples; in the external 
service, 22,162,000 letters and post-cards, and 8,015,000 newspapers, fco., 
and samples. Official correspondence, not here included, amounted in 1919 
to 7,131,000 articles Receipts £E437,424 ; expenses £E431,564. 

Banks and Credit. 

The National Bank has a capital of 3,000,000/. with reserve funds 
amounting to 2,000,OOOZ. The Agricultural Bank has a capital of 
3,740,000?. It has Government guarantee of interest at 3 per cent., and it 
lends money to the Fellahin at 8 per cent, interest. 

There are in addition eight mortgage banks and five ordinary banks 
working chieflv in Egypt with a total paid up capital of £E41,011,369, 
i.e., £E39,381,066 for "the former and £E1,630,303 for the latter. The 
reserve funds of these two groups of banks and of the National and the 
Agricultural Banks of Egypt amount to £E5,220,330 and £E3,091,368 
respectively. 

In 1901, a Post-Office Savings Bank was opened, and on December 31 of 
that year, it had 6,740 depositors with balances amounting to £E47,492. 
On December 31, 1919, the depositors numbered 224,760, and their balances 
amounted to £E1, 016,400. 

In April, 1912, a rural savings bank service was inaugurated. At the 
end of that year the balance of deposits in the new branch amounted 
to £E25,413, and the number of accounts to 127,927. On December 31, 
1919, the balance amounted to £E9, 787, and the number of accounts to 58,441. 
The balance of deposits in the savings banks of the foreign banks on 
the same date amounted to £E970,8S9 and the number of depositors to 11,515. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

Monet. 

By decree of October 18, 1916 (20 Zi-1-Higga 1334), the monetary unit of 
Egypt is the gold Egyptian pound of 100 piastres. It weighs 8 '5 grammes 
'875 fine, and therefore contains 7 '4375 grammes of fine gold. Its value in 
sterling is £1 0*. 6\d. A new coinage was introduced at the same time. It 
replaces the monogram of the Sultan of Turkey by that of the Sultan of 
Egypt. 

The 10-piastre silver piece weighs 14 grammes -833 fine, and therefore 
contains 11 67 grammes of fine silver. The piastre is worth 246<i. in English 
money. It is subdivided into tenths (ushr el girsh or milliemes*. 

Coins in circulation are the Egyptian pound (100 piastres) and half pound 
in gold ; 20, 10, 5, and 2 piastre pieces in silver ; 1, J, \, ^ piastre pieces in 



272 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : — EGYPT 



nickel, and ^ piece in bronze. Silver coin is legal tender only up to £E2, 
and nickel or bronze coins up to 10 piastres. For some years gold coins 
have not been issued, and the gold circulating in Egypt and the Sudan is 
almost exclusively English sovereigns, which are legal tender at the rate of 
974 piastres. The gold pieces of the Latin Monetary Union equivalent to 
the French 20 franc piece are permitted to circulate at a uniform rate of 
£E07715. 

Bank notes are issued by the National Bank in various denominations 
from £E0 - 25 to £E100. They are in principle not legal tender, but since the 
war they have been made legal tender and inconvertible. Their circulation 
has received an extraordinary impetus since the withdrawal of gold from 
circulation. The amount issued at the end of 1919 was about £E67,000,000, 
whereas it had never previous to the war surpassed £E3,000,000. In 1918 
the Egyptian Government issued Currency Notes of 10 piastres and 5 piastres. 

Egyptian money is now minted at the Birmingham and other foreign 
Mints. The nominal value of the coinage (including recoinage) from 1887 
to 1919 was :— 



Years 


Gold 


Silver 


Nickel 


Broim Total 




£E. 


£E. 
4,114,390 

695,400 
1,115,399 
1,171,400 

555,915 
33,400 

7,685,904 


£E. 

474,656 
5,000 
20,000 
61.000 
93,437 
49,680 

101,800 


£E. £K. 


1S87-1913 

1914 

1915 

1016 

1917 

1918 

1919 


52,024 
10,000 


20,724 
1,000 

2,000 


4,661,794 

6,000 

715,400 

1,186,390 

1,266.837 

605,595 

135,200 


1887-1919 


62,024 


806,573 


23,724 


8,577,2--';> 



The principal units of Egyptian weights and measures are denned in 
terms of the metre of the " Commission Internationale du metre " by the 
Law No. 10 of September 26, 1914. The equivalents remain the same as 
were defined by the Decree of April 28, 1891. 



Measures of length : Diraa baladi 
,, weight : Dirhem 

,, capacity : Ardeb 



— metre 58 centimetres. 
= 3 grams 12 centigrams. 
= 198 litres. 



Measure of Capacity. 

The Ardeb is equal to 43 "555 gallons, or 5 -44436 bushels. 
The approximate weight of the ardeb is as follows •.—Wheat, 334 
rotls ; beans, 345rotls ; barley, 267 rotls ; maize, 312 rotls ; cotton seed, 270. 



Weights. 



Okieh 

Rotl 

Oke 



1*3207 ounce. 
•99049 lb. 
27513 lbs. 



«-*{" * 6 °oS U "}= "• M831b »- 



ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN 273 

LE5GTH MBA8UBE8. 

Inches 
Diraa Baladi (town) . . _ . . . = 22'8347 
Diraa Mimari for building, kc ] ... — 295276 
Qassabah = 3 8823 yards . = 139 7639 

Measures of Surface. 

Feddan, the unit of measure for land, = 7.46S-143 sq. pics= 103808 acre* 
1 sq. pic